Arabic script

The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian (Farsi/Dari), Uyghur, Kurdish, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balti, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali and Mandinka, among others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts.[3]

Arabic script
Script type
Abjad
(abugida or true alphabet in some adaptations)
Time period
400 CE to the present
Directionright-to-left script 
LanguagesSee below
Related scripts
Parent systems
Proto-Sinaitic
Child systems
Inspired the N'Ko alphabet and the Hanifi script
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Arab, 160 , Arabic
Unicode
Unicode alias
Arabic
Unicode range

The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style, in which most of the letters are written in slightly different forms according to whether they stand alone or are joined to a following or preceding letter. The basic letter form remains unchanged. In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads. It does not have capital letters.[4]

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Quran, the holy book of Islam. With the religion's spread, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

Worldwide use of the Arabic script
Arabic alphabet world distribution
Countries where the Arabic script:
  is the only official script
  is the only official script, but other scripts are recognized for national or regional languages
  is official alongside other scripts
  is official at a sub-national level (China, India) or is a recognized alternative script (Malaysia)

History

The Arabic alphabet is a derivative of the Nabataean alphabet[5][6] or (less widely believed) directly from the Syriac alphabet[7] which are both derived from the Aramaic alphabet, which descended from the Phoenician alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet gave rise to among others the Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet and the Greek alphabet (and therefore the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets).

Origins

In the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, northern Arab tribes emigrated and founded a kingdom centred around Petra, Jordan. These people (now named Nabataeans from the name of one of the tribes, Nabatu) spoke Nabataean Arabic, a dialect of the Arabic language. In the 2nd or 1st centuries BCE,[8][9] the first known records of the Nabataean alphabet were written in the Aramaic language (which was the language of communication and trade), but included some Arabic language features: the Nabataeans did not write the language which they spoke. They wrote in a form of the Aramaic alphabet, which continued to evolve; it separated into two forms: one intended for inscriptions (known as "monumental Nabataean") and the other, more cursive and hurriedly written and with joined letters, for writing on papyrus.[10] This cursive form influenced the monumental form more and more and gradually changed into the Arabic alphabet.

Overview

the Arabic alphabet
خ ح ج ث ت ب ا
ḫā’ /
khā’
ḥā’ gīm ṯā’ /
tha’
tā’’ bā’ ’alif
ص ش س ز ر ذ د
ṣād’ šīn /
shīn
sīn zāj /
zajn
rā’ ḏāl’ /
dhāl’
dāl’’
ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض
qāf fā’ ġajn’ /
ghajn’
‘ajn’ ẓā’ / ḍhā’ ṭā’ ḍād’
ي و ه ن م ل ك
jā’ wāw hā’ nūn mīm lām kāf
(see below for other alphabets)

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), therefore many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: Indian and Turkic languages written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.

In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri and Uyghur writing systems, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad forms, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, connected to the latter due to it being originally used only for Arabic.

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.

Wikipedia in Arabic script of five languages

Table of writing styles

Script or style Alphabet(s) Language(s) Region Derived from Comment
Naskh Arabic
& others
Arabic
& others
Every region where Arabic scripts are used Sometimes refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes used to refer more broadly to almost every font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.
Nastaliq Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Southern and Western Asia Taliq Used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally used for Persian. (The term "Nastaliq" is sometimes used by Urdu speakers to refer to all Perso-Arabic scripts.)
Taliq Persian Persian A predecessor of Nastaliq.
Kufic Arabic Arabic Middle East and parts of North Africa
Rasm Restricted Arabic alphabet Arabic Mainly historical Omits all diacritics including i'jam. Digital replication usually requires some special characters. See: ٮ ڡ ٯ (links to Wiktionary).

Table of alphabets

Alphabet Letters Additional
Characters
Script or Style Languages Region Derived from:
(or related to)
Note
Arabic 28 ^(see above) Naskh, Kufi, Rasm, & others Arabic North Africa, West Asia Aramaic,
Syriac,
Nabataean
Ajami script 33 Hausa, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad
Aljamiado 28 Old Spanish, Mozarabic, Ladino, Aragonese, Old Galician-Portuguese Southwest Europe Arabic 8th-13th centuries for Mozarabic, 14th-16th centuries for the other languages
Arebica 30 Bosnian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic Latest stage with full vowel marking
Arwi alphabet 41 Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic
Belarusian Arabic alphabet 32 Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th / 16th century
Berber Arabic alphabet(s) Various Berber languages North Africa Arabic
Burushaski 53 ݳ ݴ څ ݼ ڎ ݽ ڞ ݣ ݸ ݹ ݶ ݷ ݺ ݻ
(see note)
Burushaski South-West Asia (Pakistan) Urdu Also uses the additional letters shown for Urdu.(see below) Sometimes written with just the Urdu alphabet, or with the Latin alphabet.
Chagatai alphabet(s) 32 Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Galal 32 Somali Horn of Africa Arabic
Jawi 36 ݘ ڠ ڤ ݢ ڽ ۏ Malay Peninsular Malay Perso-Arabic Since 1303 AD (Trengganu Stone)
Kashmiri 44 أ ٲ إٳ وٗۆۄےٚؠ Nastaliq Kashmiri South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kazakh Arabic alphabet 35 Kazakh Central Asia, China Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
Since 11th century, now official only in China
Khowar 60 Khowar South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet 33 Kyrgyz Central Asia Perso-Arabic Now official only in China
Kuryan alphabet 44 Korean East Asia, South Korea Perso-Arabic Invented by Korean Muslim in the 2000s
Pashto 45 Pashto South-West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan Perso-Arabic
Pegon script 35 Javanese, Sundanese South-East Asia (Indonesia) Perso-Arabic
Persian 32 پ ݘ ژ گ Nastaliq or Naskh Persian (Farsi) West Asia (Iran etc. ) Arabic
Saraiki 45 Saraiki South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Shahmukhi 41+
(see note)
ࣇ ݨ Usually Nastaliq Punjabi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic Similar to Urdu; 58 letters including digraphs for aspirated consonants.
Sindhi 64 ڪ ڳ ڱ گ ک
پ ڀ ٻ ٽ ٿ ٺ
ڻ ڦ ڇ چ ڄ ڃ
ھ ڙ ڌ ڏ ڎ ڍ ڊ
Naskh-like Sindhi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Sorabe 33 Malagasy Madagascar Arabic
Soranî 33 Central Kurdish Middle-East Perso-Arabic Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Swahili
İske imlâ 35 Tatar Chagatai / Perso-Arabic Before 1920
Ottoman Turkish 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire Perso-Arabic Official until 1928
Urdu 39+
(see notes)
پ ژ ݘ
ٹ ڈ ڑ ں ہ ھ ے

(see notes)
Nastaliq Urdu South Asia Perso-Arabic 58 letters including digraphs representing aspirated consonants.
بھ پھ تھ ٹھ جھ چھ دھ ڈھ کھ گھ
Uyghur 32 Uyghur China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Wolofal 28 Wolof West Africa Arabic
Xiao'erjing 36 Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Yaña imlâ 29 Tatar Russia Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
1920–1927 replaced with Cyrillic

Current use

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arabic speaking states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur.

An Arabic alphabet is currently used for the following languages:

Middle East and Central Asia

  • Arabic
  • Garshuni (or Karshuni) originated in the 7th century, when Arabic became the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, but Arabic script was not yet fully developed or widely read, and so the Syriac alphabet was used. There is evidence that writing Arabic in this other set of letters (known as Garshuni) influenced the style of modern Arabic script. After this initial period, Garshuni writing has continued to the present day among some Syriac Christian communities in the Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant and Mesopotamia.
  • Kazakh in Kazakhstan, China, Iran and Afghanistan
  • Kurdish in Northern Iraq and Northwest Iran. (In Turkey and Syria the Latin script is used for Kurdish)
  • Kyrgyz by its 150,000 speakers in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan
  • Turkmen in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Iran
  • Uzbek in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan
  • Official Persian in Iran and its dialects, like Dari in Afghanistan and Tajiki in Tajikistan
  • Baluchi in Iran, in Pakistan's Balochistan region, Afghanistan and Oman[11] An academy for the protection of the Baluchi Language was established in Iran in 2009[12]
  • Southwestern Iranian languages as Lori dialects and Bakhtiari language[13][14]
  • Pashto in Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Uyghur changed to Latin script in 1969 and back to a simplified, fully voweled Arabic script in 1983
  • Judeo-Arabic languages
    • Judeo-Tunisian Arabic[15]
  • Azerbaijani language in Iran
  • Talysh language in Iran

East Asia

  • The Chinese language is written by some Hui in the Arabic-derived Xiao'erjing alphabet (see also Sini (script))
  • The Turkic Salar language is written by some Salar in the Arabic alphabet
  • Uyghur alphabet

South Asia

  • Balochi in Pakistan and Iran
  • Dari in Afghanistan
  • Kashmiri in India and Pakistan (also written in Sharada and Devanagari although Kashmiri is more commonly written in Perso-Arabic Script)
  • Pashto in Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Khowar in Northern Pakistan, also uses the Latin script
  • Punjabi (Shahmukhi) in Pakistan, also written in the Brahmic script known as Gurmukhi in India
  • Saraiki, written with a modified Arabic script - that has 45 letters
  • Sindhi, a British commissioner in Sindh on August 29, 1857, ordered to change Arabic script,[16] also written in Devanagari in India
  • Aer language[17]
  • Bhadrawahi language[18]
  • Ladakhi (India), although it is more commonly written using the Tibetan script
  • Balti[19] (a Sino-Tibetan language), also rarely written in the Tibetan script
  • Brahui language in Pakistan and Afghanistan[20]
  • Burushaski or Burusho language, a language isolated to Pakistan[21]
  • Urdu in Pakistan (and historically several other Hindustani languages). Urdu is one of several official languages in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Telangana.
  • Dogri, spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and in Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, although Dogri is more commonly written in Devanagari
  • Arwi language (a mixture of Arabic and Tamil) uses the Arabic script together with the addition of 13 letters. It is mainly used in Sri Lanka and the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu for religious purposes. Arwi language is the language of Tamil Muslims
  • Arabi Malayalam is Malayalam written in the Arabic script. The script has particular letters to represent the peculiar sounds of Malayalam. This script is mainly used in madrasas of the South Indian state of Kerala and of Lakshadweep.
  • Rohingya language (Ruáingga) is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State, formerly known as Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). It is similar to Chittagonian language in neighboring Bangladesh[22] and sometimes written using the Roman script, or an Arabic-derived script known as Hanifi

Southeast Asia

  • Malay in the Arabic script known as Jawi. In some cases it can be seen in the signboards of shops and market stalls. Particularly in Brunei, Jawi is used in terms of writing or reading for Islamic religious educational programs in primary school, secondary school, college, or even higher educational institutes such as universities. In addition, some television programming uses Jawi, such as announcements, advertisements, news, social programs or Islamic programs
    • co-official in Brunei
    • Malaysia but co-official in Kelantan and Kedah, Islamic states in Malaysia
    • Indonesia, Jawi script is co-used with Latin in provinces of Aceh, Riau, Riau Islands and Jambi. The Javanese, Madurese and Sundanese also use another Arabic variant, the Pegon in Islamic writings and pesantren community.
    • Southern Thailand
    • Singapore
    • Predominantly Muslim areas of the Philippines (especially Tausug language)
    • Ida'an language (also Idahan) a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Ida'an people of Sabah, Malaysia[23]
  • Cham language in Cambodia[24] besides Western Cham script.

Africa

  • North Africa
    • Arabic
    • Maghrebi Arabic uses a modified Arabic script, with additional letters, in order to support /g/ (ڨ/ڭ), /v/ (ڥ) and /p/ (پ) along with the older /f/ (ڢ) and /q/ (ڧ)[25][26]
    • Berber languages have often been written in an adaptation of the Arabic alphabet. The use of the Arabic alphabet, as well as the competing Latin and Tifinagh scripts, has political connotations
    • Tuareg language, (sometimes called Tamasheq) which is also a Berber language
    • Coptic language of Egyptian Coptics as Coptic text written in Arabic letters[27]
  • Northeast Africa
    • Bedawi or Beja, mainly in northeastern Sudan
    • Wadaad writing, used in Somalia
    • Nubian languages
      • Dongolawi language or Andaandi language of Nubia, in the Nile Vale of northern Sudan
      • Nobiin language, the largest Nubian language (previously known by the geographic terms Mahas and Fadicca/Fiadicca) is not yet standardized, being written variously in both Latinized and Arabic scripts; also, there have been recent efforts to revive the Old Nubian alphabet.[28][29]
    • Fur language of Darfur, Sudan
  • Southeast Africa
    • Comorian, in the Comoros, currently side by side with the Latin alphabet (neither is official)
    • Swahili, was originally written in Arabic alphabet, Swahili orthography is now based on the Latin alphabet that was introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators
  • West Africa
    • Zarma language of the Songhay family. It is the language of the southwestern lobe of the West African nation of Niger, and it is the second leading language of Niger, after Hausa, which is spoken in south central Niger[30]
    • Tadaksahak is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka area of Mali[31]
    • Hausa language uses an adaptation of the Arabic script known as Ajami, for many purposes, especially religious, but including newspapers, mass mobilization posters and public information[32]
    • Dyula language is a Mandé language spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali.[33]
    • Jola-Fonyi language of the Casamance region of Senegal[34]
    • Balanta language a Bak language of west Africa spoken by the Balanta people and Balanta-Ganja dialect in Senegal
    • Mandinka, widely but unofficially (known as Ajami), (another non-Latin script used is the N'Ko script)
    • Fula, especially the Pular of Guinea (known as Ajami)
    • Wolof (at zaouia schools), known as Wolofal.
  • Arabic script outside Africa
    • In writings of African American slaves
      • Writings of by Omar Ibn Said (1770–1864) of Senegal[35]
      • The Bilali Document also known as Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic manuscript[36] on West African Islamic law. It was written by Bilali Mohammet in the 19th century. The document is currently housed in the library at the University of Georgia
      • Letter written by Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (1701–1773)
      • Arabic Text From 1768[37]
      • Letter written by Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori (1762–1829)

Former use

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans, parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation,[38] use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.[39]

Africa

  • Afrikaans (as it was first written among the "Cape Malays", see Arabic Afrikaans)
  • Berber in North Africa, particularly Shilha in Morocco (still being considered, along with Tifinagh and Latin, for Central Atlas Tamazight)
  • French by the Arabs and Berbers in Algeria and other parts of North Africa during the French colonial period
  • Harari, by the Harari people of the Harari Region in Ethiopia. Now uses the Geʻez and Latin alphabets
  • For the West African languages—Hausa, Fula, Mandinka, Wolof and some more—the Latin alphabet has officially replaced Arabic transcriptions for use in literacy and education
  • Kinyarwanda in Rwanda
  • Kirundi in Burundi
  • Malagasy in Madagascar (script known as Sorabe)
  • Nubian
  • Shona in Zimbabwe
  • Somali (see wadaad Arabic) has mostly used the Latin alphabet since 1972
  • Songhay in West Africa, particularly in Timbuktu
  • Swahili (has used the Latin alphabet since the 19th century)
  • Yoruba in West Africa (this was probably limited, but still notable)

Europe

  • Albanian called Elifbaja shqip
  • Aljamiado (Mozarabic, Berber, Aragonese, Portuguese, Ladino, and Spanish, during and residually after the Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula)
  • Belarusian (among ethnic Tatars; see Belarusian Arabic alphabet)
  • Bosnian (only for literary purposes; currently written in the Latin alphabet; Text example: مۉلٖىمۉ سه ته‌بٖى بۉژه = Molimo se tebi, Bože (We pray to you, O God); see Arebica)
  • Crimean Tatar
  • Greek in certain areas in Greece and Anatolia. In particular, Cappadocian Greek written in Perso-Arabic
  • Polish (among ethnic Lipka Tatars)

Central Asia and Caucasus

  • Adyghe language also known as West Circassian, is an official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation. It used Arabic alphabet before 1927
  • Avar as well as other languages of Daghestan: Nogai, Kumyk, Lezgian, Lak and Dargwa
  • Azeri in Azerbaijan (now written in the Latin alphabet and Cyrillic script in Azerbaijan)
  • Bashkir (officially for some years from the October Revolution of 1917 until 1928, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script)
  • Chaghatay across Central Asia
  • Chechen (sporadically from the adoption of Islam; officially from 1917 until 1928)[40]
  • Circassian and some other members of the Abkhaz–Adyghe family in the western Caucasus and sporadically – in the countries of Middle East, like Syria
  • Ingush
  • Karachay-Balkar in the central Caucasus
  • Karakalpak
  • Kazakh in Kazakhstan (until the 1930s, changed to Latin, currently using Cyrillic, phasing in Latin)
  • Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan (until the 1930s, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script)
  • Mandarin Chinese and Dungan, among the Hui people (script known as Xiao'erjing)
  • Ottoman Turkish
  • Tat in South-Eastern Caucasus
  • Tatar before 1928 (changed to Latin Yañalif), reformed in the 1880s (İske imlâ), 1918 (Yaña imlâ – with the omission of some letters)
  • Turkmen in Turkmenistan (changed to Latin in 1929, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991)
  • Uzbek in Uzbekistan (changed to Latin, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991)
  • Some Northeast Caucasian languages of the Muslim peoples of the USSR between 1918 and 1928 (many also earlier), including Chechen, Lak, etc. After 1928, their script became Latin, then later Cyrillic

South and Seast Asia

Middle East

Unicode

As of Unicode 13.0, the following ranges encode Arabic characters:

  • Arabic (0600–06FF)
  • Arabic Supplement (0750–077F)
  • Arabic Extended-A (08A0–08FF)
  • Arabic Presentation Forms-A (FB50–FDFF)
  • Arabic Presentation Forms-B (FE70–FEFF)
  • Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols (1EE00–1EEFF)
  • Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60–10E7F)
  • Indic Siyaq Numbers (1EC70–1ECBF)
  • Ottoman Siyaq Numbers (1ED00–1ED4F)

Additional letters used in other languages

Assignment of phonemes to graphemes

∅ = phoneme absent from language
Language family Austron. Dravid Turkic Indic (Indo-European) Iranian (Indo-European) Arabic (Semitic)
Language/script Jawi Pegon Arwi Uyghur Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Moroccan Tunisian Algerian Hejazi Najdi Egyptian Israeli Levantine Iraqi Gulf
/p/ ڤ ڣ پ پ / ب
/g/ ݢ گ ګ ڭ / گ ڨ / ڧـ ـڧـ ـٯ / ق ق ج چ / ج ك / ج گ / ك ق / گ
/t͡ʃ/ چ چ ڜ تش چ
/v/ ۏ ف و ۋ و ڤ ڥ / ڢ / ف ڤ / ف
/ʒ/ ژ ژ جچ / جج
/ŋ/ ڠ ڭ ڱ ن٘
/ɳ/ ڹ ڻ ݨ ن ڼ
/ɲ/ ڽ ۑ ݧ ڃ نج
Table of additional letters in other languages
Letter or Digraph [upper-alpha 1] Use & Pronunciation Unicode i'jam & other additions Shape Similar Arabic Letter(s)
U+ [upper-alpha 2] [upper-alpha 3] above below
پ پـ ـپـ ـپ Pe, used to represent the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish, Kashmiri; it is not used in most Arabic varieties (except Mesopotamian and Gulf) and it is normalized as /b/; e.g., pepsi > bibsi. U+067E none 3 dots ٮ ب
ݐ ݐـ ـݐـ ـݐ used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. U+0750   ﮳﮳﮳   none 3 dots
(horizontal)
ٮ ب
ٻ ٻـ ـٻـ ـٻ B̤ē, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/ in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. U+067B none 2 dots
(vertically)
ٮ ب
ڀ ڀـ ـڀـ ـڀ represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive /bʱ/ in Sindhi. U+0680 none 4 dots ٮ ب
ٺ ٺـ ـٺـ ـٺ Ṭhē, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈʰ/ in Sindhi. U+067A 2 dots
(vertically)
none ٮ ت
ټ ټـ ـټـ ـټ Ṭē, used to represent the phoneme /ʈ/ in Pashto. U+067C ﮿ 2 dots ring ٮ ت
ٽ ٽـ ـٽـ ـٽ Ṭe, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Sindhi U+067D 3 dots
(inverted)
none ٮ ت
ٹـ ـٹـ ـٹ Ṭe, used to represent Ṭ (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Punjabi, Kashmiri, Urdu. U+0679 ◌ؕ small
ط
none ٮ ت
ٿ ٿـ ـٿـ ـٿ Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao'erjing. U+067F 4 dots none ٮ ت
ڄ ڄـ ـڄـ ـڄ represents the "ц" voiceless dental affricate /t͡s/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0684 none 2 dots
(vertically)
ح ج
ڃ ڃـ ـڃـ ـڃ represents the "ћ" voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0683 none 2 dots ح ح ج
چ چـ ـچـ ـچ Che, used to represent /t͡ʃ/ ("ch"). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt. U+0686 none 3 dots ح ج
څ څـ ـڅـ ـڅ Ce, used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ in Pashto. U+0685 3 dots none ح ج خ ح
ݗ ݗـ ـݗـ ـݗ represents the "ђ" voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /d͡ʑ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0757 2 dots none ح ح
ځ ځـ ـځـ ـځ Źim, used to represent the phoneme /d͡z/ in Pashto. U+0681 ◌ٔ Hamza none ح ج خ ح
ݙ ݙ ـݙ used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ̢/. U+0759 small
ط
2 dots
(vertically)
د د
ڊ ڊ ـڊ used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive /ᶑ/. U+068A none 1 dot د د
ڈ ڈ ـڈ Ḍal, used to represent a Ḍ (a voiced retroflex plosive /ɖ/) in Punjabi, Kashmiri and Urdu. U+0688 ◌ؕ small ط none د د
ڌ ڌ ـڌ Dhal, used to represent the phoneme /d̪ʱ/ in Sindhi U+068C 2 dots none د د
ډ ډ ـډ Ḍal, used to represent the phoneme /ɖ/ in Pashto. U+0689 ﮿ none ring د د
ڑ ڑ ـڑ Ṛe, represents a retroflex flap /ɽ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0691 ◌ؕ small ط none ر ر
ړ ړ ـړ Ṛe, used to represent a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. U+0693 ﮿ none ring ر _
ݫ ݫ ـݫ used in Ormuri to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative /ʑ/, as well as in Torwali. U+076B 2 dots
(vertically)
none ر _
ژ ژ ـژ Že / zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. U+0698 3 dots none ر ز
ږ ږ ـږ Ǵe / ẓ̌e, used to represent the phoneme /ʐ/ /ɡ/ /ʝ/ in Pashto. U+0696 1 dot 1 dot ر ز
ڕ ڕ ـڕ used in Kurdish to represent rr /r/ in Soranî dialect. U+0695 ٚ none V pointing down ر ر
ݭ ݭـ ـݭـ ـݭ used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/, and in Ormuri to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/. U+076D 2 dots vertically none س س
ݜ ݜـ ـݜـ ـݜ used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. U+075C 4 dots none س ش س
ښ ښـ ـښـ ـښ X̌īn / ṣ̌īn, used to represent the phoneme /x/ /ʂ/ /ç/ in Pashto. U+069A 1 dot 1 dot س ش س
ڜ ڜـ ـڜـ ـڜ used to represent Spanish words with /t͡ʃ/ in Morocco. U+069C 3 dots 3 dots س ش س
ڨ ڨـ ـڨـ ـڨ Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Algerian and Tunisian. U+06A8 3 dots none ٯ ق
گ گـ ـگـ ـگ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. U+06AF line horizontal line none گ ك
ګ ګـ ـګـ ـګ Gaf, used to represent the phoneme /ɡ/ in Pashto. U+06AB ﮿ ring none ک ك
ݢ ݢـ ـݢـ ـݢ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Jawi script of Malay. U+0762 1 dot none ک ك
ڬ ڬـ ـڬـ ـڬ U+06AC 1 dot none ك ك
ࢴـ ـࢴـ ـࢴ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Pegon script of Indonesian. U+08B4 none 1 dot ك ك
ڭ ڭـ ـڭـ ـڭ Ng, used to represent the /ŋ/ phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to represent the /ɡ/ in Morocco and in many dialects of Algerian. U+06AD 3 dots none ك ك
أي أيـ ـأيـ ـأي Ee, used to represent the phoneme /eː/ in Somali. U+0623 U+064A ◌ٔ Hamza 2 dots اى أ + ي
ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ E, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Somali. U+0626 ◌ٔ Hamza none ى ي ی
ىٓ ىٓـ ـىٓـ ـىٓ Ii, used to represent the phoneme /iː/ in Somali and Saraiki. U+0649 U+0653 ◌ٓ Madda none ى ي
ؤ ؤ ـؤ O, used to represent the phoneme /o/ in Somali. U+0624 ◌ٔ Hamza none و ؤ
ۅ ۅ ـۅ Ö, used to represent the phoneme /ø/ in Kyrgyz. U+0624 ◌̵ Strikethrough[upper-alpha 4] none و و
ې ېـ ـېـ ـې Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Pashto and Uyghur. U+06D0 none 2 dots vertical ى ي
ی یـ ـیـ ـی Nārīna Ye, used to represent the phoneme [ɑj] and phoneme /j/ in Pashto. U+06CC 2 dots
(start + mid)
none ى ي
ۍ ـۍ end
only
X̌əźīna ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] in Pashto. U+06CD line horizontal
line
none ى ي
ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ Fāiliya Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] and /j/ in Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki and Urdu U+0626 ◌ٔ Hamza none ى ي ى
أو أو ـأو Oo, used to represent the phoneme /oː/ in Somali. U+0623 U+0648 ◌ٔ Hamza none او أ + و
ﻭٓ ﻭٓ ـﻭٓ Uu, used to represent the phoneme /uː/ in Somali. + ◌ٓ U+0648 U+0653 ◌ٓ Madda none و + ◌ٓ
ڳ ڳـ ـڳـ ـڳ represents a voiced velar implosive /ɠ/ in Sindhi and Saraiki U+06B1 horizontal
line
2 dots گ ك
ڱ ڱـ ـڱـ ـڱ represents the Velar nasal /ŋ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06B1 2 dots + horizontal
line
none گ ك
ک کـ ـکـ ـک Khē, represents /kʰ/ in Sindhi. U+06A9 none none none ک ك
ڪ ڪـ ـڪـ ـڪ "Swash kāf" is a stylistic variant of ك in Arabic, but represents un- aspirated /k/ in Sindhi. U+06AA none none none ڪ ك or ڪ
ݣ ݣـ ـݣـ ـݣ used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/ (pinyin ng) in Chinese. U+0763 none 3 dots ک ك
ڼ ڼـ ـڼـ ـڼ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Pashto. U+06BC ں ﮿ 1 dot ring ن
ڻ ڻـ ـڻـ ـڻ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06BB ◌ؕ small ط none ں ن
ݨ ݨـ ـݨـ ـݨ used in Punjabi to represent /ɳ/ and Saraiki to represent /ɲ/. U+0768 1 dot + small ط none ں ن
ڽ ڽـ ـڽـ ـڽ Nya /ɲ/ in the Jawi script. U+06BD 3 dots none ں ن
ۑ ۑـ ـۑـ ـۑ Nya /ɲ/ in the Pegon script. U+06D1 none 3 dots ى _
ڠ ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ Nga /ŋ/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A0 3 dots none ع غ
ݪ ݪـ ـݪـ ـݪ used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap /ɺ̢/, and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative /ɬ/. U+076A line horizontal
line
none ل ل
ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ - or alternately typeset as لؕ - is used in Punjabi to represent voiced retroflex lateral approximant /ɭ/[43] U+08C7 ◌ؕ small ط none ل ل
لؕ لؕـ ـلؕـ ـلؕ U+0644 U+0615
ڥ ڥـ ـڥـ ـڥ Vi, used in Algerian and Tunisian when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. U+06A5 none 3 dots ڡ ف
ڤ ڤـ ـڤـ ـڤ Ve, used in by some Arabic speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. Also used as pa /p/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A4 3 dots none ڡ ف
ۏ ۏ ـۏ Va in the Jawi script. U+06CF 1 dot none و و
ۋ ۋ ـۋ represents a voiced labiodental fricative /v/ in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. U+06CB 3 dots none و و
ۆ ۆ ـۆ represents "O" /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu and œu /ø/ sound. It represents the "у" close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C6 ◌ٚ V pointing down none و و
ۇ ۇ ـۇ U, used to represents the Close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uyghur. U+06C7 ◌ُ Damma[upper-alpha 5] none و و
ێ ێـ ـێـ ـێ represents Ê or É /e/ in Kurdish. U+06CE ◌ٚ V pointing down 2 dots
(start + mid)
ى ي
ھ
ھ
ھـ ـھـ ـھ
ھھھ
Do-chashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in digraphs for aspiration /ʰ/ and breathy voice /ʱ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. Also used to represent /h/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur.[upper-alpha 6] U+06BE none none none ھ ه
ە ە ـە Ae, used represent /æ/ and /ɛ/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur. U+06D5 none none none ھ إ
ے ـے end
only
Baṛī ye ('big yāʼ'), is a stylistic variant of ي in Arabic, but represents "ai" or "e" /ɛː/, /eː/ in Urdu and Punjabi. U+06D2 none none none ے ي
ڞ ڞـ ـڞـ ـڞ used to represent the phoneme /tsʰ/ (pinyin c) in Chinese. U+069E 3 dots none ص ص ض
ط طـ ـطـ ـط used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ (pinyin z) in Chinese. U+0637 ط ط
ۉ ۉ ـۉ represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C9 ◌ٛ V pointing up none و و
ݩ ݩـ ـݩـ ـݩ represents the "њ" palatal nasal /ɲ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0769 ◌ٚ 1 dot
V pointing down
none ں ن
ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ used in Kurdish to represent ll /ɫ/ in Soranî dialect. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل
ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ represents the "љ" palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل
اٖى اٖىـ ـاٖىـ ـاٖى represents the "и" close front unrounded vowel /i/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0627 U+0656 U+0649 ◌ٖ Alef none اى اٖ + ى
Footnotes:
  1. From right: start, middle, end, and isolated forms.
  2. Joined to the letter, closest to the letter, on the first letter, or above.
  3. Further away from the letter, or on the second letter, or below.
  4. A variant that end up with loop also exists.
  5. Although the letter also known as Waw with Damma, some publications and fonts features filled Damma that looks similar to comma.
  6. Shown in Naskh (top) and Nastaliq (bottom) styles. The Nastaliq version of the connected forms are connected to each other, because the tatweel character U+0640 used to show the other forms does not work in many Nastaliq fonts.

Letter construction

Most languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet use the same base shapes. Most additional letters in languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet are built by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variants in Arabic have distinct meanings in other languages. For example, variant forms of kāf ك ک ڪ are used in some languages and sometimes have specific usages. In Urdu and some neighbouring languages the letter Hā has diverged into two forms ھ dō-čašmī hē and ہ ہـ ـہـ ـہ gōl hē.[44] while a variant form of ي referred to as baṛī yē ے is used at the end of some words.[44]

Table of Letter Components

Abbreviations used below

A = The letter is used for most languages and dialects with writing systems based on Arabic.

MSA = Letters used in Modern Standard Arabic.

CA = Letters used in Classical Arabic.

AD = Letters used in some regional Arabic Dialects.

"Arabic" = Letters used in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and most regional dialects.

"Farsi" = Letters used in modern Persian.

FW = Foreign words: the letter is sometimes used to spell foreign words.

SV = Stylistic variant: the letter is used interchangeably with at least one other letter depending on the calligraphic style.

AW = Arabic words: the letter is used in additional languages to spell Arabic words.


No additions
Letter Line Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
positional forms isolated ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
start ء ا none ىـ (YNB) ٮـ حـ سـ صـ طـ عـ ڡـ (QF) ٯـ ڪـ كـ کـ گـ لـ مـ د ر و ھـ ہـ هـ لا
middle ء ـا none ـىـ (YNB) ـٮـ ـحـ ـسـ ـصـ ـطـ ـعـ ـڡـ (QF) ـٯـ ـڪـ ـكـ ـکـ ـگـ ـلـ ـمـ ـد ـر ـو ـھـ ـہـ ـهـ ـلا
end ء ـا ـے ـى ـں ـٮ ـح ـس ـص ـط ـع ـڡ ـٯ ـڪ ـك ـک ـگ ـل ـم ـد ـر ـو ـھ ـہ ـه ـلا
image of forms isolated
start
middle
end
ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ا + ل
Languages that use the letter shape with or without i'jam Arabic Arabic Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi Arabic
diacritics (i) isolated ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
none start
mid
end
ء ـا ا  ـــے ے   ىـ
ـىـ
ـى
ـں ں ٮـ
ـٮـ
ـٮ
حـ
ـحـ
ـح
سـ
ـسـ
ـس
صـ
ـصـ
ـص
طـ
ـطـ
ـط
عـ
ـعـ
ـع
ڡـ
ـڡـ
ـڡ
ٯـ
ـٯـ
ـٯ
ڪــ
ـڪــ
ـڪ
كـ
ـكـ
ـك
کـ
ـکـ
ـک
گـ
ـگـ
ـگ
لـ
ـلـ
ـل
مـ
ـمـ
ـم
ـد د ـر ر ـو و ھـ
ـھـ
ـھ
ہـ
ـہـ
ـہ
هـ
ـهـ
ـه
ـلا لا
Languages using the bare shape with no additions Arabic Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu MSA Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic SV Rasm Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic SV in Rasm Arabic SV in Rasm Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi MSA
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ل + ا
Bare line in isolated and end forms only isolated ء ا ے ی ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
start
mid
end
یـ
ـیـ
ـی
ࢽـ
ـࢽـ
ـࢽ
ࢻـ
ـࢻـ
ـࢻ
ࢼـ
ـࢼـ
ـࢼ
image
Languages
Unicode U+08BD U+08BB U+08BC
1 dot
Diacritics (i) Letter Shapes:
(ii)
ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
1 dot below   ◌࣭  ◌ٜ  ــٜـ     isolated ء ا ے ى ں ب ج س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
connected بـ ـبـ ـب جـ ـجـ ـج
image
Languages
U+FBB3 U+065C Unicode U+0628 U+062C
1 dot above + 1 dot below  ﮲﮳  isolated ء ا ے ى ڹ ٮ ح ښ ۻ ط ۼ ڣ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ږ و ھ ہ ه لا
connected
image
Languages
Unicode
1 dot above ◌࣪   isolated ء ا ے ى ن ٮ خ س ض ظ غ ف ڧ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ذ ز و ھ ہ ه لا
connected
image
Languages
U+FBB2 Unicode U+0646 U+062E U+0636 U+0638 U+063A U+0641 U+06A7 U+0630 U+0632
2 dots
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
2 dots below
start and mid (iii)
isolated form ء ا ے یـ ـیـ ـی ی ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Farsi, Urdu, AD
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+06CC
2 dots below
all positions
isolated form ء ا ے يـ ـيـ ـي ي ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Arabic (iv)
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+064A
2 vertical dots below       isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBE Unicode
2 vertical dots above       isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBD Unicode
2 horizontal
dots above
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ت ح س ص ط ع ڡ ق ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ـۃ ـة لا
image
Languages
FBB4 Unicode U+062A U+0642 U+06C3 U+0629
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
above: 2 dots
below: 2 dots
above: 2 dots
(vertically)
below: 2 dots
(vertically)
U+08EB (2283)◌࣫TWO DOTS ABOVE
U+08EE (2286)◌࣮TWO DOTS BELOW
3 dots
ث پ چ ژ ش Arabic & Persian
ݑ ڥ ڤ ڨ ڠ ڟ ڞ ۺ ڜ ڛ څ ڿ ۑ ۋ ڮ ڴ ڷ ڸ other pointing out
ݤ ڏ ݓ ݒ ݡ ݘ ݞ inverted
3 dots below (horizontal)

    

character ء ا ے ى ں ݐ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Fula
Unicode U+0750
3 dots below (inverted)    character ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB7 Unicode
3 dots below    isolated form ء ا ے ى ں پ چ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB9 Unicode U+067E U+0686
3 dots above
+ 3 dots below
   isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح ڜ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBB6 + U+FBB9 Unicode
3 dots above    isolated form ث ش ژ
image
Languages
U+FBB6 Unicode U+062B U+0634 U+0698
3 dots above (inverted)    character ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
U+FBB8 Languages
Unicode
4 dots
4 dots below      isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ڀ ڇ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBB Unicode
4 dots above      isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٿ ح ݜ ص ط ع ڦ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ڐ ڙ و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Shina, Torwali Sindhi, Shina, Torwali
U+FBBA Unicode U+067F U+075C U+0690 U+0699
different dots above and below
mixed dots
above + below
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ڿ ۺ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
tōē
small tōē
below
isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ݮ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s) ݮـ ـݮـ ـݮ
image
Unicode U+076E
Languages Khowar
small tōē
above
ـــؕــ     ◌ؕ isolated form ء ا ے ى ڻ ٹ ݲ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ   لؕ م ڈ ڑ و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s)
image
Urdu Punjabi Torwali Languages Punjabi Urdu Torwali Punjabi[43] Urdu Urdu
U+0615 U+FBC0 Unicode U+06BB U+0679 U+0772 U+0688 U+0691
small tōē + dot(s) isolated form ء ا ے ى ݨ ٮ ح ݰ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ݱ و ھ ہ ه لا
connected form(s)
image
Languages Punjabi, Seraiki, Shina Torwali Torwali
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
ring
ring       isolated form ء ا ے ؠ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ګ گ ل م ډ ړ ۄ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
FBBF Unicode
ring and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ڼ ټ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
line
horizontal line isolated form ء ا ے ۍ ـۍ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ؈ ڪ ك گ ݪ م د ݛ ۅ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Punjabi, Marwari, Kalami Kirghiz
Unicode U+075B
multiple lines        isolated form ۽ ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ۾ د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
U+FBBC Unicode U+08A6
vertical line isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر

ۈ

ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages
Unicode
numeral
  • Burushaski ݸ
  • Burushaski ݹ
  • Burushaski ݳ
  • Burushaski ݴ
  • Burushaski ݶ
  • Burushaski ݷ
  • Burushaski ݻ

https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2010/04/burushaski-primer.html

diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ك ڪ ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Persian numeral 2 above ٢ ٢ isolated form ء ا ݺ ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر ݸ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski Burushaski
Unicode U+077A
Persian numeral 3 above ٣ ٣ isolated form ء ا ݻ ݶ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077B
Persian numeral 4 above ۴ ۴ isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح ݽ ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077D
Persian numeral 4 below ۴ ۴ isolated form ء ا ے ݷ ں ٮ ݼ س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077C
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
arrows
V below   ٚ     ٛ   isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ݕ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ڕ و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Wolof
U+065B U+065A Unicode
small V above ــٚـ ◌ٚ isolated form ء ا ے ێ ں ݖ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ڵ م د ڒ ۆ ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages Wolof
U+065A Unicode U+0756
inverted V above ــٛـ ◌ٛ isolated form ء ا ے ؽ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م ۮ ۯ ۉ ۿ ہ ه لا
image
U+065B Unicode
Languages
arrow and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Unicode
Languages
Hamza
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
Hamza below ــٕـ ◌ٕ isolated form ء إ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لإ
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0655 Unicode U+0625 U+0644
+ U+0625
Hamza above ــٔـ ◌ٔ isolated form ء أ ۓ ئ ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر ؤ ھ ۂ ۀ لأ
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0674 U+0654 Unicode U+0623 U+06D3 U+0626 U+0624 U+06C2 U+06C0 U+0644
+ U+0623
Hamza and dots isolated form ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Unicode
Languages
other semi-optional vowels
maddah above ــۤـ ــٓـ ◌ٓ ◌ۤ isolated form ء آ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لآ
image
doesn't strictly count as i'jam, but included in a lot of situations where other diacritics are left out. Languages Arabic, Urdu
U+06E4 U+0653 Unicode U+0622
Wasala above isolated form ء ٱ ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
image
Languages CA
none
(v)
Unicode U+0671
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ك ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ء ا ے ى ں ٮ ح س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ك ڪ ک گ ل م د ر و ھ ہ ه لا

References

Footnotes

^i. The i'jam diacritic characters are illustrative only, in most typesetting the combined characters in the middle of the table are used. The characters used to illustrate the consonant diacritics are from Unicode set "Arabic pedagogical symbols".[47] The "Arabic Tatweel Modifier Letter" U+0640 character used to show the positional forms doesn't work in some Nastaliq fonts.

^ii. For most letters the isolated form is shown, for select letters all forms (isolated, start, middle, and end) are shown.

^iii. Urdu Choti Yē has 2 dots below in the initial and middle positions only. The standard Arabic version ي يـ ـيـ ـي always has 2 dots below.

^iv. These characters are used by most languages that use writing systems based on Arabic, though sometimes only in foreign words.

^v. A Wasala diacritic Unicode character has been proposed but not yet released.

See also

References

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  4. Ahmad, Syed Barakat. (11 January 2013). Introduction to Qur'anic script. ISBN 978-1-136-11138-9. OCLC 1124340016.
  5. Gruendler, Beatrice (1993). The Development of the Arabic Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century According to Dated Texts. Scholars Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781555407100.
  6. Healey, John F.; Smith, G. Rex (2012-02-13). "II - The Origin of the Arabic Alphabet". A Brief Introduction to The Arabic Alphabet. Saqi. ISBN 9780863568817.
  7. Senner, Wayne M. (1991). The Origins of Writing. U of Nebraska Press. p. 100. ISBN 0803291671.
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  12. "|Baluchi Language Protection Academy". Archived from the original on 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
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  20. "The Bible in Brahui". Worldscriptures.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
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  22. "Rohingya Language Book A-Z". Scribd.
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  24. urangCam. "Bông Sứ". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com.
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  29. "2 » AlNuba egypt". 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012.
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  40. "Brief history of writing in Chechen". Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
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  43. Lorna Priest Evans; M. G. Abbas Malik. "Proposal to encode ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL ARABIC LETTER TAH ABOVE in the UCS" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  44. "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  45. "Extended Arabic Letter". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  46. "Based on ISO 8859-6". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  47. "Unicode Utilities: UnicodeSet Arabic pedagogical symbols". unicode.org. Retrieved 20 March 2020.

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