Barisan Nasional

The National Front (Malay: Barisan Nasional; abbrev: BN) is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centre parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 42 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after opposition coalition Pakatan Harapan with 88 seats and main ruling coalition Perikatan Nasional with 50 seats.

National Front
Barisan Nasional
Malay nameBarisan Nasional
باريسن ناسيونل
Chinese name國民陣綫
国民阵线
Guómín zhènxiàn
Tamil nameபாரிசான் நேசனல்
AbbreviationBN
ChairmanAhmad Zahid Hamidi
Secretary-GeneralZambry Abdul Kadir
Deputy ChairmanMohamad Hasan
Vice ChairmenWee Ka Siong
Vigneswaran Sanasee
Joseph Kurup
AdvisorNajib Razak
Treasurer-GeneralHishammuddin Hussein
FounderAbdul Razak Hussein
Founded1 January 1973 (1973-01-01)[1]
Legalised1 June 1974 (as a party)
Preceded byAlliance
HeadquartersAras 8, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
NewspaperNew Straits Times
The Star
Berita Harian
Nanyang Siang Pau
Harian Metro
Makkal Osai
Guang Ming Daily
MIC Times
Malaysia Nanban
Sin Chew Daily
Student wingBarisan Nasional Student Movement
Youth wingBarisan Nasional Youth Movement
IdeologyMajority:
National Conservatism
Social conservatism[2]
Economic liberalism
Right-wing Populism
Factions:
Ketuanan Melayu[3][4]
Malaysian Chinese interests
Dravidian Movement
Political positionRight-wing
Regional affiliationPerikatan Nasional (2020-2021)
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (since 2020)
Colours  Royal blue and sky white
SloganRakyat Didahulukan
Hidup Rakyat
Bersama Barisan Nasional
Hidup Negaraku
AnthemBarisan Nasional
Dewan Negara
14 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
42 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri
148 / 607
Chief minister of states
5 / 13
Website
www.barisannasional.org.my
  • Politics of Malaysia
  • Political parties
  • Elections

The Barisan Nasional coalition employs the same inter-communal governing model of its predecessor the Alliance Party but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point.[1] It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from opposition parties, notably the Pakatan Rakyat and later the Pakatan Harapan alliances. Taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), it had a combined period of rule from 1957 to 2018, and was considered the longest ruling coalition party in the democratic world.[5]

In the aftermath of the 2018 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition lost its hold of the parliament to PH for the first time in Malaysian history. It was also the first time Barisan Nasional became the opposition coalition after almost, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), 61 years in power, with former prime minister and Barisan Nasional chairman Mahathir Mohamad becoming PH's leader. The coalition returned to power under Perikatan Nasional together with four other parties in the aftermath of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis.

History

Formation

Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of United Malays National Organisation, Malaysian Chinese Association, and Malaysian Indian Congress. It was founded in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots. The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties, Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, as well as Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to the May 13 riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.[6] After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party.

In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional.[1][7] The Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak (Sabah Alliance Party, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu), registered in June 1974 as a coalition of nine parties.[7] It contested the 1974 general election as a grand coalition under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak, which it won with considerable success.[8]

1977–2007

In 1977, PAS was expelled from Barisan Nasional following a revolt within the Kelantan state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government.[1] Barisan Nasional nevertheless won the 1978 general election convincingly, and it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan to PAS, and Sabah to United Sabah Party which later joined Barisan Nasional.

By 2003, Barisan Nasional had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties. It performed particularly well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats.

Although Barisan Nasional never achieved more than 67% of the popular vote in elections from 1974 to 2008, it maintained consecutive two-thirds majority of seats in this period in the Dewan Rakyat until the 2008 election, benefitting from Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system.[9]

2008–2018

High-ranking BN party officials holding copies of the party manifesto at a pre-election rally in 2013. In the front row, from left, are Chua Soi Lek (MCA), Muhyiddin Yassin, Najib Razak and Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO), and Abdul Taib Mahmud (PBB).

In the 2008 general election, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, namely Selangor, Kelantan, Penang, Perak and Kedah fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Perak however was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties greatly diminished in the peninsula.[10]

The losses continued in the 2013 general election, and it recorded its worst election result at the time. BN regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Despite winning only 47% of the popular vote, it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament.[11]

And finally, during the 2018 general election, Barisan Nasional lost control of the parliament to Pakatan Harapan, winning a total of only 79 parliamentary seats. The crushing defeat ended their 61-year rule of the country, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), and this paved the way for the first change of government in Malaysian history. The coalition won only 34% of the popular vote, despite redrawing the electoral boundaries in their favour. In addition to their failure in regaining the Penang, Selangor and Kelantan state governments, six state governments, namely Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Kedah and Sabah fell to Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN (Sabah). The Terengganu state government also fell but to the Gagasan Sejahtera. Barisan Nasional was only in power in three states; namely Perlis, Pahang and Sarawak.

Many of BN's component parties left the coalition following its humiliating defeat at the 2018 general election, reducing its number to 4 compared to 13 before the election.[12] These parties either aligned themselves with the new Pakatan Harapan federal government, formed a new state-based pact or remained independent. They include three Sabah-based parties (UPKO, PBS and LDP),[13][14] four Sarawak-based parties (PBB, SUPP, PRS and PDP, which formed a new state-based pact GPS),[15][16] myPPP (under Kayveas faction)[17] and Gerakan.[18] MyPPP experienced a leadership dispute, with Maglin announced that the party remained within the coalition and Kayveas announced that the party had left the coalition, resulting in the dissolution of the party on 14 January 2019.

Among the remaining four component parties in Barisan National, UMNO's parliamentary seats have reduced from 54 to 38 since after 16 members of parliament left the party,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] while MCA's parliamentary seat maintains one. MIC's parliamentary seats have reduced from two to one after the Election Court nullified the results of the election for the Cameron Highlands federal constituency due to bribery,[27] but BN regained its seat from a direct member under the 2019 by-election.[28]

As a result of these developments, BN's parliamentary seats have reduced to 41, compared with 79 seats that BN has won in the general election.

MCA and MIC made a statement in March 2019 that they want to "move on" and find a new alliance following disputes with secretary-general, Nazri Abdul Aziz. Mohamad Hasan, the acting BN chairman, chaired a Supreme Council meeting in which all parties showed no consensus on dissolving the coalition.

2019–present

In 2019, Barisan Nasional recovered some ground and won a number of by-elections, such as the 2019 Cameron Highlands by-election,[29] 2019 Semenyih by-election,[30] 2019 Rantau by-election,[31] and 2019 Tanjung Piai by-election.,[32] defeating Pakatan Harapan

In September 2019, UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) called Muafakat Nasional. Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes.[33] There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional, although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional.[34][35] Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO, MCA, MIC and PBRS, but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government.[36]

Barisan Nasional also recovered control of the Johor,[37] Malacca[38] and Perak[39] state governments.

Organisation

In 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats were held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation, and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu. For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:

Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.[40]

Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is mostly indirect through one of the constituent parties while direct membership is allowed.[41] The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.[42]

Member parties

Logo Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
UMNO United Malays National Organisation
Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
Ketuanan Melayu Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 120 21.10%
54 / 222
38 / 42
MCA Malaysian Chinese Association
Persatuan Cina Malaysia
Chinese nationalism Wee Ka Siong 39 5.30%
1 / 222
2 / 42
MIC Malaysian Indian Congress
Kongres India Malaysia
Dravidian movement Vigneswaran Sanasee 9 1.39%
2 / 222
1 / 42
PBRS United Sabah People's Party
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Sabah nationalism Joseph Kurup 1 0.10%
1 / 222
1 / 42
Allied parties
PCM Love Malaysia Party
Parti Cinta Malaysia
National conservatism Huan Cheng Guan 1 0.02%
0 / 222
0 / 42
KIMMA Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
Kongres India Muslim Malaysia
Islamism Syed Ibrahim Kader N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
AMIPF All Malaysian Indian Progressive Front
Barisan Progresif India Se-Malaysia
Dravidian movement Jayashree Pandithan N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
MMSP Malaysia Makkal Sakti Party
Parti Makkal Sakti Malaysia
Dravidian movement R.S. Thanenthiran N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
MIUP Malaysian Indian United Party
Parti Bersatu India Malaysia
Dravidian movement Nallakaruppan Solaimalai N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42

Former member parties

  • Malaysian People's Movement Party (GERAKAN) (1973-2018)
  • People's Progressive Party (PPP/myPPP) (1973-2018)
  • United Bumiputera Heritage Party (PBB) (1973-2018)
  • Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP) (1973-2018)
  • United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) (1973-1975 under Sabah Alliance, 1976-1984, 1986-1993)
  • Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) (1973-1978)
  • Sabah Chinese Association (SCA) (1973-1975 under Sabah Alliance)
  • Sarawak National Party (SNAP) (1976-2004)
  • Sabah People's United Front (BERJAYA) (1976-1986)
  • Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front (BERJASA) (1978-1983)
  • Muslim People's Party of Malaysia (HAMIM) (1983-1989)
  • Sarawak Native People's Party (PBDS) (1983-2004)
  • United Sabah Party (PBS) (1986-1990, 2002-2018)
  • Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) (1991-2018)
  • People's Justice Front (AKAR) (1991-2001)
  • Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP) (1994-2008)
  • Sabah Democratic Party (PDS) (1995-1999)
  • United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) (1999-2018)
  • Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP/PDP) (2002-2018)
  • Sarawak Peoples' Party (PRS) (2004-2018)

List of party chairman

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office
1 Abdul Razak Hussein
(1922–1976)
1 January 1973 14 January 1976
2 Hussein Onn
(1922–1990)
15 January 1976 28 June 1981
3 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
28 June 1981 4 February 1988
Ling Liong Sik Acting
(b. 1943)
4 February 1988 16 February 1988
(3) Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
16 February 1988 30 October 2003
4 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
(b. 1939)
31 October 2003 26 March 2009
5 Mohd Najib Abdul Razak
(b. 1953)
26 March 2009 12 May 2018
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi Acting
(b. 1953)
12 May 2018 30 June 2018
6 Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(b. 1953)
30 June 2018 18 December 2018
Mohamad Hasan Acting
(b. 1956)
18 December 2018 30 June 2019
(6) Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(b. 1953)
30 June 2019 Incumbent

Leadership Structure

Barisan Nasional Supreme Council:[43]

Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, the incumbent Chairman of Barisan Nasional.
  • Chairman of Advisor Council:
  • Chairman:
    • Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi (UMNO)
  • Deputy Chairman:
    • Mohamad Hasan (UMNO)
  • Vice-Chairman:
    • Wee Ka Siong (MCA)
    • Vigneswaran Sanasee (MIC)
    • Joseph Kurup (PBRS)
  • Secretary-General:
    • Zambry Abdul Kadir (UMNO)
  • Treasurer-General:
    • Hishammuddin Hussein (UMNO)
  • Women Leader:
    • Dr. Noraini Ahmad (UMNO)
  • Youth Leader:
    • Dr. Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki (UMNO)
  • Executive Secretary:
    • Ahmad Masrizal Muhammad (UMNO)
  • Supreme Council Members:
    • Ismail Sabri Yaakob (UMNO)
    • Mahdzir Khalid (UMNO)
    • Mohamed Khaled Nordin (UMNO)
    • Zambry Abdul Kadir (UMNO)
    • Mah Hang Soon (MCA)
    • Ti Lian Ker (MCA)
    • Lim Ban Hong (MCA)
    • Yew Teong Look (MCA)
    • Saravanan Murugan (MIC)
    • Sivarraajh Chandran (MIC)
    • Thinalan T. Rajagopalu (MIC)
    • Kamalanathan Panchanathan (MIC)
    • Arthur Joseph Kurup (PBRS)
    • Richard Mosinal Kastum (PBRS)
    • Zainon Hj. Kayum (PBRS)
    • Edwin Laimin (PBRS)
  • State Chairman:
    • Johor: Hasni Mohammad (UMNO)
    • Kedah: Jamil Khir Baharom (UMNO)
    • Kelantan: Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub (UMNO)
    • Malacca: Abdul Raouf Yusoh (UMNO)
    • Negeri Sembilan: Mohamad Hasan (UMNO)
    • Pahang: Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail (UMNO)
    • Perak: Saarani Mohammad (UMNO)
    • Penang: Musa Sheikh Fadzir (UMNO)
    • Perlis: Azlan Man (UMNO)
    • Sabah: Bung Moktar Radin (UMNO)
    • Selangor: Noh Omar (UMNO)
    • Terengganu: Ahmad Said (UMNO)
    • Federal Territories: Johari Abdul Ghani (UMNO)

Elected representatives

Senators

  • His Majesty's appointee:
    • Bashir Alias (UMNO)
    • Mohan Thangarasu (MIC)
    • Ahmad Masrizal Muhammad (UMNO)
    • Mah Hang Soon (MCA)
    • S Vell Peeri (MIC)
    • Lim Ban Hong (MCA)
  • Perlis State Legislative Assembly:
    • Kamarudin Abdun (UMNO)
    • Sabani Mat (UMNO)
  • Kedah State Legislative Assembly:
    • Othman Aziz (UMNO)
  • Pahang State Legislative Assembly:
    • Siti Fatimah Yahaya (UMNO)
    • Ti Lian Ker (MCA)
  • Melaka State Legislative Assembly:
    • Mohamad Ali Mohamad (UMNO)
    • Koh Nai Kwong (MCA)
  • Johor State Legislative Assembly:
    • Jefridin Atan (UMNO)

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament

Barisan Nasional has 42 MPs in the House of Representatives, with 38 MPs (or 92.5%) of them from UMNO.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 PerlisP001Padang BesarZahidi Zainul AbidinUMNO
P003ArauDr. Shahidan KassimUMNO
 KedahP007Padang TerapMahdzir KhalidUMNO
P016BalingAbdul Azeez Abdul RahimUMNO
 KelantanP026KeterehAnnuar MusaUMNO
P029MachangAhmad Jazlan YaakubUMNO
P032Gua MusangTengku Razaleigh HamzahUMNO
 TerengganuP033BesutIdris JusohUMNO
 PenangP041Kepala BatasReezal Merican Naina MericanUMNO
 PerakP055LenggongShamsul Anuar NasarahUMNO
P061Padang RengasMohamed Nazri Abdul AzizUMNO
P067Kuala KangsarMastura Mohd. YazidUMNO
P069ParitMohd. Nizar ZakariaUMNO
P072TapahSaravanan MuruganMIC
P073Pasir SalakTajuddin Abdul RahmanUMNO
P075Bagan DatukDr. Ahmad Zahid HamidiUMNO
 PahangP078Cameron HighlandsRamli Mohd NorUMNO
P079LipisAbdul Rahman MohamadUMNO
P081JerantutAhmad Nazlan IdrisUMNO
P084Paya BesarMohd. Shahar AbdullahUMNO
P085PekanMohd. Najib Abdul RazakUMNO
P086MaranIsmail Abdul MuttalibUMNO
P087Kuala KrauIsmail Mohamed SaidUMNO
P090BeraIsmail Sabri YaakobUMNO
P091RompinHasan ArifinUMNO
 SelangorP095Tanjong KarangNoh OmarUMNO
 PutrajayaP125PutrajayaTengku Adnan Tengku MansorUMNO
 Negeri SembilanP126JelebuJalaluddin AliasUMNO
P127JempolMohd. Salim ShariffUMNO
P131RembauKhairy Jamaluddin Abu BakarUMNO
 MalaccaP139JasinAhmad HamzahUMNO
 JohorP147Parit SulongNoraini AhmadUMNO
P148Ayer HitamWee Ka SiongMCA
P153SembrongHishammuddin HusseinUMNO
P155TenggaraAdham BabaUMNO
P156Kota TinggiHalimah Mohd. SadiqueUMNO
P157PengerangAzalina Othman SaidUMNO
P164PontianAhmad MaslanUMNO
P165 Tanjung Piai Wee Jeck Seng MCA
 SabahP176KimanisMohamad AlaminUMNO
P182PensianganArthur Joseph KurupPBRS
P187KinabatanganBung Moktar RadinUMNO
TotalPerlis (2), Kedah (2), Kelantan (3), Terengganu (1), Penang (1), Perak (7), Pahang (9), Selangor (1), F.T. Putrajaya (1), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (1), Johor (8), Sabah (3)

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives

State No. Parliamentary

Constituency

No. State Assembly

Constituency

Member Party
 Perlis P01 Padang BesarN1Titi TinggiTeh Chai AnnMCA
N2BeseriRuzaini RaisUMNO
N3ChupingAsmaiza AhmadUMNO
N4ChupingSiti Berenee YahayaUMNO
N5SantanAzizan SulaimanUMNO
P02 Kangar N6BintongAzlan ManUMNO
N10KayangHamizan HassanUMNO
P03 Arau N11PauhRozieana AhmadUMNO
N12Tambun TulangIsmail KassimUMNO
N14Simpang EmpatNurulhisham YaakobUMNO
 Kedah P11 PendangN19Sungai TiangSuraya YaacobUMNO
P18 Kulim Bandar Baharu N36Bandar BaharuNorsabrina Mohd. NoorUMNO
 Kelantan P26 KeterehN25Kok LanasMd. Alwi Che AhmadUMNO
P27 Tanah Merah N27Gual IpohBakri MustaphaUMNO
P30 Jeli N36Bukit BungaMohd. Adhan KechikUMNO
N38Kuala BalahAbd Aziz DerashidUMNO
P32 Gua Musang N43NenggiriAb. Aziz YusoffUMNO
N44PalohAmran AriffinUMNO
N45GalasMohd. Syahbuddin HashimUMNO
 Terengganu P33 BesutN1Kuala BesutTengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd. RahamUMNO
N3JertihMuhammad Pehimi YusofUMNO
N4Hulu BesutNawi MohamadUMNO
P34 Setiu N6PermaisuriAbd. Halim JusohUMNO
N7LangkapSabri Mohd. NoorUMNO
N8Batu RakitBazlan Abd RahmanUMNO
P35 Kuala Nerus N11Seberang TakirAhmad Razif Abdul RahmanUMNO
N12TelemungRozi MamatUMNO
P38 Dungun N25Bukit BesiRoslee DaudUMNO
P40 Kemaman N30KijalAhmad SaidUMNO
 Penang P42 Tasek GelugorN4Permatang BeranganNor Hafizah OthmanUMNO
N5Sungai DuaMuhamad Yusoff Mohd NoorUMNO
 Perak P54 GerikN1Pengkalan HuluAznel IbrahimUMNO
N2TelemungSalbiah MohamedUMNO
P55 Lenggong N3KeneringMohd Tarmizi IdrisUMNO
N4Kota TampanSaarani MohammadUMNO
P56 Larut N7Batu KurauMuhammad Ami ZakriaUMNO
P58 Bagan Serai N10Alor PangsuSham Mat SahatUMNO
N12SelinsingMohamad Noor DawooUMNO
P59 Bukit Gantang N13Kuala SepetangMohd. Kamaruddin Abu BakarUMNO
N14Changkat JeringAhmad Saidi Mohamad DaudUMNO
N15TrongJamilah ZakariaUMNO
P61 Padang Rengas N19ChenderohZainun Mat NorUMNO
N20Lubok MerbauJurij JalaluddinUMNO
P62 Sungai Siput N21LintangMohd Zolkafly HarunUMNO
P67 Kuala Kangsar N34Bukit ChandanMaslin Sham RazmanUMNO
N35ManongMohamed Zuraimi RazaliUMNO
P68 Bruas N36Pengkalan BaharuAbd. Manap HashimUMNO
P69 Parit N39BelanjaKhairudin Abu HanipahUMNO
N40BotaKhairul Shahril MohamedUMNO
P72 Tapah N48Ayer KuningSamsudin Abu HassanUMNO
P73 Pasir Salak N50Kampong GajahWan Norashikin Wan NoordinUMNO
P74 Lumut N52PangkorZambry Abdul KadirUMNO
P75 Bagan Datuk N53RungkupShahrul Zaman YahyaUMNO
N54Hutan MelintangKhairuddin TarmiziUMNO
P76 Telok Intan N56Changkat JongMohd. Azhar JamaluddinUMNO
P77 Tanjong Malim N58SlimMohd Zaidi AzizUMNO
 Pahang P78 Cameron HighlandsN2JelaiWan Rosdy Wan IsmailUMNO
P79 Lipis N3Padang TengkuMustapa LongUMNO
N4ChekaLee Ah WongMCA
N5BentaMohd. Soffi Abd. RazakUMNO
P80 Raub N6Batu TalamAbd Aziz Mat KiramUMNO
N8DongShahruddin Ab. MoinUMNO
P81 Jerantut N11Pulau TawarNazri NgahUMNO
P83 Kuantan N16InderapuraShafik Fauzan SharifUMNO
P84 Paya Besar N17Sungai LembingMd. Sohaimi Mohamed ShahUMNO
N18LeparAbd. Rahim MudaUMNO
P85 Pekan N20Pulau ManisKhairuddin MahmudUMNO
N21Peramu JayaSh. Mohamed Puzi Sh. AliUMNO
N22BebarMohd. Fakhruddin Mohd. AriffUMNO
N23ChiniMohd Sharim Md ZainUMNO
P86 Maran N25Kuala SentulShahaniza ShamsuddinUMNO
P87 Kuala Krau N27JenderakMohamed JaafarUMNO
N28KerdauSyed Ibrahim Syed AhmadUMNO
P88 Temerloh N31LanchangMohd Sharkar ShamsudinUMNO
N32Kuala SemantanNor Azmi Mat LudinUMNO
P89 Bentong N36PelangaiAdnan YaakobUMNO
P90 Bera N37GuaiNorol Azali SulaimanUMNO
N39KemayanMohd. Fadil OsmanUMNO
P91 Rompin N40Bukit IbamSamsiah ArshadUMNO
N41Muadzam ShahRazali KassimUMNO
N42TiomanMohd. Johari HussainUMNO
 Selangor P92 Sabak BernamN1Sungai Air TawarRizam IsmailUMNO
P93 Sungai Besar N3Sungai PanjangMohd Imran TamrinUMNO
P94 Ulu Selangor N5Hulu BernamRosni SoharUMNO
P95 Tanjong Karang N8Sungai BurongMohd Shamsudin LiasUMNO
P101 Ulu Langat N24SemenyihZakaria HanafiUMNO
 Negeri Sembilan P126 JelebuN2PertangNoor Azmi YusufUMNO
N3Sungai LuiMohd Razi Mohd AliUMNO
P127 Jempol N5SertingShamsulkahar Mod. DeliUMNO
N6PalongMustafa NagoorUMNO
N7Jeram PadangManickam LetchumanMIC
P129 Kuala Pilah N15JuassehIsmail LasimUMNO
N16Seri MenantiAbdul Samad IbrahimUMNO
N17SenalingAdnan Abu HasanUMNO
N19JoholSaiful Yazan SulaimanUMNO
P131 Rembau N26ChembongZaifulbahri IdrisUMNO
N27RantauMohamad HasanUMNO
N28KotaAwaludin SaidUMNO
P132 Port Dickson N31Bagan PinangTun Hairuddin Abu BakarUMNO
N32LinggiAbdul Rahman Mohd. RedzaUMNO
P133 Tampin N34GemasAbdul Razak SaidUMNO
N35GemenchehMohd. Isam Mohd. IsaUMNO
 Melaka P134 Masjid TanahN1Kuala LinggiIsmail OthmanUMNO
N2Tanjung BidaraMd. Rawi MahmudUMNO
N3Ayer LimauAmiruddin YusopUMNO
N4LenduSulaiman Md AliUMNO
N5Taboh NaningLatipah OmarUMNO
P135 Alor Gajah N6RembiaMuhammad Jailani KhamisUMNO
N10AsahanAbdul Ghafar AtanUMNO
P136 Tangga Batu N11Sungai UdangIdris HaronUMNO
N12Pantai KundorNor Azman HassanUMNO
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N18Ayer MolekRahmad MarimanUMNO
P139 Jasin N25RimGhazale MuhamadUMNO
N26SerkamZaidi AttanUMNO
N27MerlimauRoslan AhmadUMNO
N28Sungai RambaiHasan Abd. RahmanUMNO
 Johor P140 SegamatN1Buloh KasapZahari SaripUMNO
P146 Muar N16Sungai BalangZaiton IsmailUMNO
P147 Parit Sulong N18Sri MedanZulkarnain KamisanUMNO
P148 Ayer Hitam N20SemarangSamsol Bari JamaliUMNO
P149 Sri Gading N22Pasir RajaNor Rashidah RamliUMNO
P150 Batu Pahat N25RengitAyub JamilUMNO
P151 Simpang Renggam N26MachapAbd. Taib Abu BakarUMNO
N27Layang-LayangOnn Hafiz GhaziUMNO
P153 Sembrong N31KahangVidyananthan RamanadhanMIC
P154 Mersing N33TenggarohRaven Kumar KrishnasamyMIC
P155 Tenggara N34PantiHahasrin HashimUMNO
N35Pasir RajaRashidah IsmailUMNO
P157 Pengerang N38PenawarSharifah Azizah Syed ZainUMNO
N39Tanjung SuratSyed Sis Syed A. RahmanUMNO
P164 Pontian N53BenutHasni MohammadUMNO
P165 Tanjong Piai N56KukupMd. Othman YusofUMNO
 Sabah P167 KudatN2BengkokaHarun DurabiUMNO
P169 Kota Belud N9TempasukMohd Arsad BistariUMNO
N10UsukanSalleh Said KeruakUMNO
P170 Tuaran N13Pantai DalitJasnih DayaUMNO
P171 Sepanggar N16KarambunaiYakubah KhanUMNO
P174 Putatan N24Tanjung KeramatShahelmey YahyaUMNO
P175 Papar N29Pantai ManisMohd Tamin @ Tamin ZainalUMNO
P183 Beluran N48SugutJames RatibUMNO
P184 Libaran N51Sungai ManilaMokran IngkatUMNO
N52Sungai SibugaMohamad Hamsan Awang SupainUMNO
P187 Kinabatangan N58LamagBung Mokhtar RadinUMNO
N59SukauJafry AriffinUMNO
P190 Tawau N67BalungHamild @ Hamid AwangUMNO
P191 Kalabakan N71Tanjong BatuAndi Muhammad Suryady BandyUMNO
Nominated memberSuhaimi NasirUMNO
Nominated memberRaime UnggiUMNO
Total Perlis (10), Kedah (2), Kelantan (7), Terengganu (10), Penang (2), Perak (25), Pahang (25), Selangor (5), Negeri Sembilan (16), Malacca (14), Johor (16), Sabah (16)

Barisan Nasional state governments

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 JohorMenteri BesarHasni MohammadUMNOBenut
 MalaccaChief MinisterSulaiman Md AliUMNOLendu
 PerlisMenteri BesarAzlan ManUMNOBintong
 PahangMenteri BesarWan Rosdy Wan IsmailUMNOJelai
 PerakMenteri BesarSaarani MohammadUMNOKota Tampan
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 SabahDeputy Chief Minister IBung Moktar RadinUMNOLamag
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 MalaccaSpeakerAbd Rauf YusohUMNONon-MLA
 MalaccaDeputy SpeakerGhazale MuhamadUMNORim
 PerlisSpeakerHamdan BahariUMNONon-MLA
 PahangSpeakerIshak MuhamadUMNONon-MLA
 PahangDeputy SpeakerMohamed JaafarUMNOJenderak
 PerakSpeakerMohamad Zahir Abdul KahlidUMNONon-MLA
 SabahSpeakerKadzim M YahyaUMNONon-MLA

General election results

Election Total seats won Share of seats Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1974
135 / 154
87.7% 1,287,400 60.8% 135 seats; Governing coalition Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
131 / 154
85.1% 1,987,907 57.2% 4 seats; Governing coalition Hussein Onn
1982
132 / 154
85.7% 2,522,079 60.5% 1 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1986
148 / 177
83.6% 2,649,263 57.3% 16 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1990
127 / 180
70.6% 2,985,392 53.4% 21 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1995
162 / 192
84.4% 3,881,214 65.2% 35 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1999
148 / 193
76.2% 3,748,511 56.53% 15 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
2004
198 / 219
90.4% 4,420,452 63.9% 51 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
140 / 222
63.1% 4,082,411 50.27% 58 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
133 / 222
59.9% 5,237,555 47.38% 7 seats;[44] Governing coalition Najib Razak
2018
79 / 222
35.59% 3,794,827 33.96% 54 seats; Opposition coalition (2018-2020)
Governing coalition with Perikatan Nasional (2020-)
Najib Razak

State election results

State electionState Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative AssemblyKedah State Legislative AssemblyKelantan State Legislative AssemblyTerengganu State Legislative AssemblyPenang State Legislative AssemblyPerak State Legislative AssemblyPahang State Legislative AssemblySelangor State Legislative AssemblyNegeri Sembilan State Legislative AssemblyMalacca State Legislative AssemblyJohor State Legislative AssemblySabah State Legislative AssemblySarawak State Legislative AssemblyTotal won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1974
12 / 12
24 / 26
36 / 36
27 / 28
23 / 27
31 / 42
32 / 32
30 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
30 / 48
1976
1978
12 / 12
19 / 26
23 / 36
28 / 28
20 / 27
32 / 42
32 / 32
29 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
239 / 257
1979
1981
1982
11 / 12
24 / 26
26 / 36
23 / 28
25 / 27
38 / 42
31 / 32
31 / 33
22 / 24
18 / 20
32 / 32
1983
30 / 48
30 / 32
1985
6 / 48
6 / 48
1986
14 / 14
25 / 28
29 / 39
30 / 32
23 / 33
33 / 46
32 / 33
37 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
35 / 36
1 / 48
300 / 351
1987
28 / 48
28 / 48
1990
14 / 14
26 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
19 / 33
33 / 46
31 / 33
35 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
32 / 36
0 / 48
253 / 351
1991
49 / 56
49 / 56
1994
23 / 48
23 / 48
1995
15 / 15
34 / 36
7 / 43
25 / 32
32 / 33
51 / 52
37 / 38
45 / 48
30 / 32
22 / 25
40 / 40
338 / 394
1996
57 / 62
57 / 64
1999
12 / 15
24 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
30 / 33
44 / 52
30 / 38
42 / 48
32 / 32
21 / 25
40 / 40
31 / 48
312 / 329
2001
60 / 62
60 / 62
2004
14 / 15
31 / 36
21 / 45
28 / 32
38 / 40
52 / 59
41 / 42
54 / 56
34 / 36
26 / 28
55 / 56
59 / 60
452 / 504
2006
62 / 71
62 / 71
2008
14 / 15
14 / 36
6 / 45
24 / 32
11 / 40
28 / 59
37 / 42
20 / 56
21 / 36
23 / 28
50 / 56
59 / 60
307 / 504
2011
55 / 71
55 / 71
2013
13 / 15
21 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
31 / 59
30 / 42
12 / 56
22 / 36
21 / 28
38 / 56
48 / 60
275 / 505
2016
77 / 82
77 / 82
2018
10 / 15
3 / 36
8 / 45
10 / 32
2 / 40
24 / 59
25 / 42
4 / 56
16 / 36
13 / 28
16 / 56
29 / 60
160 / 505
2020
14 / 73
14 / 41

Notes

    References

    1. Joseph Liow; Michael Leifer (20 November 2014). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Routledge. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-317-62233-8.
    2. Timothy J. Lomperis, September 1996, 'From People's War to People's Rule: Insurgency, Intervention, and the Lessons of Vietnam', page 212, ISBN 0807822736
    3. Helen Ting. "The Politics of National Identity in West Malaysia: Continued Mutation or Critical Transition? [The Politics of Ambiguity]" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. J-Stage. p. 3/21 [33] and 5/21 [35]. UMNO came into being in 1946 under the impetus of the Anti-Malayan Union Movement based on this ideological understanding of ketuanan Melayu. Its founding president, Dato’ Onn Jaafar, once said that the UMNO movement did not adhere to any ideology other than Melayuisme, defined by scholar Ariffin Omar as “the belief that the interests of the bangsa Melayu must be upheld over all else”. Malay political dominance is a fundamental reality of Malaysian politics, notwithstanding the fact that the governing coalition since independence, the Alliance [subsequently expanded to form the Barisan Nasional or literally, the “National Front”], is multiethnic in its composition.
    4. Jinna Tay; Graeme Turner (24 July 2015). Television Histories in Asia: Issues and Contexts. Routledge. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-135-00807-9.
    5. Anuradha Raghu; Niluksi Koswanage (5 May 2013). "Malaysians vote to decide fate of world's longest-ruling coalition". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
    6. Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
    7. Cheah Boon Kheng (2002). Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-981-230-175-8.
    8. Dr Nam-Kook Kim (28 February 2014). Multicultural Challenges and Redefining Identity in East Asia. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-1-4724-0233-2.
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    10. Stuart Grudgings; Al-Zaquan Amer Hamzah; Niluksi Koswanage; Raju Gopalakrishnan (5 May 2013). "Malaysia coalition extends rule despite worst electoral showing". Reuters. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
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    21. "Former Puteri Umno chief quits party, upset with results of polls". The Star. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
    22. "Mustapa quits Umno after 40 years - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    23. "Anifah: I quit Umno in the interest of Sabah rights - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    24. "Labuan MP quits Umno to join Warisan - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
    25. Vanar, Muguntan; Lee, Stephanie; Joibi, Natasha. "Sabah Umno exodus sees nine of 10 Aduns, five of six MPs leave - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
    26. "Six Umno MPs leave the party - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
    27. Hamdan, Nurbaiti. "Court nullifies BN's GE14 victory for Cameron Highlands seat (Updated) - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
    28. "BN retains Cameron Highlands parliamentary seat". www.thesundaily.my. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
    29. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/01/524419/prk-cameron-highlands-ramli-cipta-sejarah
    30. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/03/536745/bn-tawan-semula-dun-semenyih
    31. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/04/552669/bn-kekal-kuasai-dun-rantau
    32. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2019/11/629147/bn-tawan-semula-tanjung-piai
    33. "What's next for Piagam Muafakat Nasional?". The Malaysian Reserve. 18 September 2019.
    34. "MCA's future in Muafakat Nasional remains unclear". New Straits Times. 30 November 2019.
    35. Reme Ahmad (5 December 2019). "Calls in Umno for Barisan Nasional to 'migrate' to Muafakat Nasional". The Straits Times.
    36. Adib Povera (4 March 202). "Perikatan Nasional coalition to set up joint secretariat". New Strait Times.
    37. "Hasni Mohammad angkat sumpah MB Johor" [Hasni Mohammad take the oath as Johor's MB]. Astro Awani (in Malay). 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
    38. "Sulaiman Md Ali angkat sumpah Ketua Menteri Melaka ke-12" [Sulaiman Md Ali take the oath as the 12th Chief Minister of Malacca]. Astro Awani (in Malay). 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
    39. https://www.astroawani.com/berita-malaysia/educationist-menteri-besar-272468
    40. Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 12. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4.
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    42. Rachagan, p. 21.
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    Literature

    • Chok, Suat Ling (4 October 2005). "MPs in the dock". New Straits Times, p. 1, 6.
    • Chin, James. 2002. Malaysia: The Barisan National Supremacy. In David Newman & John Fuh-sheng Hsieh (eds), How Asia Votes, pp. 210–233. New York: Chatham House, Seven Bridges Press. ISBN 1-889119-41-5.
    • Pillai, M.G.G. (3 November 2005). "National Front parties were not formed to fight for Malaysian independence". Malaysia Not Today
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