The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. It is a subspecies of the cowpea, an Old World plant domesticated in Africa, and is sometimes simply called a cowpea.
|Species||Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.|
|Cultivar group members||lobia|
The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. The American South has countless varieties, many of them heirloom, that vary in size from the small lady peas to very large ones. The color of the eye may be black, brown, red, pink, or green. All the peas are green when freshly shelled and brown or buff when dried. A popular variation of the black-eyed pea is the purple hull pea; it is usually green with a prominent purple or pink spot. The currently accepted botanical name for the black-eyed pea is Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata, although previously it was classified in the genus Phaseolus. Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana is the wild relative and Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis is the related asparagus bean. Other beans of somewhat similar appearance, such as the frijol ojo de cabra (goat's-eye bean) of northern Mexico, are sometimes incorrectly called black-eyed peas, and vice versa.
The black eye pea is cultivated throughout the world. Most of the black-eyed pea cultivation occurred in the Southern United States as early as the 17th century in Virginia. The crop would also eventually prove popular in Texas. Throughout the South, the black-eyed pea is still a widely used ingredient in soul food and cuisines of the Southern United States. The planting of crops of black-eyed peas was promoted by George Washington Carver because, as a legume, it adds nitrogen to the soil and has high nutritional value. Black-eyed peas contain calcium (41 mg), folate (356 μg), protein (13.22 g), fiber (11.1 g) and vitamin A (26 IU), among other nutrients, with less than 840 kilojoules (200 kilocalories) of food energy in a 171-gram (6 oz) serving.
This heat-loving crop should be sown after all danger of frost has passed and the soil is warm. Seeds sown too early will rot before germination. Black-eyed peas are extremely drought tolerant, so excessive watering should be avoided.
The crop is relatively free of pests and disease. Root-knot nematodes can be a problem, especially if crops are not rotated. As a nitrogen-fixing legume, fertilization can exclude nitrogen three weeks after germination.
The blossom produces nectar plentifully, and large areas can be a source of honey. Because the bloom attracts a variety of pollinators, care must be taken in the application of insecticides to avoid label violations.
After planting the pea, it should start to grow after 2–5 days.
Lucky New Year food
Southern United States
In the Southern United States, eating black-eyed peas or Hoppin' John (a traditional soul food) on New Year's Day is thought to bring prosperity in the new year. The peas are typically cooked with a pork product for flavoring (such as bacon, fatback, ham bones, or hog jowls) and diced onion, and served with a hot chili sauce or a pepper-flavored vinegar. The traditional meal also includes cabbage, collard, turnip, or mustard greens, and ham. The peas, since they swell when cooked, symbolize prosperity; the greens symbolize money; the pork, because pigs root forward when foraging, represents positive motion. Cornbread, which represents gold, also often accompanies this meal.
Several legends exist as to the origin of this custom. Two popular explanations for the South's association with peas and good luck dates back to the American Civil War. The first is associated with General William T. Sherman's march of the Union Army to the sea, during which they pillaged the Confederates' food supplies. Stories say peas and salted pork were said to have been left untouched, because of the belief that they were animal food unfit for human consumption. Southerners considered themselves lucky to be left with some supplies to help them survive the winter, and black-eyed peas evolved into a representation of good luck. One challenge to this legend is that General Sherman brought backup supplies with him including three days of animal feed and would have been unlikely to have left even animal feed untouched. In addition, the dates of the first average frost for Atlanta and Savannah, respectively, are November 13 and November 28. As Sherman's march was from November 15 to December 21, 1864, it is improbable, although possible, that the Union Army would have come across standing fields of black-eyed peas as relayed in most versions of the legend. In another Southern tradition, black-eyed peas were a symbol of emancipation for African-Americans who had previously been enslaved, and who after the Civil War were officially freed on New Years Day.
Culinary uses worldwide
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||484 kJ (116 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||6.5 g|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Africa and Middle East
In Egypt, black-eyed peas are called lobia. Cooked with onions, garlic, meat, and tomato juice, and served with Egyptian rice with some pastina called shaerya mixed in, it makes the most famous rice dish in Egypt.
In Nigeria and Ghana within West Africa and the Caribbean, a traditional dish called akara or koose is made of mashed black-eyed peas to which is added salt, onions and/or peppers. The mixture is then fried. In Nigeria, there is also a pudding made from it called 'moin-moin' where it is ground and mixed with seasoning as well as some plant proteins before it is steamed. This is served with various carbohydrate rich foods such as pap, rice or garri.
Asia and the Pacific
In Indonesia, black-eyed peas are called kacang tunggak or kacang tolo in the local language. They are commonly used in curry dishes such as sambal goreng, a kind of hot and spicy red curry dish, sayur brongkos, or sayur lodeh.
The bean is commonly used across India. In North India, black-eyed peas are called lobia or rongi and cooked like daal, served with boiled rice. In Maharashtra, they are called chawli and made into a curry called chawli amti or chawli usal. In Karnataka they are called alsande kalu and used in the preparation of huli, a popular type of curry. In South Kanara district they are called as lathanay dha beeja and are cooked in spiced coconut paste to make a saucy curry or a dry coconut curry. In Tamil Nadu, they are called karamani or thattapayaru and used in various recipes, including being boiled and made into a salad-like sundal (often during the Ganesh Chaturthi and Navratri festivals). In Andhra Pradesh they are known by the name 'alasandalu' and are used for variety of recipes most popularly for 'vadas'. In Kerala, they are a part of the Sadhya dish, Olan.
In Cyprus ( φρέσκο λουβί (fresko luvi)), Greece ( μαυρομάτικα) and Turkey (börülce salatası), blanched black-eyed peas are eaten as salad with a dressing of olive oil, salt, lemon juice, onions and garlic.
- North America
- South America
In Brazil's northeastern state of Bahia, especially in the city of Salvador, black-eyed peas (named "feijão fradinho" there) are used in a traditional street food of Nigerian origin called akara. The beans are peeled and mashed, and the resulting paste is made into balls and deep fried in dendê. Acarajé is typically served split in half and stuffed with vatapá, caruru, diced green and red tomatoes, fried sun-dried shrimp and homemade hot sauce.
In the northern part of Colombia, they are used to prepare a fritter called buñuelo. The beans are immersed in water for a few hours to loosen their skins and soften them. The skins are then removed either by hand or with the help of a manual grinder. Once the skins are removed, the bean is ground or blended, and eggs are added, which produces a soft mix. The mix is fried in hot oil. It makes a nutritious breakfast meal.
In Guyana, South America, and Trinidad and Tobago, it is one of the most popular type of beans cooked with rice, the main one being red kidney beans, also referred to as red beans. It is also cooked as a snack or appetizer on its own. On New Year's Eve (referred to as Old Year's Night in Guyana and Suriname), families cook a traditional dish called cook-up rice. The dish comprises rice, black-eyed peas, and other peas and a variety of meats cooked in coconut milk and seasonings. According to tradition, cook-up rice should be the first thing consumed in the New Year for good luck. Cook-up rice is also made as an everyday dish.
- "Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Vigna ungiculata Factsheet". CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems (CSIRO), Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (DPI&F Queensland), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). June 2005. Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- Joseph E. Holloway. "African Crops and Slave Cuisine". California State University Northridge. Archived from the original on 2009-09-19. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- "Show Foods". Ndb.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Ellner, Rachel (December 31, 2008). "Celebrate New Year's with black-eyed peas". Nashua Telegraph. "On New Year's Day, it gets the full Southern treatment, which usually means Hoppin' John – a traditional soul food consisting of black-eyed peas cooked with ham hocks and spices, served over rice. In the South, eating black-eyed peas on New Year's is thought to bring prosperity"
- Greene, Teri (2009-01-02). "A Tasty Tradition: New Year's meal means good luck, good eats". Montgomery Advertiser: 2, 3A. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
- Patillo, Dennis (2019-01-01). "Black-eyed peas, collards, cornbread ring in a prosperous new year". Victoria Advocate, The (TX). Retrieved 2019-12-02.
- "Sherman's March To The Sea | HistoryNet". HistoryNet. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "First Fall Freeze Dates in Georgia". www.crh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- Garrett, Tammy. "Black-eyed peas are New Year's tradition for Southerners". Three Rivers Edition. Arkansas Online. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Ruth. "Hoppin John". Awesome Cookery. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Rosen, Robert. "The Provincials". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Houston, Lynn Marie (2005). Food Culture in the Caribbean. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-32764-3.
- "Black Eye Bean Curry - Punjab Chawli, Rongi Masala - Recipes Shop, Buy Online". Store.indianfoodsco.com. Archived from the original on 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Black eyed beans curry". Chakali. 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Alasande Kalu Huli /Curried Black eyed Peas And Soppina Palya/Stirfried Amaranth". Taste of Mysore. 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Karamani Sundal/Lobia Sundal Recipe - Ganesha Chaturthi Naivedyam Recipes". Indian Khana. 2013-09-06. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
- "Swiss Chard and Black Eyed Beans". Thursdayfordinner.com. 2008-12-19. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Joyce Sáenz Harris. "Try Some Texas Caviar". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- Media related to Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata at Wikimedia Commons
- "Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
- Plantnames.unimelb.edu.au Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995–2020, Sorting Vigna Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) – A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. (2005).
- Alternative Field Crops Manual: Cowpea