Apple Books (formerly iBooks, between January 2010 to September 2018) is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices. It was announced, under the name iBooks, in conjunction with the iPad on January 27, 2010, and was released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in mid-2010, as part of the iOS 4 update. Initially, iBooks was not pre-loaded onto iOS devices, but users could install it free of charge from the iTunes App Store. With the release of iOS 8, it became an integrated app. On June 10, 2013, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Craig Federighi announced that iBooks would also be provided with OS X Mavericks in fall 2013.
|Initial release||April 2, 2010|
|Available in||33 languages|
It primarily receives EPUB content from the Apple Books store, but users can also add their own EPUB and Portable Document Format (PDF) files via data synchronization with iTunes. Additionally, the files can be downloaded to Apple Books through Safari or Apple Mail. It is also capable of displaying e-books that incorporate multimedia. According to product information as of March 2010, iBooks will be able to "read the contents of any page [to the user]" using VoiceOver.
On January 19, 2012, at an education-focused special event in New York City, Apple announced the free release of iBooks 2, which can operate in landscape mode and allows for interactive reading. In addition, a new application, iBooks Author, was announced for the Mac App Store, allowing anyone to create interactive textbooks for reading in iBooks; and the iBooks Store was expanded with a textbook category. The iBooks Author Conference, the annual gathering of digital content creators around Apple's iBooks Author, has convened since 2015.
In September 2018, iBooks was renamed "Apple Books" alongside the release of iOS 12 and macOS Mojave. It features a new variation of the San Francisco typeface known as "SF Serif", which was later revealed to be released in six optical weights under the "New York" name.
iBooks was announced alongside the iPad at a press conference in January 2010. The store itself, however, was released in America three days before the iPad with the introduction of iTunes 9.1. This was supposedly to prevent too much traffic on Apple's servers, as they have been overloaded with previous releases of the iPhone. On the day of its launch, on March 31, 2010, the iBooks Store collection comprised some 60,000 titles.
On June 8, 2010 at the WWDC Keynote it was announced that iBooks would be updated that month to read PDF files as well as have the ability to annotate both PDFs and eBooks.
As of July 1, 2010, Apple expanded iBooks availability to Canada.
Upon its release for older devices running iOS 4, such as the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch, iBooks received criticism for its slow performance. However, a July 19 update from Apple offered several improvements.
On September 27, 2011, Apple expanded the premium store to the Republic of Ireland.
On January 19, 2012, Apple announced the release of the iBooks 2 app, allowing users to purchase and download textbooks to the iPad. The new app will support digital textbooks that can display interactive diagrams, audio and video on the iPad. Apple also released a free tool called iBooks Author. The software allows users to create these interactive textbooks themselves.
On October 23, 2012, Apple announced iBooks 3.
On November 13, 2012, Apple was granted the patent “Display screen or portion thereof with animated graphical user interface” for page-turning animation. The page-turning animation was first filed for in December 2011 as ornamental design for a display screen. The patent’s illustration shows three different images of a virtual page being turned. One with a corner of a page being turned slightly, the next image with the page halfway turned, and the third showing the page almost entirely turned over. The patent refers to O'Reilly Media and FlippingBook companies that use page-turning animation in eBooks.
On June 10, 2013, Apple announced iBooks for OS X Mavericks. Books are now available for purchase in the following countries; Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela.
On October 24, 2013, Apple patented an application for “Personalizing digital gifts”, which describes a novel method for gifting e-books to friends. The patent describes how a user can select the appealing e-book snippet that will bring up a contextual menu containing an option to gift the media to another party.
On September 17, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.0 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.0. This includes slight changes with the bookstore button (into a persistent navigation bar at the bottom), grouping of books by series in the bookshelf, Auto-night mode theme, as well as small changes to the underlying rendering engine.
On October 20, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.1 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.1.
As well as in macOS 10.13.4 beta iBooks to Books on March 5, 2018. It was renamed back to iBooks in a next intermittent 10.13.4 macOS beta, showing some uncertainty about the marketing decision.
The supported e-book formats of Apple Books are EPUB and PDF. As of version 2.0, it also supports a proprietary iBook format (IBA), generated with the iBooks Author tool. This format is based upon the EPUB format but depends on a custom widget code in the Apple Books app to function.
As of version 3, Apple Books (under name iBooks) started to render text written in 18 different languages. Users of the application are able to change the font and text size displayed. Available English fonts are Baskerville, Cochin, Georgia, Palatino, Times New Roman, Verdana, Athelas, Charter, Iowan Old Style and Seravek. Version 5 removed Cochin and Baskerville.
Users can adjust screen brightness from within the application.
Words can be selected and searched throughout the book. Definitions of words can also be found upon clicking on the word and selecting 'define' which will give the reader a brief description of what the word means and if there isn't a definition available, the reader can opt to either search on Wikipedia or the web for a definition, an option available even if there is a definition for the word. Readers can also highlight passages and when this is done, the part of the Ebook which deals with the chapters and notes will automatically save the words or sentences which were highlighted, as well as revealing any notes made after highlighting a certain passage, another feature.
- Normal: black text on a white background
- Sepia: sepia text on an off-white background
- Night: light grey text on a black background
With the introduction of iOS 8 in 2014, an additional "Auto-Night Theme" was introduced, which dynamically changes the theme from 'Normal' or 'Sepia' to 'Night' and vice versa based on the ambient light conditions.
With the introduction of iOS 9 in 2015, a fourth background theme was added: Gray: light grey text on a dark gray background.
Apple Books also stacks books that belong to a series when the user is on the "All Books" screen. When selected, the books included in the series are shown in the order in which they were released, including books in the series that the user has not purchased. The prices of the unpurchased books are displayed on the upper right corner of the book "ear-marked" in green. Tapping the unpurchased book takes the user directly to the Apple Books store allowing for quick purchase.
There are three page layouts: Book, Full Screen, and Scroll. In Book or Full Screen layout, pages are turned by tapping or dragging the page, animated to imitate the appearance of a paper book. In Scroll, there is no page turning, and the book appears as continuous text, read vertically like a web browser.
Apple Books Store
The Apple Books Store (formerly iBook Store) is an ePub content sales and delivery system that delivers eBooks to any iOS device such as the iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch. It does not currently support either the downloading or reading of Apple Books directly on Windows or Linux distributions, but it does support the downloading and reading of Apple Books on OS X Mavericks and later.
Prior to the unveiling of the iPad, publishers Penguin Books, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster, Macmillan Publishers, and Hachette Book Group USA committed to producing content for the Apple Books Store (under name iBooks Store). Additional publishers were invited to participate on the day of the product announcement, January 27, 2010. The Apple Books Store also provides access to the 30,000+ free books available from Project Gutenberg, and it provides content channeled through Draft2Digital or Smashwords, allowing independent authors and publishers to self-publish.
The day before the iPad event, Terry McGraw, the CEO of McGraw-Hill, appeared to divulge information to Erin Burnett on CNBC about the upcoming iPad release. This was quickly picked up and disseminated by rumor sites and eventually mainstream media outlets as revelation of features of the iPad. McGraw Hill was not included in the iPad presentation at the Apple media event and there was speculation that the exclusion was in response to this release of information. However, McGraw-Hill has stated that the information disclosed by McGraw was not privileged, and that the company had not intended to participate in the event.
In 2011, an Apple spokesperson announced that "We are now requiring that if an app offers customers the ability to purchase books outside of the app, that the same option is also available to customers from within the app with in-app purchase." Due to the 30% revenue share that Apple receives from the in-app purchase mechanism, the financial viability of competing bookstore apps run by other book retailers is uncertain, even though in many countries, the Apple Books Store still does not provide consumers access to any e-books except for free works, such as ones that are in the public domain. Apple's competitor Amazon.com updated its iOS Kindle app in July 2013 to bypass the 30% revenue share by requiring the user to purchase content using the Kindle Store's website instead of using the Kindle app; users can still get free e-books or samples while using the app.
Some critics have stated that the Apple Books (under name iBooks) interface is a near-exact replica of Classics by Andrew Kaz and Phill Ryu, released over a year prior and even featured in Apple's own TV commercials. Apple has made no acknowledgment of this.
Documents created by iBooks Author in the .ibooks format may be sold for a fee only if they are accepted and exclusively distributed by Apple. These restrictions do not apply to documents created in other formats like exported as PDF or text files. As Apple officially mentions the EPUB format, documents renamed to *.epub may not be affected. But this is left unclear and such documents are not fully compatible with the EPUB standard.
In June 2011, Apple was sued by New York publisher John T. Colby over the use of the term "iBook". Colby claims to be the owner of a trademark on the term "ibooks" as applied to published books, after acquiring the assets of deceased publisher Byron Preiss, who had published a series of sci-fi and fantasy books under the term. Apple had previously used the term "iBook" to refer to a line of laptops that it sold until 2006, but Colby claims exclusive right to the term as applied to published books, including e-books. Apple began using the term "iBooks" in 2010 to refer to e-books sold for the iPad. Byron Preiss published more than 1,000 books under the "ibooks" brand starting in 1999. Apple emerged the victor in the suit. The judge stated: "They have offered no evidence that consumers who use Apple's iBooks software to download ebooks have come to believe that Apple has also entered the publishing business and is the publisher of all of the downloaded books, despite the fact that each book bears the imprint of its actual publisher."
- Google Play Books
- United_States v. Apple_Inc., a book price-fixing conspiracy, which also involved collusion between publishers and was also ruled illegal
- "Apple Books". App Store Preview. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- "Apple Books". App Store Preview. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Apple Inc. (July 16, 2003). "iPad Announcement Keynote". Events.apple.com.edgesuite.net. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "Get a sneak peek into the future of iPhone OS". Apple Inc. April 8, 2010. Archived from the original on April 8, 2010.
- "Maps, iBooks, iCloud Keychain coming to OS X Mavericks". AppleInsider. June 10, 2013.
- "OS X Mavericks – Do even more with new apps and new features". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on July 16, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- Apple Inc. (July 16, 2003). "WWDC 2010 Keynote". Apple.com. Archived from the original on September 25, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "iPad – Buy and read books like never before". Apple. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Previous post Next post (March 12, 2010). "Wired GadgetLab: iPad ebook features". Wired.com. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Chloe Albanesius (January 19, 2012). "Apple Targets Educators Via iBooks 2, iBooks Author, iTunes U App". PCMag.com.
- Josh Lowensohn (January 19, 2012). "Apple unveils iBooks 2 for digital textbooks, self-pub app (live blog)". CNET.
- "Media from the 2015 iBooks Author Conference". Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- "iBooks Author Conference. What did we learn?". Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- "iBooks gets a redesign and new Apple Books branding in iOS 12". The Verge. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
- "Apple Books: What's new in iOS 12". iMore. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- "Fonts". Apple Developer. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
- King, Sammy. "Survey of Kindle, Nook, iPad, Sony and OverDrive eBook Store Collection Size". eBookReaderGuide.com. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- "iBooks on iPhone 3GS – app review".
- "Apple iBooks now available for iPhone, iPod touch". Mobiputing.com. June 21, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- balandin (July 20, 2010). "Download iBooks 1.1.1 for iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch". iPhoneHeat. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "Apple Reinvents Textbooks with iBooks 2 for iPad". Apple Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- Brian Chen and Nick Wingfield, The New York Times. "Apple Unveils App and Tools for Digital Textbooks." January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- "Apple debuts e-publishing book app". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- D670713, Cranfill, Elizabeth Caroline; Mikio Inose & Stephen O. Lemay, "United States Patent: D670713 – Display screen or portion thereof with animated graphical user interface", issued November 13, 2012
- Tuesday, Mikey Campbell; November 13; 2012; PT, 02:44 am. "Apple wins design patents for page turning animation and iPad Smart Case". AppleInsider. Retrieved February 19, 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "United States Patent Application: 0130282514". appft.uspto.gov. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- Thursday, Mikey Campbell; October 24; 2013; PT, 02:46 am. "Apple patent filing hints at future iBooks gifting options". AppleInsider. Retrieved February 19, 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "iOS 11.3: The 7 best new features". CNET. January 24, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "iBooks: Frequently Asked Questions". Apple Inc. June 8, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Arnold Kim (January 19, 2012). "New iBooks not technically in epub format". MacRumors.
- Friedlander, Joel (March 1, 2010). "Apple iPad Typography: Fonts We Actually Want". TheBookDesigner.com.
- J.D. Biersdorfer (September 1, 2012). "Q&A: A New Look for iBooks". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Erica Thinesen (December 7, 2011). "Apple Releases Update for iBook App". Net Communities. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Built-In Apps: iBooks. Apple. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Use iBooks Themes to Improve the Reading Experience on iPhone & iPad. OSXDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "Winnie the Pooh goes MIA from NZ iBookstore, demands money from other territories". Archived from the original on May 31, 2011.. iPhonewzealand. May 26, 2011
- "iPad iBooks app US-only, McGraw-Hill absent from Apple event". AppleInsider. January 28, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "Apple pre-loading iBook Store with 30,000 free eBooks". Appleinsider.com. March 25, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Foresman, Chris (March 31, 2010). "Self-published authors to get in iBookstore via Smashwords". Arstechnica.com. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "McGraw-Hill's Q4 Earnings". CNBC. September 16, 2001. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Apple Special Event January 2010 Archived August 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Apple Inc. January 27, 2010
- John Paczkowski (January 28, 2010). "McGraw-Hill: We Didn't Get Booted From the iPad Launch, Because We Weren't Part of It". All Things Digital. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
- Yarow, Jay. "Apple Just Declared War On Amazon Kindle." Business Insider, February 1, 2011.
- Amazon skirts Apple restrictions with updated Kindle iOS app The Verge, Jul 30, 2013
- Chen, Brian. "Apple's Tablet E-Book App Rips off Indie Dev's Creation" "Wired", January 27, 2010
- Carnoy, David. "Is Apple's iBooks e-reader app a rip-off?" "CNET", January 28, 2010
- Slivka, Eric. New iPhone Ad: 'Read'" "MacRumors", January 25, 2009
- Apple (March 23, 2012). "Apple iBooks Author FAQ". Apple Inc. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "If you publish with iBooks Author, does Apple 'own' you?". Los Angeles Times. January 20, 2012.
- Gary Marshall (January 20, 2012). "Hands on: iBooks Author review". TechRadar.com.
- "Apple's iBooks Author Software: Just Say No". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- Chris Foresman (June 16, 2011). "Apple iBooks trademark under fire from independent book publisher". Ars Technica.
- Musil, Steven (June 16, 2011). "Apple sued over its use of 'iBook'". CNET.com. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- "Apple wins trademark lawsuit over use of 'iBooks' term". CNET. CBS Interactive. May 10, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2015.