2020–2021 Belarusian protests

The 2020–2021 Belarusian protests are a series of ongoing political demonstrations and protests against the Belarusian government and President Alexander Lukashenko.[61][62] The largest antigovernmental protests in the history of Belarus, the demonstrations began in the lead-up to and during the 2020 presidential election, in which Lukashenko sought his sixth term in office.[63][62] In response to the demonstrations, a number of relatively small pro-government rallies were held.[41]

2020–2021 Belarusian protests
Part of the Belarusian democracy movement and
the aftermath of the 2020 presidential election
Protests on 16 August 2020 in Minsk
Date24 May 2020[1] – present
(1 year and 1 week)
Location
Caused by
  • Authoritarianism and political repression
  • Arrest of opposition presidential candidates Viktar Babaryka and Sergei Tikhanovsky
  • Persistent electoral fraud in the country's elections[2]
  • Alexander Lukashenko seeking a sixth presidential term in the 2020 Belarusian presidential election
  • Economic and social policies of the government[3]
  • Mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belarus[4]
  • Diversion of Ryanair Flight 4978 in order to arrest opposition leader Roman Protasevich
  • Banning of live coverage from the protests after flight 4978
Goals
Methods
  • Demonstrations
  • Protest marches
  • Online activism
  • Road blockades
  • Civil disobedience
  • General strike
  • Riots
Parties to the civil conflict

Coordination Council (since 14 August)[6]
National Strike Committee (since 18 August)[7]


Belarusian democracy movement[8][9][10]

  • Association of Belarusian Students[11]
  • Christian Democrats[12][13]
  • Congress of Democratic Trade Unions[13]
  • Conservative Christian Party[14]
  • Green Party
  • Left Party[15]
  • Movement for Freedom[12]
  • Party of Freedom and Progress[13]
  • Popular Front Party[13]
  • Social Democratic Assembly
  • Social Democratic Party (Assembly)[13]
  • Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly)[16]
  • United Civic Party[12][13]
  • Women's Party
  • Young Front[16]

Anarchists:[17]

  • Revolutionary Action[18]
  • Anarchist Black Cross[19]
  • Pramen[20]

Supported by:
  • Rada of the BPR (in exile)[21][22]
  • Tell the Truth
  • Supported by 30 countries

Government:

  • AMAP/OMON[23]
  • KGB
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs
    • Internal Troops
    • Almaz
    • Militsiya
  • 38th Guards Air Assault Brigade[24]
  • 5th Spetsnaz Brigade[25][26][27][28][29][30]
  • Presidential Security Service (parts)

Political parties:

  • Agrarian Party
  • Communist Party[31]
  • LDPB
  • Patriotic Party
  • BSSP
  • Republican Party
  • RPTS
  • SDPPA

Public associations:

  • Belaya Rus
  • Federation of Trade Unions of Belarus
  • Republican Youth Union

Supported by:
  • Supported by 20 countries
Lead figures
  • S. Tsikhanouskaya
  • S. Tikhanovsky
  • V. Babaryka
  • V. Tsepkalo[32]
  • Ver. Tsepkalo
  • M. Kalesnikava[33][34]
  • P. Latushko
  • N. Statkevich
  • S. Alexievich
  • P. Severinets
  • D. Dashkevich
  • M. Znak
  • T. Kandrusievič
    [35][36]
Number
16 August:
23 August:
16 August:
  • Minsk: ~5,000–65,000[41]
Total:
  • ~100,000 police and soldiers[50]
Casualties and losses

1,373 injured including children[51]
4+ dead[52]
32,000+ arrested[53][54][55]
50 missing[56]

[57]
103 injured[58][59]
At least a few journalists wounded[60]

The protests intensified nationwide after the official election results were announced on the night of 9 August, in which Lukashenko was declared the winner. Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the main opponent of Lukashenko, rejected the results as falsified and claimed instead to have received 60–70% of the votes. On 14 August, she announced the creation of the Coordination Council, with membership applications open to all Belarusians who agreed that the official election had been falsified.[5][64] On 12 October, the Coordination Council issued Lukashenko an ultimatum to cease all repression, free detainees and step down from the presidency by 25 October. After Lukashenko failed to comply, nationwide strikes began on 26 October.

On 23 September, Belarusian state media announced that Lukashenko had been inaugurated for another five-year term in a brief ceremony which was held privately.[65] The following day, the EU published a statement which rejected the legitimacy of the election, called for new elections, and condemned the repression and violence against the protesters.[66] On 2 October, the EU introduced sanctions against 40 Belarusian officials accused of political repression and vote rigging.[67] Lukashenko himself was not included on the list. The Belarusian government responded by imposing symmetrical sanctions against an undisclosed list of EU officials.[68] Moreover, Lukashenko accused the EU and other "Western organizations" of trying to "harm Belarus" by destabilizing the current regime while supporting the opposition.

The protesters have faced violent persecution by the authorities. A statement by the United Nations Human Rights Office on 1 September cited more than 450 documented cases of torture and ill-treatment of detainees, as well as reports of sexual abuse and rape.[69] At the end of 2020, the Viasna Human Rights center documented 1,000 testimonies of torture victims.[70]

Background

Alexander Lukashenko has been the head of state of Belarus since 1994, and did not have a serious challenger in the previous five elections, resulting in being referred to as "Europe's last dictator" by media outlets.[71] Under his authoritarian rule,[72] the government has frequently repressed the opposition.[71][72]

Lukashenko had faced greater public opposition amid his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, which Lukashenko has denied as a serious threat.[73][71] Of the five elections won by Lukashenko, only the first one in 1994 was credibly deemed free and fair by international monitors.[74]

Before the election

The nickname "cockroach" for Lukashenko was adopted from Korney Chukovsky's 1921 children's poem Tarakanishche (The Monster Cockroach).

The protests, nicknamed the Slipper Revolution[75][76] and the Anti-Cockroach Revolution,[61] were initiated by businessman and blogger Sergei Tikhanovsky when he made a reference to the children's poem The Monster Cockroach (Russian: Тараканище, romanized: Tarakanishche) by Korney Chukovsky.

The original story, published in 1923,[77] concerns a dictatorial yet fragile insect and his brief, chaotic reign of terror over all the other animals. It has been compared to The Emperor's New Clothes.[78][79] In his reference, Tikhanovsky compared Lukashenko to the cockroach in the story. In the original poem, the cockroach is eventually eaten by a sparrow; Tikhanovsky refers to a slipper signifying stamping on the cockroach.[80]

Tikhanovsky traveled across Belarus and streamed interviews with random people on his YouTube channel Country for life (Russian: Страна для жизни, romanized: Strana dlya zhizni). Most of his respondents expressed disagreement with Lukashenko and the current government.[81]

Tikhanovsky was detained in late May 2020 by Belarusian authorities, and was formally accused of being a foreign agent.[82] In June 2020, street protests against Lukashenko took place.[73] Several opposition candidates were registered for the 2020 Belarusian presidential election, but many of them were arrested.[82]

During an interview, Lukashenko claimed that the opposition protests were a part of a plot[83] orchestrated by foreigners, whom he suggested might be Americans, NATO members, Russians, or even Ukrainians.[71] On 19 June, Lukashenko announced that he had "foiled a coup attempt", resulting in the arrest of main opposition rival Viktar Babaryka.[84] According to CNN, Babaryka stated that the charges of bribery and corruption were falsified and the arrest was politically motivated to stop him from winning the presidential election.[85]

When Babaryka was detained by authorities, people began walking in the streets to show their disapproval. Opposition activists, protesters, journalists, and bloggers were arrested as part of the crackdown.[86] The human rights group Viasna estimated that around 1,300 people had been detained for protesting between early May and early August.[87]

Tikhanovsky's wife Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya registered as a candidate in the election after the arrest of Babaryka.[88] Lukashenko insisted the country was not ready for a woman to become president. Unregistered candidate Valery Tsepkalo's wife Veronika Tsepkalo announced that she and Maria Kalesnikava, head of Babaryka's presidential campaign staff, would join Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya's campaign and provide support.[82]

The protests have led to questions of how long the conflict may last, and whether it will escalate into violence,[89] possibly evolving into a full revolution, akin to how the Euromaidan protests turned into a revolution in Ukraine in 2014.[90] The German Marshall Fund, a US think tank, noted that the protests were more widespread, and more brutally repressed than previous protests in Belarus.[91]

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)[92] reported that it would not be monitoring the 2020 election as it wasn't invited to do so.[93] This was the first time since 2001 that the OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) did not monitor elections in Belarus.[94] The OSCE has not recognized any elections in Belarus as free and fair since 1995,[93] and the government has obstructed past OSCE election-monitoring missions in the country.[94]

May protests

On 24 May, hundreds protested against president Alexander Lukashenko and his decision to run for the 2020 Belarusian presidential election. Anti-government protesters held slippers as a sign to protest against the regime. Rallies and demonstrations continued strongly throughout May–June. On 27 May, protesters marched throughout the country and clashed with police. Slippers were pelted at the police and chants such as "You Cockroach" and "Resign you Rat" were heard. Elderly women and men protested daily until the elections. Balaclava-wearing police were then seen arresting popular YouTuber Sergei Tikhanovsky.

June–July

As protests drew more and more crowds, police began to use harsher tactics. During demonstrations demanding the release of prisoners and the resignation of the government on 2–3 June, police arrested and used pepper-spray on demonstrators to disperse them. 5,000 protesters then rallied in Minsk on 5–7 June to demand the resignation of the government and president Alexander Lukashenko. Daily demonstrations continued despite heavy rain. Students, workers, teachers, and others protested for weeks until 6 August. Tear gas and rubber bullets were fired at protesters as they threw slippers.

Presidential campaign

Opposition candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya (left) alongside a crowd of supporters in Minsk on 30 July

On 29 July, 33 alleged mercenaries from the Wagner Group, a Russian private military company, were arrested in a sanatorium near Minsk.[87] Lukashenko accused Russia of lying about the arrested "mercenaries", saying "So far there is no open warfare, no shooting, the trigger has not yet been pulled, but an attempt to organize a massacre in the center of Minsk is already obvious."[95] Belarusian authorities claimed that Tikhanovsky was working with Russians to destabilize Belarus.[95] All but one of the mercenaries, who is a Belarusian national and remains in custody, were deported to Russia on 14 August despite a request from Ukraine for their extradition.[96]

On 30 July, a permitted rally of presidential candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya took place in the Friendship of Peoples Park in Minsk. According to human rights activists, 63,000–70,000 people gathered,[97][98] but a statement from the Belarusian Interior Ministry alleged that only 18,250 people had been recorded passing through the metal-detecting checkpoints set up at the event.[99]

On 6 August an estimated 5,000 peaceful protesters took to the streets in Minsk, waving white ribbons, calling for free and fair elections.[100]

Election day

External video
Anthem using by protestors Pahonia
People singing "Pahonia" at the mall

On 9 August, all roads and entry points to Minsk were blocked by the police and army early in the morning.[101][102]

In the middle of the day, the Internet in Belarus was partially blocked. Government officials claimed that the reason was a heavy denial-of-service attack originating from outside Belarus. However, independent IT specialists claimed that the Belarusian state Internet monopoly Beltelecom and affiliated state agencies deliberately used deep packet inspection (DPI) technology or traffic shaping, and that issues with the filtering equipment used may have been the cause.[103] Telegram was the only working instant messaging application.[104][105]

In the evening of the election day immediately after the close of polling stations, the Belarusian government-sponsored TV aired exit poll results showing a supposed landslide with Lukashenko receiving 80.23% of the votes, and Tsikhanouskaya receiving 9.9%.[101] The landslide was so great that even pro-government parts of the Belarusian population found that it was unlikely to be true.[106] This caused an immediate reaction by supporters of Tsikhanouskaya to head to the streets in all major cities in Belarus, such as Brest, Minsk, Viciebsk, Hrodna, Mazyr, Pinsk, Homel, and Babruisk. Protesters were expressing their dissatisfaction and were calling for a fair count of votes.[106] Protests started as peaceful in the middle of the night, but in Minsk, the situation escalated into violence between protesters and authorities. Protesters started building barricades to block traffic on the streets.[107] The number of protesters in Minsk could not be measured as they were not concentrated in a single spot.[108]

At night, after breaking up big crowds, police officers chased smaller groups of protesters through downtown Minsk for several hours. A fight against security forces and police continued in the major cities of Belarus. Law enforcement officers used police batons, rubber bullets (fired from shotguns), grenades with lead balls, water cannons, tear gas, and stun grenades. They used them to suppress the protests as people were chased in the suburbs all night.[109][110] In Brest, protesters gradually dispersed, leaving a crowd of 200–300 from an estimated previous total of 5,000.[108] That night in Minsk, security forces dropped grenades near people, and leaving some with critical injuries.[108]

People were reported to be arrested while waiting for the election results near their polling stations. In Minsk, a 73-year-old man with a daughter and grandchildren were arrested with nearly 20 other people who gathered near the 86th school after the closure of the polling station. It was reported that they were sentenced to 10 and 25 days in jail.[111] In Baranavichy, two Roman Catholic priests were arrested among others; they were waiting for the results near their polling station.[112]

Timeline

August

Protesters in Minsk on 14 August

As the protests swept across Belarus following the election results, the primary opposition candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya published a video saying that she left Belarus for Lithuania.[113] She was presumed to have been coerced to leave while also submitting a complaint to the CEC (Central Election Commission of Belarus).[113]

On 11 August, during the evening, the protests continued in the major cities of Belarus, including Brest, Homel, Hrodna, Mahiliou, Viciebsk, Baranavichy, Maladzyechna, Navahrudak, Navapolatsk and Zhodzina.[114] In Minsk, protesters changed their tactics, switching positions from one part of the city to another, similar to the "be water" tactics used in the 2019–2020 protests in Hong Kong.[115] Protesters barricaded the area around the Riga Market in the center of Minsk. Government forces responded by tear-gassing the protesters and using stun grenades.[116] Authorities threw stun grenades and fired rubber bullets at the protesters at close range. A protester, Alexander Taraikovsky, died near Pushkinskaya metro station.

The stun grenades purportedly originated in the Czech Republic, which had imposed an embargo on selling the devices to Belarus after the suppression of the 2010 elections.[117]

One of the female lines of solidarity and protest in Minsk (13 August)
Protesters near a church in Minsk (12 August)

The government's riot police (AMAP/OMON), internal troops, and anti-terrorist "Almaz" elite special force participated in the suppression of the protests in Minsk. Water cannons were used near the Riga Market, and rubber bullets were widely used. Mass protests were reported. It was reported that AMAP/OMON squads seized some ambulances or used visually similar vans to deceive the protesters into allowing them through the barricades.[118][119]

Five days later, the Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta wrote that the beatings and arrests that occurred on 10 August 2020 were ordered by the retired commander of Military Unit 3214 of the Internal Troops of Belarus, Dmitri Pavlichenko. He had previously been arrested for serious crimes.[120]

On 11 August, the protests resumed in Minsk and other major cities. Rubber bullets and stun grenades were widely used.[121] One death was reported, with Hienadz Shutau, in critical condition and with severe brain damage as of 14 August,[122][123] succumbed to his injuries on 19 August in Minsk.

Molotov cocktails were thrown at security officials in Minsk. Activists built barricades and burned tires near the Riga Market. Telegram channel Nexta, used by the opposition, published messages alleging violence by law enforcement officers. Telegram published aggressive vocabulary against law enforcement, such as "punishers" and "fascists".[124] Telegram was one of the few accessible resources during a concurrent internet blackout and VPN usage was ubiquitous, with Psiphon usage skyrocketing.[125] On the evening of 11 August, while the Internet shutdown continued, 45 percent of people using Telegram protest chats in Belarus were online, despite the government's efforts to block online access.[126]

In Homel, a 25-year-old man died on 12 August after waiting in a security forces detainee van for many hours in hot weather. He had a heart condition and wasn't given proper medical attention in time.[127] Also in Homel, relatives and friends of over 500 arrested people were not allowed to visit them. The local police did not disclose any information about their relatives. It was also reported that a policewoman abused an arrested woman there.[128]

Protesters in Minsk on 15 August

During widespread protests in Hrodna, a 5-year-old was injured, and their father was arrested after the car they were in was rammed by government forces.[129]

On 12 August, people in Minsk and later in other cities lined up on streets to protest against the government's suppression. The majority of the protesters were women wearing white clothes.[130][131] Former members of the Belarusian military, police, and special forces expressed their solidarity with the opposition by publishing videos publicly throwing their uniforms in the garbage, condemning violent acts by the security forces, and calling on the authorities to stop opposing the will of the people.[132]

On the same day, the Belarus Interior Minister stated that a "shoot to kill" policy in cases of self-defense was permitted.[133]

In many places in Minsk, riot police were observed moving in ambulances and shooting at people, stopping near crowds, which is a violation of the 1949 Geneva Convention.[134][135]

On 13 August, many lines of protesters demonstrating in solidarity against violence by the police were observed,[136][137][138] including thousands of women dressed in white.[139] Strikes of workers in several state-owned factories also took place.[139]

External images
Protesters in Minsk
Protesters in Minsk
Female first line of protesters in Minsk
Protesters and government troops in Brest
Protesters in Homiel
Wounded protester
Government troops
Water cannons in use
Barricade in Minsk (graffiti "3%" refers to the protesters' view at the approval rating of Lukashenko)
AMAP/OMON beating protesters and passers-by
Trucks with government troopers in Minsk
Arrest
Arrest of a biker
AMAP/OMON trooper beating random passer-by
Internal trooper firing a shotgun
"Almaz" anti-terrorist squad; one of them has GM-94 portable grenade launcher[140]
Protester beaten up in a detention centre
Policeman and female protesters in Minsk
Female protestors being arrested in Minsk

Numerous reports of different law violations in Belarusian prisons (severe overcrowding, beating, and abuses against prisoners, including torture) were submitted.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148]

Protest rally in Minsk, 16 August
Protest rally in Mahiliou, 16 August

On 14 August, peaceful protests continued nationwide. Workers from Minsk Tractor Works also joined the protest in front of the Government House in Minsk. They took part in a massive march carrying banners claiming that 16,000 workers were supporting this protest.[5] According to the Independent, "a group of soldiers guarding the building lowered their shields, appearing to side with the protesters".[149]

There were multiple incidents of police expressing support for and even embracing protesters.[150]

Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya asked Belarusian authorities to stop the violence, "engage in dialogue", and call on mayors to organize peaceful rallies across the country over the weekend.[5]

On 15 August, post-election protests continued to grow. For the first time, government-supported television demonstrated episodes of what was happening on the Belarusian streets without any censorship. They streamed a farewell ceremony for the murdered during a peaceful protest on 10 August. The Associated Press released a video showing the moment when Alexander Taraikovsky was killed.[151][152]

It was reported that Lukashenko's authorities asked Kremlin representatives about the possibility of Lukashenko escaping to Russia. Furthermore, it was reported that Russia admited that Lukashenko's resignation as the head of state was likely.[153][154] The editor-in-chief of the anti-government website Charter 97 claimed that Russian troops were concentrated along the Belarus-Russia border in preparation for a potential invasion, possibly within the next 48 hours.[155] It was also reported that Lukashenko spoke to President Putin with both sides expressing confidence that all existing problems would be settled soon, the possibility of foreign mediation was firmly rejected by Lukashenko.[156]

Peaceful demonstrations took place in several cities, including Moscow, where 400 mainly wearing white formed a chain near the Belarusian Embassy in support of the protesters.[157]

Some protesters in Minsk expressed solidarity with the anti-government Khabarovsk Krai protests in the Russian Far East.[158]

On 16 August, Lukashenko's supporters were bussed into Minsk from various places across the country for a pro-Lukashenko rally, which had a much smaller turnout than the opposition demonstrations,[159] which were the largest yet.[41] The Belarusian Interior Ministry claimed a turnout of 65,000 at the pro-Lukashenko rally. A Reuters reporter estimated a turnout of 5,000.[41] In a speech to supporters, Lukashenko said he would not step down, claimed that NATO was amassing "military power on the western borders", and warned supporters not to test him or they would be "beggars and struggle to live".[159] Lukashenko also rejected calls for new elections.[159][160] NATO rejected Lukashenko's claims.[161] Right before the speech, Lukashenko called Russian President Putin for the second time in two days.[159]

Opposition groups called for a "National March for Freedom" in Minsk and similar marches to occur in cities and towns across the country. Supporters were asked to converge on government buildings and call for the immediate release of all political prisoners, for those responsible for the deaths and torture of protesters to be brought to justice and for the resignation of Alexander Lukashenko.[160] Organizers estimated that 100,000–220,000 people attended the Minsk demonstration.[162] Many were carrying red and white flags.[163] The Belarusian press reported that persons in civilian clothes made arbitrary detentions of opposition supporters after the Minsk rally.[164] Later that evening, it was reported that former Prime Minister of Belarus, Syarhey Rumas, who was dismissed by Lukashenko in June 2020, had posted a message of support for the anti-Lukashenko protesters on his Instagram account.[165] Earlier, Rumas's wife had published a photograph of herself and Rumas on the roof of a building overlooking the protests and a message of support.[166]

Lukashenko had announced that an air assault brigade would hold week-long unscheduled maneuvers starting 17 August in western Belarus, before announcing that NATO forces were "at the gates" and threatening the country, prompting President Putin to offer military assistance,[167] opening a possibility of Belarus being taken over through annexation or as a "union state".[168] In the early morning of 17 August, several military trucks carrying unmarked soldiers were spotted heading towards Minsk on the M1 "Belarus" highway in Russia.[169]

On 17 August, Lukashenko was booed and shouted at when he gave a speech at the Minsk wheel tractor plant. He told the audience they would have to kill him to get another election. Meanwhile, a broadcast by the state TV showed empty news desks as TV presenters had walked out on strike.[170][171][172] Members of the European Parliament issued a joint statement stating that they did not recognize Alexander Lukashenko as the president of Belarus and considered him a persona non grata in the European Union.[173] The joint statement also proclaimed that reliable information showed that Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya won the presidential election.[174]

On the same day, Tsikhanouskaya released a video in which she stated that she was ready to lead a transitional government[175] and organize a new, free, and fair presidential election.[176] Lukashenko conceded that an early presidential election could be held if a new constitution is adopted,[177][178] after it has been drafted and a referendum is held and passed.[179] The Prime Minister of Belarus, Roman Golovchenko, and his cabinet resigned in accordance with the constitution following the election.[180][181]

Pavel Latushko, director of the Yanka Kupala National Theatre in Minsk and former minister of culture, who had previously condemned the violence and cautiously supported the protests, was fired by the Belarusian Ministry of Culture.[182]

Countrywide strikes

Miners of the Belaruskali potash company in Salihorsk went on strike, refusing to go down the mines, leading to BMZ Steel Works in Zhlobin suspending work of the steel furnaces.[183][184][185] BMZ workers announced an indefinite strike if their requirements were not met. Thousands of workers of Minsk Tractor Works (MTZ), Minsk Automobile Works (MAZ), Minsk Motor Works (MMZ; ru), Minsk electrotechnical factory (METZ; ru) and other factories marched through the city to the headquarters of the largest state TV company and other locations. BelAZ workers in Zhodzina were intimidated by the company management, and their protest rally was postponed. A number of other factories suspended work temporarily in a warning strike or organized rallies with political demands (including the Naftan oil refinery and "Polimir" chemical factory in Navapolatsk, the glass fiber factory in Polatsk, and the Hrodna Azot fertilizer factory).[186][187][188]

It was reported that 76 people disappeared during the protests in Belarus as of 17 August, because they are not on the lists of arrested and convicted.[189] Igor Leshchenya, the Belarusian ambassador to Slovakia who sided with the protesters and the first official to do so, said that he does not think there is a threat of Russian military intervention, stating that it was in the interests of Russia "to support new free and fair elections". He also s that a new election was inevitable.[190]

On 18 August, it was reported that international companies in retail, banking, mobile, and food sectors had started pulling their advertising campaigns from Belarusian TV channels, including the state TV.[191] German Chancellor Angela Merkel spoke to Vladimir Putin, saying that the Belarusian government must avoid using force against peaceful protesters, immediately release political prisoners and start a national dialogue. In response, Putin warned Merkel that foreign interference in the ex-Soviet state would be unacceptable.[192][193]

The red-and-white flags on Biržos bridge in Klaipėda, Lithuania

The troupe of Yanka Kupala National Theater in Minsk resigned en-masse.[194] An extract of a letter from Maria Kalesnikava (a member of Tsikhanouskaya's presidium) was published by Ekho Moskvy radio station stating that Belarus should respect all of its existing agreements with Russia, that Russia was an important partner (within the Union State of Russia and Belarus), and that recent tensions were because of Lukashenko.[195]

Workers from various additional factories and postal workers joined the strikes and the Komsomolskaya Pravda v Belarusi newspaper said it was unable to print its Tuesday edition focusing on protests over the weekend, before announcing it had secured another publisher that would produce its print edition a day late.[196]

The Belarusian Telegraph Agency issued a misleading video purporting to show Belarusian protesters being violent. Pictures from Belarus were mixed with pictures from the 2019 protests in Catalonia.[197] Demonstrations supporting Lukashenko took place in Mahiliou, Homel, and Khotsimsk.[198][199][200] During the pro-Lukashenko rally in Mahiliou, a helicopter flew over the attendees with the state flag, while another state flag was taken off the local government building where it was hung. In Mahiliou, one of the activists marching near the executive committee building was deliberately injured by a hit-and-run driver, with no medically significant outcome.[201] In a statement made on 18 August 2020, Prime Minister Roman Golovchenko stated that, "to date, all enterprises in the real sector of the economy are operating normally, conveyors are not stopped anywhere."[202]

On 19 August, the OMON forces dispersed the protesters that had gathered in the morning at the entrance to Minsk Tractor Works; two people were detained.[203] 300 employees at the Minsk Tractor Works reportedly lost their jobs for demonstrating. Other workers were locked in the factory to stop them from walking out.[204] The same day, Alexei Petkevich, endoscopist and employee of the Republican Clinical Medical center in Minsk, announced that on 14 August, he resigned his job in protest of the mass beatings of the detained protesters, stating, "I was shocked by what I saw. Our people were humiliated and torn to pieces".[205] Natalya Volvacheva, the headmaster of Polatsk school No. 5, also resigned in protest, saying, "My colleagues have been broken down by threats, turned into criminals, and made hostages of the system".[206]

Over 200 Belarusian sportsmen and sportswomen, sports journalists and employees of the sports sphere (Yelena Leuchanka, Mikalai Kazeka, Volha Mazuronak, Maryna Arzamasava, Aliaksandra Ramanouskaya, Stepan Popov, and many others) signed an open letter to Alexander Lukashenko, where, among other things, demanded that the last presidential election be invalidated, all the persons detained during the protests be released, all the political prisoners be released and rehabilitated, and those responsible for the beatings and "bestial abuses" of the detainees be identified and punished.[207][208] Human Rights Watch noted that most of the protests had been peaceful and described the police round-ups as "systemically brutal."[209] The Belarusian central election committee said that Lukashenko would be inaugurated as president for a new term within the next two months.[210] Lukashenko ordered the police to quell all protests in Minsk and tightened border controls, introduced checks on people entering the TV station, and told all state workers they will lose their jobs if they protest, with workers reportedly being brought in from Russia to replace striking workers.[211] Two pro-Lukashenko rallies were held in Barysaw and Babruisk, both of which also featured police helicopters with the state flag.[212][213][214][215] A third pro-Lukashenko rally was also held in Minsk. Others were held in the towns of Luninets and Staryya Darohi.[216][217]

Most of the staff of Radio Stalitsa of the state-owned National State Television and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus resigned in solidarity with the demonstrators.[218] There currently are no broadcasts on the station except for sports news. A demonstration of hundreds chanting "resign" and "let them out" in the evening outside the Interior Ministry in Minsk was allowed to continue peacefully with no police interference.[219]

Line of protest against violence ("Never again") from Kurapaty memorial to Akrestsina detention center,[220] Minsk, 21 August

On 20 August, Alexander Konyuk, Prosecutor General of Belarus, initiated criminal proceedings against the members of the Coordination Council under Article 361 of the Belarusian Criminal Code, on the grounds of attempting to seize state power and harming national security.[221][222] Council members Sergei Dylevsky and Maxim Znak were summoned for police questioning.[223] Four members of the security forces resigned in solidarity with the demonstrators.[224] Lukashenko has called some of the protesters "Nazis".[225] Another pro-Lukashenko rally was held in Minsk at Independence Square, with another helicopter bearing a state flag flying over the demonstrators.[226] At the same time, a separate rally was also held at the Lenin monument in front of the Government House in Minsk, only to be outnumbered by anti-Lukashenko demonstrators.[227] In response, some pro-Lukashenko demonstrators joined the opposition protest, while others left the rally. Traffic in Minsk was halted by a drivers' strike, honking their horns and abandoning their vehicles in support of protesters.[228] A small group of Lukashenko supporters were seen in Hrodna handing out state flags and other pro-government material to passersby.[229] A pro-government rally was held at a stadium in Slutsk, after which rally attendees approached a solidarity chain formed by opponents of Lukashenko and attempted to snatch Belarusian opposition flags from the protesters.[230]

On 21 August, presidential candidate Hanna Kanapatskaya filed an appeal against the official election result with the Supreme Court of Belarus.[231] French President Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany offered to mediate between the Government of Belarus, the opposition, and civil society.[232][233] Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya held a press conference for the international media in which she said she hoped to return to Belarus when it was safe for her to do so. She urged all countries to respect their sovereignty and called on protesters to step up their strikes despite "intimidation".[225] Chair of the Belarus Athletic Federation, Olympic athlete and former member of the House of Representatives, Vadim Devyatovskiy, posted a message on his Facebook page in which he said "Lukashenko is not my President!!!!!" and stated that his previous support for the regime was a "delusion" and "betrayal".[234][235] The leader of the strike at Minsk automobile plant, Yevgeny Bokhvalov, had been arrested whilst an organizer of the strike at the Belaruskali potash factory in Salihorsk, Dmitry Kudelevich, was detained before escaping through a toilet window and fleeing to Ukraine.[236] The Prime Minister of Albania Edi Rama, chairperson of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), said the group was heading to Minsk to meet with the government and the opposition to look at mediation.[237] A pro-government rally was held in Homel where tractors could be seen with the state flags.[238] A small number of cars could also be seen waving the state flag by Independence Square in Minsk.[239]

On 22 August, the Chairman of the Hrodna Region Executive Committee, Vladimir Kravtsov, was dismissed by Lukashenko and replaced by former health minister Vladimir Karanik.[240] Lukashenko appeared at a pro-government rally in Hrodna later that afternoon.[241] During the rally, Lukashenko called on the military to defend the western border of Belarus, accusing Warsaw and Vilnius of being behind the protests. Lukashenko warned that "this is not only our border, this is the border of the Union State, this is the CSTO border, and the response will be appropriate." He also defended his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, saying "You didn't believe me when I said, 'You don't need to isolate people.' What are Westerners saying now?" Lukashenko called out striking workers from the state-owned Hrodnazhylbud construction company, saying "We will do even without Hrodnazhylbud, we have enough builders in the country", and also called out priests participating in the protests, quoting that "People should come to the temples to pray. Churches...are not for politics." Several journalists were detained at the rally.[242] Opposition supporters organized a woman's march against police violence in Minsk which culminated in a vigil at Independence Square where the assembled crowd was addressed by Maria Kalesnikava and Pavel Latushko.[243] Opposition rallies were also held in Hrodna and Brest.[244]

Rally against Lukashenko. Minsk, 23 August

On 23 August, a rally of approximately 250,000 people dubbed "the march for a new Belarus" began at 14:00 in Minsk and headed towards Independence Square.[245][246] Similar rallies were also organized in other cities and towns across the country. Human chains in solidarity with the Belarusian democracy movement were organized in other countries, including one that stretched from Vilnius to the border with Belarus.[247][248] Military vehicles were seen on the streets of Minsk and roadblocks and checkpoints were established on the main roads leading into the city.[249] The army also assumed responsibility for the protection of statues and monuments from local police forces.[250] The area around the Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum, where protesters had gathered the previous week, was blocked off with barbed wire.[251] It was reported that people were detained by armed officers in military uniform near the museum.[252] The rally later passed the museum where Maria Kalesnikava urged participants to not antagonize security personnel.[253]

External image
Government troopers near residence of Lukashenko in Minsk, 23 August

Later in the afternoon, the rally moved onward toward State Flag Square and the Independence Palace where protesters faced off against security forces who had set up a roadblock.[254][255][256][257] It was reported that Alexander Lukashenko was in residence at the palace.[258][259] There were also reports that a presidential helicopter was seen heading towards the palace[260] and that it had landed in the grounds at 19:05.[261][262] Footage later emerged showing Lukashenko walking near the helicopter, wearing a bullet proof vest and holding an AKS-74U without a magazine[263][264] and then walking around the palace grounds. In the latter footage, Lukashenko was heard saying "Leave me alone," and "There is no one left there, right?". His 15-year-old son, Nikolai, was seen with him dressed in military uniform and holding a gun.[265][266][267] In a third video, he is seen surveying protesters from a helicopter and is heard saying "How the rats ran away" in an apparent reference to the protesters. In a fourth video, Lukashenko was seen removing the former flag of Belarus from a flower bed, waving at security personnel whilst telling them they were "handsome" and referred to protesters, saying "we will deal with them".[268] Large groups of security personnel were later seen heading towards the center of Minsk[269] and military helicopters were seen flying over parts of the city.[270] Authorities asked mobile operators to restrict 3G access to parts of Minsk at around 18:30 local time.[271] The presidential helicopter was seen leaving the palace at about 20:47 and it was unknown if Lukashenko was on board or not.[272] The official representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs claimed that 30,000 people attended pro-government demonstrations in the past day, against 6,100 attending anti-government demonstrations.[273]

On 24 August, presidium members of the Coordination Council, Sergei Dylevsky and Olga Kovalkova were detained by security services when attempting to support striking workers at the Minsk Tractor Works factory.[274][275][276][277] Three other presidium members, Svetlana Alexievich, Liliya Vlasova and Pavel Latushko, were also summoned for questioning.[278] Police appeared to be less tolerant of protests, rallies and strikes, actively breaking up lines of solidarity in Minsk[279] and arresting leaders of strikes at state-owned enterprises.[280] Despite increased police presence, groups of protesters were still able to gather in Independence Square in Minsk, where they shouted "Leave!"[281][282], and also in Hrodna and in Brest.[283][284][285] Alexander Lukashenko issued a statement in which he threatened dismissal for school teachers who do not follow "state ideology".[286] An employee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was fired after he had attended an anti-Lukashenko rally the previous week with another Ministry employee.[287] The Government of Lithuania handed a note of protest to the Belarusian ambassador in Vilnius accusing the Belarusian armed forces of violating Lithuanian airspace by as much as 3 km the previous day.[288][289] Belarus claimed that its air force was attempting to prevent balloons depicting the former white-red-white flag of Belarus, which was described as an "anti-state symbol", from crossing the border.[290]

25 August marked the 29th anniversary of the declaration of independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union and the re-adoption of the white-red-white flag. Olga Kovalkova appeared in court via video link on charges of illegally organizing a strike[291] and Pavel Latushko presented himself to the KGB for questioning. Both Kovalkova and Sergei Dylevsky were sentenced to 10 days imprisonment.[292][293][294][295] A group of teachers organized a protest outside the headquarters of the education ministry in Minsk in relation to possible dismissals for teachers who supported opposition protests or refused to promote state ideology.[296] In the early evening, a rally was held in Independence Square in Minsk, which was addressed by some of the members of the Supreme Council session that declared Belarus an independent state in 1991.[297][298] A pro-Lukashenko demonstration, dubbed "Belarus is Lukashenko", was also held in Minsk. During the demonstration, anti-Lukashenko protesters were described as "Satanists" and told to "go to Hell", some participants mocked journalists covering the event and waved Russian flags.[299][300] An employee of the Belarusian embassy in India was fired after declaring his support for the protests.[301]

Demonstration against Lukashenko in front of the Belarus Embassy in Moscow, Russia, 23 August

On 26 August, residents began recall proceedings against at least 20 members of the House of Representatives.[302] Coordination Council member and Nobel Prize laureate Svetlana Alexievich was summoned for interrogation but refused to answer any questions and was subsequently released.[303] The home of opposition figure Valery Tsepkalo was raided by police.[304] A group of about 500 employees of BelAZ marched from their place of work to the center of Zhodzina.[305] By late evening, a group of anti-Lukashenko demonstrators had gathered on Independence Square in Minsk.[306][307] At around 20:30, security forces began to disperse the crowd, encircling demonstrators and detaining several people.[307][308][309] At the same time, mobile internet was turned off in Minsk at the request of the authorities.[310] Security forces locked the doors of the Saints Simon and Helena Roman Catholic church trapping around 100 people inside.[311] The Catholic Auxiliary Bishop of Minsk-Mahiliou, Yury Kasabutsky, protested against the actions of the security forces, calling them illegal.[312]

On 27 August, Alexander Lukashenko asked the Russian government to raise a reserve force for deployment to Belarus if necessary.[313] The Government of Belarus declined an offer from the heads of the governments of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to visit Minsk to help mediate between the government and the opposition.[314] In the afternoon, around 20 journalists, from both local and international media, were detained on Freedom Square in Minsk.[315][316] They were taken to the Kastrychnitski district police, supposedly to check their identity and accreditation.[317] Later that day, a group of Christians carrying Bibles had gathered outside the Saints Simon and Helena Roman Catholic Church on Independence Square, Minsk in protest of the desecration of the church by the security services that had occurred the previous day.[318] The entrance to the church was blocked by security forces to prevent people from entering or leaving the church. A crowd of demonstrators later formed on Independence Square outside the church which was surrounded by the security forces. Women and children were allowed to leave the square but men were prevented from doing so. At least 150 people were detained.[319][320] Many of the people who were dispersed from the demonstration on Independence Square continued to march through the city, singing religious songs and chanting anti-government slogans.[321] A pro-Lukashenko rally was held in front of the Belarus supermarket in Minsk, but it was ended abruptly by rain.[322]

On 28 August, anti-Lukashenko demonstrators again gathered on Independence Square in Minsk.[323] The demonstration was broken up by security forces, which had encircled the square.[324] Male demonstrators were rounded up and placed into police vans and taken away for questioning.[325][326] Female demonstrators were allowed to leave the square. Security forces broke up an anti-Lukashenko rally on Pushkin Street in Minsk.[327] Access to several anti-government websites was blocked.[328] A pro-Lukashenko bike ride was held in Minsk led by Alexander Lukashenko's son Viktor Lukashenko.[329]

"Women's march" against Lukashenko. Minsk, 29 August

On 29 August, a pro-government rally and an anti-government bikers rally took place in Minsk.[330][331][332] Barriers were installed around the Independence Palace, Victory Square and October Square in Minsk[333][334] and buses with their windows blacked out were seen around Freedom Square in the city.[335] Unidentified vehicles with Russian number plates were seen driving around Minsk.[336] A woman's solidarity march, numbering approximately five thousand people, began on Independence Avenue at 16:00 and headed towards Independence Square.[337][338] Riot police attempted to block its progress, but the march was able to pass. By 19:00, the rally had grown at approximately fifteen thousand people and was heading towards Bangalore Square, again overpowering security forces that tried to block its progress.[337][339][340][341] At least two journalists from Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and one journalist from TUT.BY were detained at this rally.[342] An anti-Lukashenko demonstration was also held in Brest.[343] Solidarity demonstrations took place in Jerusalem[344] and in Frankfurt.[345]

Rally against Lukashenko. Minsk, 30 August
Soldiers behind barbed wire. Minsk, 30 August

30 August marked Alexander Lukashenko's 66th birthday and a program of national celebrations had been planned by the government, public authorities and his supporters. Russian President Vladimir Putin called Lukashenko to offer birthday greetings and the two agreed to meet in Moscow in the coming weeks.[346] Independent media sources reported a large buildup of military vehicles and security personnel around Minsk with access to public squares being fenced off and roads being blocked.[347][348][349] Lukashenko's opponents had planned a series of events and rallies culminating in a "March for Peace and Independence" which was to proceed down Independence Avenue to Independence Square and then onward to the Independence Palace. Similar rallies were also planned to take place in regional capitals where opponents were asked to gather at regional administrative headquarters.[349] Opponents of Lukashenko were asked to bring appropriate birthday gifts and to leave these at Lukashenko's official residences around the country.[348][349] Responding to this call, a group of women dressed in traditional costumes brought pumpkins to the government house, a sign of rejection in Belarusian culture.[350] At around 14:00, local time, reports emerged of security forces arbitrarily detaining people and placing them into police vans.[351][352] At approximately 14:50 it was reported that demonstrators had managed to breach a police line across the Independence Avenue, forcing security forces to retreat further down the street.[353] Rumors began to circulate on the Telegram platform that internet access would be stopped across Minsk at 15:00.[354][355] At about 15:30, the main rally had reached the Great Patriotic War Museum which was guarded by security forces.[356][357] The rally continued to move towards State Flag Square and the Independence Palace where security forces had set up a roadblock.[358][359][360] At 16:30, there were reports of "tanks" moving through the streets of Minsk (which later turned out to be several BTR-80 military vehicles).[361][362][348] Shortly before 17:00, three members of the presidium of the Coordination Council and several Belarusian Olympic athletes had appeared at the police line in front of the Independence Palace.[363] Security forces warned the crowd to disperse or be subject to the use of force.[364] Rather than dispersing, the demonstrators began to place "gifts", such as cardboard cutouts of cockroaches, police vans, helicopters and white slippers for Lukashenko in front of the police line.[365] By 19:00, most of the crowd had moved back towards the city center, partly due to a hailstorm that had broken out.[366] Crowds continued to remain at State Flag Square, outside the Castle shopping mall and in the streets around the city center, where people continued to chant anti-Lukashenko slogans.[367] When questioned about the whereabouts of Alexander Lukashenko, his publicity team released a photograph of him walking around the grounds of the Independence Palace holding a gun (presumably from his "standoff" a week earlier).[368] By mid-afternoon, demonstrations were also taking place in Homel,[369] Brest,[370][371] Hrodna,[372] Viciebsk,[373] Mahiliou and several other towns and cities.[349] Riot police detained a number of demonstrators in Hrodna.[349]

On 31 August, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya was invited to address the United Nations Security Council.[374] The Metropolitan Archbishop of Minsk and Mahiliou and head of the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus, Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, was prevented from entering the country after visiting Poland, despite being a Belarusian citizen.[375] Metropolitan Kondrusiewicz had earlier stated that he believed the presidential election had been dishonest.[376] Coordination Council presidium member Liliya Vlasova was detained by the Department of Internal Affairs on unknown charges.[377] The Belarusian ambassador for Spain was removed from his post after saying that the votes from the presidential election should be recounted and that "open court hearings" should proceed against police officers accused of excessive force and torture.[378]

September

On 1 September, Knowledge Day in Belarus and Russia when most scholar institutions opened, several streets in downtown Minsk were blocked by protesters,[379] and over a thousand students from various institutions gathered on major streets rallying towards the Independence Palace. Upon being refused entry by the military, students turned around and occupied the Independence Square.[380] Two Euroradio journalists were detained on the spot.[381] At least 20 students were detained by early afternoon in Minsk, charged with "organizing unsanctioned protests and rallies". Only a few were released hours later.[382] In Mahiliou and Kalinkavichy, local protest leaders were detained by riot police.[383] In a meeting with his supporters in Baranavichy, Alexander Lukashenko explained that the catholic bishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz was refused entry into Belarus due to "being tasked with certain things there".[384] He reassured the people that Belarus would hinder sanctions from Baltic countries and mentioned the closure of borders in Brest and Hrodna as a potential counteract to the sanctions.[385]

On 2 September, the journalists detained the previous day were tried and fined in accordance with the administrative code of Belarus. That decision was met with crowds in solidarity with the journalists outside the State courthouse.[386] The remaining three members of the Coordination Council were brought up for questioning.[386] Over a thousand railroad workers wrote a direct address to their corporation, asking for another election to be held and Lukashenko ousted from his presidential position. Ignoring contract termination warnings, some of them also went on strike that day.[386] A similar address came out of the Hrodna meat-processing factory, where over 800 workers signed a letter of protest directed at Lukashenko.[387]

The Belarus State University Lyceum published a statement on their website condemning violence, injustice and electoral fraud coming from Lukashenko's government. They also urged major institutions to close and go on strike, suggesting that "they cannot arrest all of us, most of us".[388] The Mozyr Oil Refinery director decided to close its main building after receiving a letter signed by 1,200 personnel concerned about police brutality in the region. The same address also had similar goals brought up, including re-election and Lukashenko's resignation.[389] Sergey Lavrov, Russia's foreign minister, held a meeting with his Belarusian counterpart, Vladimir Makei, where they discussed the current situation in Belarus. Lavrov urged Ukraine to investigate the presence of 200 trained extremists currently found in Belarus and allegedly sent there by the Ukrainian government.[390] Dmitry Kuleba, the Ukrainian foreign minister, retorted by calling this statement "a fruit of psychological delirium" and affirmed that Ukraine had no current implication in Belarusian affairs, nor a planned one, unlike the Russian government.[391] The Catholic Synod of Eastern Europe released a statement calling the entry denial of archbishop Kondrusiewicz "unacceptable" and asked the European Human Rights Board to intervene.[391] One of the members of Coordination Council, Pavel Latushko, who was brought for questioning in the morning, later tweeted to have left the country for Poland. He planned to visit the economic forum in Warsaw, then to fly to Vilnius to speak with the Internal Ministry of Lithuania about what to do next.[392]

According to Mikita Mikado, a co-founder of startup IT company PandaDoc, their Minsk offices were raided and stormed by police the same day after one of the servers had been leaking inside data about protest organization despite internet censorship by the government.[393] In response to this, company workers formed a chain of solidarity outside the building, singing Belarusian songs. The two founders as well as two programmers were detained following these events. In downtown Minsk around 17:00, young women and men formed chains while dressed in white, bearing flowers and anti-Lukashenko posters. The crowd did not rally this time; however, they stood for two hours, then shouted "Thank you!" to nearby riot patrols for not interfering. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 128 individuals were detained on 1 September, with 95 being charged with administrative misconduct, while 39 were sentenced to different terms of imprisonment.[394]

On 3 September, at the makeshift memorial near the site of the death of Alexander Taraikovsky near the Pushkinskaya metro station, utilities, under the supervision of police officers in civilian clothes, covered the inscription "We will not forget" with salt and removed all the flowers put there by civilians the previous night. Residents of the area almost immediately began to rake, sweep and collect salt in garbage bags, ignoring the police. People were also seen bringing flowers to the memorial again. By 4:00 pm, all the salt was removed, and the area with the inscription was washed.[395][396] A TUT.BY photojournalist, Vadim Zamirovsky, was detained when he returned to the memorial twice after being asked to leave by police.[397] Sergey Dylevsky was sentenced to 15 days of imprisonment. Latvian Prime Minister Krišjānis Kariņš announced that, at a government meeting, a letter was addressed to the International Ice Hockey Federation with an appeal to move the 2021 IIHF World Championship from Belarus to another country.[398] More than 50 employees of independent media (BelaPAN, TUT.BY, Komsomolskaya Pravda v Belarusi, Tribuna, Onliner, Euroradio, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and others) came to the building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to express solidarity with the detained colleagues. Despite their requests the Minister Yuri Karaev did not come out, and neither did his deputy. At the request of law enforcement officers, the journalists crossed the street and marched down the Haradzki Val. Soon thereafter, law enforcement officers in civilian clothes detained a TUT.BY photographer, Dmitry Brushko, taking him to the Kastrychnitski district police department.[399]

On 4 September, the Kastrychnitski District court held trials against journalists from Komsomolskaya Pravda v Belarusi, BelaPAN and TUT.BY. All six correspondents were found guilty and sentenced to three days of imprisonment.[400] The Belarusian Association of Journalists protested against the arrests and court indictments against journalists, putting forward demands to end the violation of the rights of journalists and the media, stop physical violence against journalists and peaceful protesters, and revise court decisions by punishing those who obstructed journalist activities.[401] A number of MSLU students were detained after performing a song from the musical "Les Misérables" in the lobby of their educational institution.[402][403] The staff of the Museum of History of Mahiliou wrote an open appeal to Belarusian executive and legislative authorities, demanding the resignation of Alexander Lukashenko and announcing their readiness to go on strike.[404] The state TV channel ONT published a news item stating the Belarusian Electronic Warfare Directorate purportedly intercepted a conversation between Warsaw and Berlin. According to the ONT report, the poisoning of Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny was closely connected with the ongoing events in Belarus. The alleged purpose of the poisoning, according to the ONT report, is to distract President Putin from the events in Belarus and turn his attention to internal problems in Russia. Germany denied the existence of this conversation.[405][406] These claims mirror Lukashenko's statements from a day earlier, when, at a meeting with the Russian Prime Minister, Mikhail Mishustin, he said that there was no poisoning of Navalny, that it was a falsification, and that some "interesting conversation" had been sent to the Russian FSB.[407][408]

On 5 September, a solidarity rally was organized by students near the "October" movie theater in Minsk. Minutes later, people in civilian clothes began to detain the protesters.[409] Around 15:00, hundreds of women gathered near the Kamarouski marketplace for the "March For Peace" rally. They walked in a column along Vera Kharuzhaya Street and Independence Avenue towards Independence Square. At 18:00, part of the protesters marched in circle through Niamiha Street and returned to Independence Square. The riot police's attempts at obstructing the march were unsuccessful. The end of the rally almost coincided in time with the beginning of the evening service in the Church of Saints Simon and Helena dedicated to the people who suffered at the protests on Independence Square. According to Belarusian journalists, about 10,000 people took part in the action.[410][411] Four PandaDoc employees who were detained on 2 September were sentenced to two months of imprisonment. The company called this an act of revenge for supporting the police officers who had voluntarily quit the service and announced termination of its work in Belarus.[412] The press service of the Coordination Council announced the departure of Olga Kovalkova to Poland. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine announced the suspension of official contacts with Belarus.[413] According to the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs, on 5 September, 91 citizens were detained for "participating in unauthorized mass events". 34 detainees were placed into custody for considerable administrative offenses, awaiting the court's decision.[414]

"March of Unity" near the Minsk Hero City Obelisk. Minsk, 6 September
"March of Unity" near the Palace of Independence. Minsk, 6 September

On 6 September, a "March of Unity" took place in Minsk and all major regional centers. According to Nasha Niva, around 6,000 people took part in the protests in Homel, 4,000 in Hrodna, 3,000 in Brest, Viciebsk, and Mahiliou. The protest in Minsk was reported to have up to 200,000 participants.[415][416] About the same number of protesters confirmed their participation on the online platform "Golos".[417] Columns of military and special equipment (including armored personnel carriers) with UAZ trailers were unwinding barbed wire around Independence Square in Minsk.[418] The Independence and Victory Squares were closed in advance and surrounded by metal barriers while Kastrychnitskaya Square, the area around the Hero City of Minsk monument, as well as the Palace of Independence, were occupied by water trucks wielding Rubezh anti-riot barriers. At 14:35, mobile internet of the A1 operator was disconnected. Users of other mobile operators also reported internet lockup.[419] In the afternoon, six metro stations were closed.[420]

Throughout the city riot policemen attempted to disperse the columns of protesters from within residential districts to prevent protesters from reaching the center. Violent detentions with beatings were observed near the metro stations "Pushkinskaya" and "Uskhod" and near the supermarket "Rublevsky" on Chabatarou Street. However, protesters still managed to get together and march along Victors Avenue toward the Independence Palace.[421] Once there, protesters held a demonstration for over an hour and a half, until a police warning was issued sometime after 18:00 to disperse, or be subject to detention. The remaining crowd who did not want to leave was forced into Victory Park and near Lake Kamsamolskaye by OMON. Protesters showing resistance were pulled back through the police line and put in detention vans. Women were only detained, but men were beaten, including those who did not show violence or resistance. A number of detainees were overpowered and beaten by people in civilian clothes wearing bulletproof vests and armed with batons. Their excessive aggression was purportedly overlooked by police.[422] Fleeing detention, remaining protesters dispersed into a wooded area of the park. Some of the protesters tried to save themselves by jumping into the lake and were subsequently rescued by the local safety volunteers who transported them to the other side. A Russian blogger and journalist, Alexei Romanov, was among them at that time. He was detained and taken to Akrestsina. Two hours later, police released him, as well as other Russian citizens.[423][424]

In the evening, rescuers who helped protesters out of the water were detained as well. At least eight employees of the station of the water rescue organization located on Lake Kamsamolskaye were taken to the Central District Department in Minsk. Later, one of the rescuers wound up in an ambulance with a dislocated shoulder. The other was almost unconscious. Another elderly rescuer had cardiovascular issues. According to relatives, the head of OSVOD rescue station, Denis Cheshun, was driven to Akrestsina. All the rescuers were charged with disobedience, as apparently they did not hand over people to riot police.[425][426] During the protests in Minsk, several people took refuge in the O'Petit coffee shop on Niamiha Street, locking all the doors from the inside. Soon, about ten law enforcement officers in civilian clothes, including Nikolai Karpenkov, head of the Lead Department of Organized Crime Prevention, approached the café and Karpenkov personally broke a glass door with a truncheon. This was the first time in 29 days of protests when damage was done to a public property.[427][428] According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 633 people were detained that day, with 363 detainees placed under custody awaiting trials for administrative offenses. A total of 42 protest actions were recorded in various settlements of the country, and the total number of 31,000 people participated in the protests across the country.[429][430]

On 7 September, Maria Kalesnikava was abducted in Minsk: masked men kidnapped her and drove off in a van. The officials denied the accusations of abduction.[431] The following day, it was reported by Belarusian officials that Maria Kalesnikava was detained at the border with Ukraine while trying to enter the country with two of her associates, Anton Rodnenkov and Ivan Kravtsov. In a further press-conference in Kyiv, Rodenkov and Kravtsov reported that Kalesnikava was abducted by Belarusian security forces and was forced to leave Belarus in Kravtsov's car, which she eventually avoided by tearing her passport apart and timely leaving the car through a window. Reportedly, in the aftermath, Kalesnikava was taken to a border troop installation in Mazyr.[432][433][434] The news was met with another protest by the end of the day in Minsk. People organized a solidarity rally near Kamarouski market and about a thousand protesters marched on Vera Kharuzhaya and Kuibyshau streets. Sometime between 18:00 and 20:00 the crowd gathered on Victors Avenue, demanding a reaction to the recent events. The head of the Savetski Detention Facility came towards the crowd, who swarmed him with questions about recent detainees until he was overwhelmed and no longer able to answer. Police officers with OMON equipment quickly intervened, detaining, beating and using tear gas against the protesters. Ten unmarked police vans were spotted on the premises when the protest ended; 56 people were reported to have been detained.[435][436][437][438]

On 9 September, Tsikhanouskaya recorded a video in which she addressed the Russian people, thanking them for their support and solidarity.[439][440] The remaining two members of the Belarusian opposition's Coordination Council, Maxim Znak and Ilya Saley, were detained the same day. Znak was arrested in Minsk by masked men. He had previously worked as a lawyer for imprisoned Belarusian presidential candidate Viktar Babaryka.[441] Saley, also a lawyer, was the executive secretary of the council.[442] There were other attempts to constrain the freedom of lawyers representing Belarusian protesters in criminal and administrative proceedings. As of 9 September Maria Kalesnikava remains in police custody on Valadarskaya St, awaiting trial.[443] Svetlana Alexievich alerted the press that "men in black masks" were trying to enter her apartment in central Minsk. Diplomats from Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Sweden began to keep a round-the-clock watch on Alexievich's home to prevent her abduction by security services.[444][445]

On 10 September, a law was passed by the Lithuanian Parliament to recognize Tsikhanouskaya as the "elected leader of the people of Belarus" and the Coordination Council as the "only legitimate representatives of the Belarusian people". The resolution also declares that Lukashenko is an "illegitimate leader".[446] One of the miners of Belaruskali in Salihorsk, a 42-year-old Yuri Korzun, protested at his workplace and refused to rise from the shaft at a depth of 305 metres (1,001 ft) in the first mine. His colleagues rose to the surface and began a rally in his support, holding a poster saying "We will not allow the regime to revive fascism". As the representative of the strike committee explained, Yuri did not leave the mine after the night, handcuffing himself as to hinder the attempts to carry him to the surface. He notified the general director of the enterprise in writing about the start of the protest, where he also said that the latter was exerting direct pressure on the staff. An emergency response plan was introduced at the mine.[447] Later, employees of Belaruskali learned that Yuri Korzun was forcibly released and taken out of the mine, after which he was sent by ambulance to the emergency room of the Salihorsk Central Regional Hospital. Therefore, the miner's colleagues moved in a column from the mine towards the hospital.[448]

On 11 September, the 38th birthday of Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, she and Olga Kovalkova recorded a joint video message for Belarusians calling to support the Coordination Council and to become its members, if possible.[449] Detentions took place in different cities of Belarus in the morning. People began to gather near the Minsk Regional Court to support the representatives of the strike committee of Belaruskali, against which the management of the enterprise filed a lawsuit. When tikhari and unmarked security forces approached the protesters, one woman tore off the mask from one of the tikhar's face, resulting in the security forces pushing her into a minibus without license plates and identification marks. After that, at least 6 more women were detained. In Viciebsk, Dmitry Kazakevich, a journalist working for Belsat, was detained while filming. He was charged with "disrupting the order of mass activities" of the administrative code. Near the Homel Sukhoi State Technical University, a computer science teacher Vadim Belsky was detained and transported to the Savetski district department of internal affairs. Freelance journalist Andrei Tolchin was also detained in Homel while cooperating with Belsat.[450] Students of the University came out onto the porch with solidarity banners in support of detained Belsky. Similar actions took place in BSUIR, BSU, BSUE, MSLU, GrSU, and other universities of the country. Students formed chains of solidarity and organized local marches. On Leanid Beda Street in Minsk, several people came out in support of PandaDoc, whose accounts were frozen earlier this day, leaving employees penniless.[451] Actress Liya Akhedzhakova recorded a video message in support of the Belarusian people. "Like all my friends, I admire and, with all my heart, support those people who took to the streets of Belarusian cities", she said.[452] During the women's solidarity rally, on Independence Square near the St. Helena Church several women were detained. In the microdistrict Shabany, a chain of solidarity was dispersed, and at least 10 people were detained.[453][454] According to U.S. First Deputy Secretary of State Stephen Bigan, America does not recognize Lukashenko's legitimacy as president since it conflicts with the Helsinki Final Act and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. He also spoke about the opposition's right to demand new elections through protest actions.[455]

Nina Baginskaya in front of the police

On 12 September, at 15:00, women's marches began throughout the country. In Minsk, it started with between 500 and 1000 people gathering on Freedom Square, including opposition figure Nina Baginskaya. After police tried to detain her, protesters shouted "Nina! Nina!" and fought over her while other activists attempted to tear off the masks of police officers. As a result of clashes, 69 people were detained in police vans (according to Viasna human rights center). Nevertheless, the women managed to rally from Freedom Square to Academy of Sciences metro station, wherein they crossed the Independence Square and soon went back towards Freedom Square. At about 5:30 pm, the protesters began to disperse with the words "See you tomorrow!". More than 10,000 women took part in the event.[456] Part of the protesters continued their riot at the metro station "Victory Square". Girls shouted opposition slogans at the train conductors who greeted them with honks. Belsat journalists Yekaterina Andreeva and Maksim Kalitovsky, who initially covered this story, were detained later in the evening while police confiscated their equipment. Two hours later, both were put under arrest awaiting trial on Tuesday for "obstructing police duty" and transported to Akrestina prison.[457]

Cyber threats of economic action

On the same evening, a message appeared on the Cyber-Partizan Telegram channel, which read: "If at least one protester is detained on September 13, 2020, Belarus will forget the word 'taxes' until arrests stop and Lukashenko leaves his post". Another message addressed Lukashenko directly: "Alexander Grigorievich, we are addressing you personally: It will be very painful, first the tax system will go down, then the electricity in the country will end, then the banking system will go down ... Do you need it? You care so much about your surroundings ... no problem, we can kill the ruble and start blocking the accounts of your close friends. September 13 is the last chance to change your mind. And one more thing: tomorrow you must personally leave the Palace of Independence with a loudspeaker and apologize to the Belarusian people". The self-proclaimed guerrilla society Cyber-Partizan has already taken responsibility for hacking the websites of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Office of the President, Belarusian Lotteries and a number of others, while handing over to the NEXTA administrators databases of employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, OMON and KGB.[458]

"Heroes March" in Minsk, 13 September 2020

On 13 September, the "Heroes March" rally took place in Minsk. Police presence at major city arteries was felt in the morning, aided by OMON military carriers and unmarked personnel. Any bystanders met with opposition symbols were hastily detained. A large police van accidentally ran into a passenger car and drew attention to itself. Reinforced cordons were placed at exits from metro stations, streets and lanes in the central area of the city.[459] The first column of protesters was contained by police, who attempted once more to break crowds at their formation in residential areas. Individuals trying to break police cordons were severely beaten and then detained. Residents of Malinauka, Maskouski and other districts decided to amass at metro station "Hrushauka" in an attempt to lure police in while the initial column moved towards the center. Around Renaissance Hotel, protesters were met with another police barrier, this time followed by military personnel in carriers who issued a warning to open fire. A crowd of women came forward and stood in a chain in hopes to persuade OMON, but officers indifferently beat up protesters of both sexes.[460] Seeing how the forces blocked off central districts of the capital, some of the protesters decided to get to the city center by public transport and thus succeeded in occupying Niamiha Street by the early afternoon. The majority of them decided to go to Independence Avenue through Zybitskaya St, but pro-government provocateurs from within the crowd gave false direction in hopes of splitting the crowd. As result, the crowd has initially split on Victors Avenue until a larger rally came from Drazdy, forcing police to use truncheons, rubber bullets and flash-bang grenades to stop them.[461] With mass detentions being carried out at that time, some protesters tried to help detainees free themselves from police. In response, an undercover "tikhar" fired a warning shot into the air using a pump-action shotgun, making people retreat in fear.[462] In the evening, withdrawing columns once again marched on Victors Ave through Drozdy. Some of them stood near the makeshift memorial at the site of the death of Alexander Taraikovsky until chased off by incoming police.[463][464] 10 metro stations were closed on Sunday from 14:30 until 19:00. Mobile internet was shut off for about the same period of time, as usual. After 17:00, when protests started to fade, traffic police motorcyclists drove at full speed into the barbed wire ("Yegoza" engineering barriers) which was stretched at the intersection of Victors Avenue and Timiryazev Street. The wire broke and wrapped around a bystanding woman. An ambulance was called. With the help of citizens and security officials, the woman was untangled and handed over to doctors.[465][466] Witness estimates round the number of Sunday protesters in Minsk up to 200,000, the same as a week earlier.[467]

The "Heroes March" also took place in the cities of Brest, Babruisk, Viciebsk, Homel, Hrodna, Zhodzina, Kobrin, Lida, Mahiliou, Navapolatsk, Pinsk, Polatsk, and others. In many of them, harsh reaction from law enforcement officials towards the opposition was noted, including violence towards girls and women. In Brest, protesters were dispersed with a water cannon.[468] In Zhodzina, while protesters were shouting "Police with the people!" an unknown major hit a woman in the face after she approached him closely. Another woman rushed to help the victim whom he seized and threw to the ground. In retaliation, several protesters formed a human fence around the officer refusing to let him go, until his colleague pushed people away and snatched him.[469] In Navapolatsk, near the children toy market, security forces made an attempt to lock the protesters in a single alley area while awaiting reinforcements. However, an angry mob launched an attack on outnumbered police who hurriedly retreated into minibuses and immediately left. According to the Internal Affairs Directorate of the Viciebsk Regional Executive Committee, seven people were detained in Polatsk and Navapolatsk during "unauthorized mass events".[470] In Hrodna, a man in a white-red-white shirt, fleeing from the security forces, jumped into the Neman river and swam across it to escape persecution. He ended up exhausted on the other side where random passerby helped him get out of the water onto the riverbank.[471] According to the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs, on 13 September, 774 people were detained "for participating in unauthorized mass events". More than 500 protesters in Minsk and another 554 across the country were placed in temporary detention facilities.[472]

On 14 September, information transpired about the number of protesters currently detained in Akrestsina Prison in Minsk. As of Saturday, 109 out of 110 bed bunks were occupied. According to the head of the facility, Yevgeny Shapetko, that number was exceeded with last Sunday's detainees, expanding the allowed sanitary and other capacities beyond those expected.[473] Prior to Putin's and Lukashenko's meeting in Sochi, Bloomberg L.P. released an editorial based on five Kremlin sources according to whom the Russian president does not believe Belarusian protests to have any effect on the current government. In scope of further events, Putin assured the press that Moscow will do whatever it takes to keep the currently established regime in Belarus, and to prevent the opposition from assuming power. At the same time, Putin expressed concern about the number of people demanding Lukashenko's immediate resignation.[474] The encounter of both heads of state took place at Bocharov Ruchey residence, the result of which was Russia granting Belarus a loan of US$1.5 billion. In return Lukashenko announced plans to make a statement to the CSTO and EAEU about the events in Belarus after the elections, and also promised Vladimir Putin to inform him in detail about the protests in Minsk during the talks. According to the TASS news agency, French President Emmanuel Macron also held talks with Vladimir Putin, with both leaders expressing their interest in the normalisation of the situation in Belarus.[475]

In Minsk State Linguistic University, an access control scheme was introduced. The administration insisted that, from now on, employees of the Security Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs will be guarding the educational institution, and that a corresponding agreement has been concluded. "In the near future, the video surveillance system will also be expanded and strengthened throughout the MSLU" the administration said. At the same time, an open video message from teachers of the Faculty of Philology of BSU appeared on the network, in which they supported students in their right to express their own opinion and freedom of choice. Students and professors of leading Belarusian universities carried out solidarity actions in response. Doctors of the Minsk 9th hospital and employees of the Academy of Sciences protested and demanded the release of their colleagues, who were detained on Sunday march. In many districts of Minsk, people lined up in chains of solidarity. Near the Red Church, security forces detained three girls who were sitting and holding blank sheets of A4 white or red paper. Sports journalist Sergei Shchurko was also detained. According to his wife, Sergei stopped communicating after 13:00, saying that police officers were going to talk to him. Later it became known that the journalist was being held on an administrative case in Akrestsina prison.[476]

On the same day, Russo-Belarusian military exercises began at the Brestsky training ground under the codename "Slavic Brotherhood-2020". They were expected to last until 25 September. Overall, about 300 servicemen and about 70 units of military and special equipment from Russia took part in the exercise, mostly consisting of the 76th Guards Airborne Assault Division. The Russian Ministry of Defense stressed that after completion of these exercises, Russian servicemen would return home. Initially, Serbian armed forces were supposed to take part in the drill, but Serbian Defence Minister Aleksandar Vulin clarified that the operation was cancelled and troops were called home under the pressure of the European Union.[477]

Amnesty International launched a petition to protect peaceful protesters in Belarus and stop police brutality against them stating, "Hundreds of thousands of Belarusian people have taken to the streets across the country to protest electoral violations, police brutality and severe reprisals against peaceful dissent; demanding truth, justice and accountability for the perpetrators. The protests are being met with brutal and indiscriminate force by police."[478]

On 17 September, the European Parliament recognised the Coordination Council as the "interim representative of the people" of Belarus.[479]

On 18 September, an allegedly politically motivated self-immolation attempt occurred near a police station in Smaliavichy.[480][481]

On 19 September about 2,000 people, most of them women, joined Saturday's Women's march in Minsk.[482][483] The Belarusian Interior Ministry said that 415 protesters were detained during the March, around 390 of them were women. The authorities claim they released 385 detainees later the same night.[484][485]

Leaks of personal data of state police officers

On 19 September, Telegram channel NEXTA Live leaked the personal data of more than 1,000 Belarusian police officers in retaliation for a growing crackdown against demonstrators. The Google document contained a list of 1,003 names of officers as well as their birthdates, ranks, places of work and hometowns. Separately, NEXTA released seven entries containing personal information, including addresses and phone numbers, belonging to members of the special anti-terror unit of the interior ministry.

"If detentions continue, we will continue to publish data on a massive scale," NEXTA said, alongside the Telegram message. NEXTA Live said the information came from anonymous hackers they called "cyber partisans". "No one will remain anonymous even under a balaclava," it said.[486]

Anti-Lukashenko protest rally. Minsk, 20 September

On 20 September, about 100,000 people gathered in Minsk. Hundreds of soldiers blocked off the center of Minsk, deploying water cannons and armoured personnel carriers and erecting barbed wire barriers. Protests also took place in several other Belarusian cities, including Brest and Hrodna.[488][489] The Belarusian Interior Ministry said that 442 people were detained for violating the law on mass events in Belarus, including 266 of them in Minsk.[490][491]

On 23 September, Alexander Lukashenko was sworn in as President of Belarus for the next term in a brief, unannounced inauguration ceremony in Minsk.[492][65] Several countries' Foreign Ministers have declared that they do not consider this inauguration legitimate, including Lithuania,[493] Poland,[494] Germany,[495] Estonia,[496] the United Kingdom,[497] and others.[498][499][500][501]

Following Lukashenko's inauguration, mass opposition protests broke out in Minsk. The protesters used more confrontational tactics than before, blocking roads and chasing police vehicles away. The police deployed water cannons to disperse the protesters, with BBC stating, "the masked riot police used tactics that haven't been seen since the violent days immediately after the disputed election in August."[502][503]

On 25 September, a children's show on the state-owned Belarus 3 TV network allegedly took a swipe at Lukashenko by telling the tale of a teddy bear assuming the throne, not wanting to let go of power and constantly asking for pie, and eventually losing power to a fox.[504][505]

Anti-Lukashenko protest rally. Minsk, 27 September

On 27 September, another rally of more than 100,000 protestors named "March of 97%" was organized in Minsk in support of Tsikhanouskaya.[506][507][508] Overall, 393 people were detained.[509]

On 29 September, Tsikhanouskaya met with president Emmanuel Macron in Vilnius, where they discussed the overall situation in Belarus, Russia's involvement, as well as possible ways to resolve the crisis.[510] Two people involved in the 19 June police resistance incident which occurred during a chain of solidarity dispersal attempt in Maladzyechna were sentenced to 3 years and 3 months of imprisonment.[511] In Homel, the wife of a local activist, Natalia, was detained after her husband had been convicted of participating in the "March of 97%" on 27 September, and their children were put in foster care, which, according to Natalia, who herself had nothing to do with the protest, was a tactic employed by the local police to prevent people from organizing more protests out of fear for the safety of their relatives.[512]

October

On 1 October, the TUT.BY news agency was stripped of its official media license for 3 months by the Ministry of Information under the pretext of receiving 4 warnings for publication of the protest-related articles.[513] The TUT.BY chief editor, Marina Zolotova, stated that this move was expected and was primarily targeted to preventing TUT.BY journalists from lawfully reporting the protests.[514]

On 2 October, a meeting took place between representatives of Ministry of Internal Affairs and other state bodies with the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Belarus, Joanna Kazana-Wisniowiecki, who expressed concern about the excessive use of force by law enforcement officers during the suppression of the protests and detentions of journalists covering the rallies. Kazana-Wisniowiecki emphasized the lack of information about the investigation of the unlawful actions of the Ministry's employees. The First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief of Criminal Police, Gennady Kazakevich, denied all such facts and stated that every complaint about violence of law enforcement officers, including torture, were being looked into by the Investigation Committee. However, no details about the ongoing investigation were ever revealed.[515]

On 3 October, a women's rally took place in Minsk, called "Bright Saturday" (which is also a wordplay on Tsikhanouskaya's given name, since "Sviatlana" is derived from "svietly" (Belarusian: свeтлы), meaning "bright"). The rally lasted for two hours.[516] Although female protesters deliberately decided not to wear white-red-white clothes and not to show such symbols, bringing with them only flowers and cardboard posters, the riot police and "tikhari" were still present, and some detentions still took place.[517] A group of motorcyclists was detained near the Kuntsaushchyna metro station while a passenger on a passing trolleybus tried to support them and was also detained immediately thereafter.[518]

Anti-Lukashenko protest rally. Minsk, 4 October
Anti-Lukashenko protest rally. Minsk, 4 October

On 4 October, the "March For Liberation" took place in Minsk with the protesters marching towards the Akrestsina detention center where political prisoners were believed to be held. Riot police, as well as several water cannons (one of which broke down), were employed to disperse the rally.[519] The whole central area (Independence Square and Palace, Hero city obelisk, etc.) was routinely cut off by riot police, with means of armored carriers, barbed wire and "Rubezh" barriers. A ZS-82 sound broadcasting station with a powerful loudspeaker was installed on a BRDM-2 reconnaissance patrol car, through which Soviet songs were played. The Chinese Dongfeng Mengshi military off-road vehicles, as well as the Belarusian frontline VOLAT humvees were seen on the streets of Minsk. At 13:40 eight metro stations were closed. Mobile internet was cut off at around 13:50. Four shopping malls were closed "due to technical issues" at 14:00. The rally began at 14:05 and ended at around 18:15. The service was resumed between 18:30 and 19:00.[520][521][522] Viasna agency reported protester detentions in Minsk as well as other places including Viciebsk and Homel.[523]

On 5 October, around 100 seniors gathered outside St. Helen Church in Minsk, formed a column and rallied towards Independence Ave. Upon entering October Square, protesters lined up in a chain of solidarity, while being actively supported with honking from passing cars. Seniors then marched onto Victory Square, where they were met by young volunteers who gave them candy and water. Protesters held flowers and anti-government posters and were chanting patriotic songs and slogans, with the most famous one being the hymn "Mahutny Boža" ("God Almighty").[524]

On 6 October, Tsikhanouskaya traveled to Berlin to meet with Chancellor Angela Merkel. Their encounter happened behind closed doors, with no journalists allowed. In Minsk, the Prosecutor's Office released a statement labeling the details of the ongoing investigation of the detention centers' employees' misconduct episodes as "restricted information".[525]

On 7 October, a women's protest action took place, this time under the name "We are Walking!". Young women dressed in white-and-red or carrying white-and-red umbrellas marched along Independence Avenue.[526] Some journalists reported seeing a Groza-S mobile counter-drone jamming station on the streets of Minsk later that day.[527]

On 8 October, a former commander of a firefighting and emergency unit in Minsk, Artyom Ulyanov, who was fired the previous day for refusing to take down a white-red-white flag from a residential building, was fined for over $2000 for premature contract termination.[528] Viktor Snezhytsky, a member of the Council of the Republic of Belarus, resigned from his position "due to health problems" after making a statement against the current regime repressions in social media.[529]

On 9 October, Cosmonauts Street in Minsk was blocked by the protesters.[530] The Belarusian Fund for Cultural Solidarity was established with the purpose of providing legal, financial and psychological assistance to representatives of the Belarusian cultural community who actively express their civic position.[531]

On 10 October, another Women's March took place in Minsk.[532][533] Alexander Lukashenko met with some the imprisoned lead opposition figures, including Viktar Babaryka and Sergei Tikhanovsky, at the Amerikanka KGB detention center, reportedly, to discuss the details of the future constitutional reform.[534][535] Sergei Tikhanovsky was allowed to talk to his wife, Sviatlana, over the phone for the first time since his arrest on 29 May. Near the evening, Cyber Partisans once again hacked a number of state-owned websites.[536]

On 11 October, the "March of Pride" (marking two months of protests after the election) took place in regional centers of Belarus, reportedly involving more than 100,000 protesters in Minsk alone. The security forces' actions were characterized by increased brutality in comparison to the previous Sunday marches and involved mass detentions of journalists, severe beatings of detainees, employment of stun grenades, tear gas, rubber bullets, and water cannons with colored water, which led to some of the witnesses comparing these events to the events of 9–12 August.[537][538][539][540][541][542] Eight metro stations, six shopping malls and mobile internet were out of service for most of the afternoon.[543] According to the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs, 713 protesters were detained on 11 October, with 25 protest actions registered across the country.[544]

On 12 October, a "March of the Seniors" took place in Minsk and other regional centers, this time met with active police counter-action, including employment of tear gas and stun grenades.[545][546] A statement was made by the Ministry of Internal Affairs granting security forces clearance to use lethal weapons, if necessary, due to "elevated coordination and radicalization" of the protests.[547] In the evening, various actions of civil disobedience took place across Minsk, including blocking local traffic with burning tires, which lasted until 23:00, when military and OMON forces intervened.[548] Vladimir Zaryankin, son of the mayor of Viciebsk, was detained in Minsk and had his car vandalized by unidentified men in balaklavas.[549] In a statement, Belarusian deputy interior minister Gennady Kazakevich named anarchists among the organizers of the mass protests and authorized the use of lethal force against protestors.[550][551]

On 13 October, on behalf of the Coordination Council, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya declared a 25 October ultimatum, threatening Lukashenko with a nationwide strike and civil disobedience actions if he didn't step down, release all political prisoners, and stop the violent crackdown on peaceful demonstrations by the deadline of 25 October 2020.[552] Maxim Khoroshin, a co-owner of a flower store in Minsk who gifted flowers to women during the past women's marches, was detained and severely beaten by security forces for alleged water cannon disassembly and arson of dacha of Dmitry Balaba, head of the Minsk OMON.[553][554]

On 14 October, Mother's Day in Belarus, hundreds of women gathered at Independence Square near the Red Church in Minsk for the "March of Mothers" rally. At about 15:00 the participants formed a column and walked along Independence Ave toward Yakub Kolas Square, chanting "Freedom for our children", "One for all and all for one" and others. In addition to the "March of Mothers", there were also single-case demonstrations, solidarity chains, student speeches, etc. The rally concluded sometime after 18:30 at the newly formed "Kalesnikava Square" public space, where a concert was given by the Belarusian folk rock band Dzieciuki.[555]

On 15 October, a drilling and blasting master of Belaruskali, Alexander Kurban, refused to leave the shaft at the end of his shift and remained chained at a depth of 440 metres demanding the general director of the enterprise to inform the labour collective of steps taken for new, open and fair elections, release of all political prisoners and termination of police violence. By 9:15 am. Kurban was brought to the surface and, accompanied by an employee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, taken to a psychoneurological medical center where he was examined by medical staff and released.[556][557]

On 16 October, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya was put on the wanted lists in Belarus and Russia on charges of "attempting to overthrow the constitutional order".[558]

"March of Partisans" (anti-Lukashenko protest rally). Minsk, 18 October

On 18 October, the "March of Partisans" (named after the Belarusian partisan movement of World War II), involving more than 50,000 protesters,[559] took place in Minsk and other regional centers, with the participants chanting "Strike!", "The workers are with the people", "You and your riot police get out!" and waving red-and-white opposition flags. The security forces used rubber bullets and stun grenades and blockaded streets with barbed wire and heavy machinery, including water cannons. Over 280[560] protesters were arrested during the Sunday protests, with most of the detentions having taken place in Minsk. Several underground metro stations were closed and there was decreased mobile internet coverage.[561][562][559][563]

Protests continued on 19 October, when an estimated 3,000 retirees marched through Minsk while carrying flowers and chanting slogans demanding the resignation of Lukashenko, such as "Go away!". The counter-protest involved some 2,000 pro-Lukashenko elderly wearing military and security forces uniforms; the counter-protesters were reportedly transported in together by buses.[564]

Anti-Lukashenko protest rally. Minsk, 25 October

On 25 October, about 100,000 people joined the "People's Ultimatum march" in Minsk. The Belarusian riot police were seen throwing stun grenades into crowds of protesters, chasing people through courtyards and making detentions. The authorities cut off mobile internet across central Minsk, closed metro stations and placed military cordons armed with firearms at key sites. Some of the protesters tried to hide inside their own apartments, which were then raided by police.[565] The human rights center Viasna said over 500 protesters were detained on Sunday, 350 persons will stand administrative trials.[566] According to Russian news agencies, at least 10 stun grenades were used. There were also reports that riot police had fired rubber bullets.[567]

On 26 October, groups of workers and students in Belarus carried out a nationwide strike call by Tsikhanouskaya. Workers at some state-run plants put down their tools, left the buildings and chanted slogans outside. Hundreds of students also rallied on university campuses in Minsk while clapping, chanting, and forming solidarity chains. At least 155 people were arrested for supporting the strike action in Minsk, Barysau, Brest, Hrodna, Mahiliou, and Navapolatsk.[567]

On 28 October, 4 Belarusian anarchist activists (Igor Alinevich, Dmitry Dubovsky, Dmitry Rezanovich, and Sergey Romanov)[568] were arrested near the Belarusian-Ukrainian border.[569] The government and state media accused them of terrorism.[570] They were charged under criminal code articles 289 (terrorism; up to the death penalty) and 295 (arms trafficking; up to 12 years in prison).[569][571] The anarchists were accused of setting fire to four cars near the building of the prosecutor's office in Salihorsk (Minsk Region) and the local branch of the State Committee for Forensic Expertise.[571]

On 31 October, hundreds of women marched in central Minsk, chanting "Freedom!" and "Fair Elections!" as they carried red-and-white flags and banners.[572] Around 40 people were detained in Minsk, Hrodna, and other Belarusian cities.[573]

November

On 1 November, about 20,000 demonstrators marched in Minsk. They gathered in eastern Minsk and headed toward Kurapaty where over 200,000 people were executed during the Great Purge.[574] Protesters carried banners with slogans such as "The people's memory (lasts) longer than a life of a dictatorship" and "Stop torturing your people!". Ahead of the march, security forces had already cordoned off several central squares in Minsk, closed several metro stations and mobile internet was disrupted.[575] Security forces also used flash grenades, tear gas, and batons to disperse the crowds. Some motorists tried to block the movement of vehicles intended to carry off detainees.[573] The Interior Ministry of Belarus said that about 300 people were detained in Minsk and the Minsk region for breaking laws on mass gatherings. Four journalists were among those detained on 1 November, two of whom were severely beaten. The Investigative Committee said 231 of those arrested were recognized as suspects in a criminal case that had been opened into "actions that grossly violate public order."[576] Lukashenko allegedly used security forces to stop demonstrators from gathering and warned that his government "would not back down."[575]

On 2 November, more than 1,000 demonstrators took part in a march in Minsk. Many of them were pensioners. They carried the banned white-red-white flags and chanted slogans such as "Lukashenko! Tribunal!" and "Until victory, until the end!" during the march. No detentions were reported during the Monday protest.[576]

On 7 November, hundreds of people took part in a women's march.[577] About 60 doctors and other health-care workers gathered against Lukashenko were taken away to police stations. At least 14 people were detained at the women's march in Minsk.[578]

On 8 November, several thousand people marched in Minsk. Participants in the march waved red-and-white flags and umbrellas. Security forces blocked several streets and cordoned off areas in central Minsk. Access to the Internet was restricted in Minsk since the morning. Several subway stations in the city center closed an hour before the rally, citing "passenger safety." Police used batons and rubber bullets to disperse the crowds. At least 1,053 protesters were detained in Minsk, Homel, Viciebsk, Zhlobin, and other cities. At least nine of those listed as detained were journalists. Video and photos showed unmarked men wrestling demonstrators to the ground and forcing them into police transport.[578][579][580]

On 13 November, thousands of people rallied in Minsk and other Belarusian cities following the death of a 31-year-old opposition supporter who reportedly was beaten by security forces. Participants carrying flowers and candles formed human chains of solidarity to honor the late Raman Bandarenka, who died at a Minsk hospital after several hours of surgery for serious injuries.[581] Some of the banners the demonstrators held said, "Stop killing us." In a video from the courtyard where Bondarenko was detained, hundreds of people stood in a minute of silence on Friday and then chanted: "We will not forget, we will not forgive." The Ministry of Internal Affairs denied responsibility for Bondarenko's death, saying he was killed due to a scuffle with civilians.[582] The European Union condemned the violent crackdown.[583]

On 15 November, tens of thousands of Belarusians gathered across Belarus protested against the death in police custody of Bandarenka, arrested for his opposition to Lukashenko.[584] Demonstrators in Minsk carried the banned white-red-white flags and chanted slogans like, "Lukashenko! Tribunal!" and "Love live Belarus!" The security forces used tear gas, rubber bullets, stun grenades, and batons to disperse the demonstrators in Minsk.[585] Mobile Internet was down and several subway stations were closed. More than 1,200 protesters were detained in Minsk and other cities, including in Homel, Hrodna, and Mahiliou.[586][587][588][589]

On 16 November, the "March of Sorrow" took place in Minsk, more than 2,000 people marched. Many of them were pensioners and medics. They chanted slogans such as "Murderers!" and "Tribunal!" during the march. Authorities blocked central Independence Square and nearby streets while several subway stations were closed. No detentions were reported.[590][591]

On 22 November, tens of thousands of people gathered in several places around Minsk, chanting "Long live Belarus!" and carrying signs and the white-red-white flags. Protesters gathered in residential areas and then came together in Minsk to avoid getting shut down early by police. Several metro stations were closed and communications were cut at times. Outside one subway station in central Minsk, demonstrators were met with flashbang grenades. Masked and balaclava-wearing officers ripped flags from some people's hands in another location. Security forces deployed heavily around Minsk with armored vehicles and water cannons before the rally. At least 379 protesters were detained in Minsk and other cities of Belarus. At least 13 detained protesters were taken to hospitals after they were beaten by riot police and other security forces involved in dispersing the protests.[592][593][594]

The Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (not to be confused with the Belarusian Orthodox Church) announced an anathema against Lukashenko, publicly declaring him an "executioner of the Belarusian people".[595]

On 23 November, a "March of Wisdom" took place in Minsk, several thousand pensioners marched. They carried the white-red-white flags and shouted "Freedom for political prisoners!" and "Murderers!". Black-clad security forces wearing balaclavas blocked the columns of elderly protesters to prevent them from entering Independence Avenue. At least six people were detained, including two elderly women in their 70s, who were later released. Minor scuffles were reported, with witnesses saying security forces pushed several of the elderly onto the asphalt.[596][597][598]

On 24 November, a well known anarchist organizer and protester Mikola Dziadok was arrested. According to Mikalai he was forcefully taken from his residence by police. He claims he was beaten by the police who attempted to gain information on anarchist activities. After refusing the police pepper sprayed Mikalai. He claimed he was batoned, kicked, stun-gunned, pepper-sprayed and forced to make a confession on video. Mikalai's face can be seen badly beaten while making the confession.[599] While in custody Mikalai was threatened with rape and murder. Authorities state that Mikalai is being charged for organizing multiple mass protests and riots in Belarus. Mikalai denies these accusations, and is currently held as a political prisoner.[600][601][602][603]

On 29 November, a "March of Neighbors" took place in Minsk. Demonstrators carried the white-red-white flags and chanted "Go away, rat!", referring to Lukashenko. The opposition adopted a new strategy as a way of decentralizing the protests and making it more difficult for police to round up activists. At least 20 protests took place in Minsk. In some areas, separate rallies merged to form columns of several hundred people. Police deployed tear gas and stun grenades to break up some of the crowds in Minsk, and some were chased into residential courtyards and beaten with batons. Before the rally, water cannons, armored vehicles and police vans were seen in the center of Minsk. Mobile Internet services were not available in Minsk and the central metro stations were closed. There were also reports of power cuts in some neighborhoods. At least 416 protesters were detained in Minsk, Brest, Hrodna, Barauliany, and other cities. Six persons were reportedly taken to hospitals after being beaten by riot police and other law enforcement officers. Two journalists were detained despite carrying valid press IDs.[604][605][606]

On 30 November, a "March of Wisdom" took place in Minsk. More than 1,000 pensioners marched, chanting 'Shame!', 'Grandmas and grandpas, let's march to the victory!' and 'Long live Belarus!'. Police blocked the protesters along their planned route, dividing them into smaller groups. At least 20 people were detained.[607][608][609]

December

On 1 December, Tsikhanouskaya stated that a "book of crimes", to be verified by independent lawyers, would be created to document police abuse. She stated, "Impunity will not last forever… No one will be able to deprive hundreds of thousands of people who are striving for justice from speaking out."[610][611]

On 6 December, a "March of Neighbors" took place. Thousands of demonstrators marched in Minsk and other cities. Local media reported several dozen meeting points were planned across Minsk and in other cities. Most protesters marched in remote residential areas of Minsk, clapping hands, shouting "Long live Belarus!", "We believe! We can! We will win!", and waving the white-red-white flag. Several people wore Santa Claus costumes and masks. People carried banners that read "Give Belarusians a gift: go away," depicting Alexander Lukashenko. Military vehicles and water cannons were seen on the streets of Minsk, while uniformed men, many in helmets, grabbed people in civilian clothes. Authorities limited connection to networks such as Telegram, several subway stations were briefly closed and at least two squares were cordoned off by security forces. At least 340 people were detained in several Minsk districts and other cities across the country, including Brest and Hrodna.[612][613][614][615][616]

On 7 December, a "March of Wisdom" took place in Minsk. Several hundred people, including many retirees and medics, gathered in Yakub Kolas Square. Police blocked them from holding the event and dispersed the crowd. Police also tried to block the protesters from entering Independence Avenue. A small group of demonstrators managed to regroup at a Christmas tree on Independence Square. At least 10 people were detained.[617]

On 13 December, crowds of people protested in Minsk. Thousands were estimated to have taken part in small rallies scattered around more than 70 different areas in Minsk. Some of them waved the white-red-white flags and chanted "Lukashenko, go away!" and "Long Live Belarus!" In several places, groups of protesters were led by people wearing Santa Claus costumes. At least 286 people were detained.[618][619][620][621]

On 14 December, a "Wisdom March" took place in Minsk. Up to 150 protesters, including many retirees, medics and students, gathered at Independence Square. Some of them were holding the white-red-white flags and chanted "[Lukashenko,] go away!", "Long live Belarus!" and "Freedom for political prisoners!". Security forces cordoned off roads, preventing them from moving along Independence Avenue. At least 106 people were detained.[622][623][624]

On 19 December, several marches were reported in several districts of Minsk. Many of the protesters carried the red-and-white flag or banners. There were marches and rallies in other cities, including Hrodna. There were no reports of demonstrators being detained by riot police.[625][626]

On 20 December, marches and rallies were reported in several districts of Minsk, with many carrying the red-and-white flag or banners. Protests were also held in other towns and cities across Belarus, including Barysau, Homel, Hrodna, Salihorsk, Smilavichy, Navapolatsk and Brest. Police with dogs patrolled the streets and water cannons were deployed. At least 152 people were detained.[627][628][629]

On 27 December, the March of Balloons took place in Minsk, with people throughout Belarus releasing white-red-white balloons, flags and other symbols into the sky. People gathered in their neighborhoods and then moved to the places previously defined in local chats. Many carried the red-and-white flag and chanted slogans such as "Long live Belarus!". There were reports of detentions in Minsk, Brest and Svietlahorsk .[630][55][631]

January

On 3 January, marches were reported across Minsk. People carried red-and-white or red-and-green flags and chanted "Long live Belarus!" and "We believe! We can! We will win!". There were no reports of detentions. At least ten people were detained by law enforcement officers at separate rallies on 1 January.[632]

On 9 January, marches were reported in several towns. People carried the white-and-red national flags. In an effort to avoid arrest by Lukashenko's security forces, protesters resorted to so-called "flash-mob" tactics, gathering at locations announced on social media at the last minute.[633]

On 10 January, protests were reported in Minsk, Viciebsk, Brest, Hrodna, and Mahiliou. They carried the white-and-red national flags. The Ministry of Internal Affairs said 40 people were detained in Minsk.[634][635][636]

On 17 January, protesters marched in parks and residential areas of several cities and towns across Belarus. The independent BelaPAN news agency reported that protesters staged at least 30 marches and rallies on January 17, including in Minsk, Brest, Hrodna, and Homel. Many of the protesters carried the red-and-white flag or banners. There were reports of arrests.[637]

On 24 January, groups of protesters linked arms to form human chains in a show of solidarity with political prisoners. At least 155 people were detained.[638][639]

February

Protesters used their balconies nightly for the next few days from 2 February and chanted "Long live Belarus!" and "Lukashenko behind bars!", waving flags and using torches despite the cold. Rallies and chants took place throughout Minsk on 7 February, the largest protest movement in the city since 24 January.[640]

On February 8, Amnesty International claimed that the "Belarusian authorities are resorting to threats, harassment and prosecution of children".[641]

March

On 25 March 2021, exiled opposition leader Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya called for renewed protests on Freedom Day against Alexander Lukashenko to mount pressure on him to resign.[642] During the day's protests, in which small groups marched through the streets of Minsk, more than 200 people were arrested.[643] The Belarusian authorities managed to suppress these protests, after which there were no mass actions of disobedience in the country.[644]

May

On 24 May 2021, Alexander Lukashenko signed into law a series of legal amendments in order to further restrict future protests, making it compulsory for all mass events to be authorized by local authorities and preventing journalists from participating in any mass events.[645]

Coordination Council and National Anti-Crisis Management

First press conference of the Coordination Council on 18 August 2020

On 14 August, in a video in which Tsikhanouskaya claimed that she had received 6070% of the vote, she announced the creation of the Coordination Council for the Transfer of Power.[5]

Tsikhanouskaya stated that the council should be made of "civil society activists, respected Belarusians and professionals" to handle the transfer of power from Lukashenko.[5][646] Applications for membership of the transitional council were open to any Belarusian citizen who recognised the election as having been falsified, and who was in a position of social trust such as a doctor, a teacher, a business leader, an author, or a sportsperson.[64]

On 17 August, Tsikhanouskaya released a video in which she stated that she was ready to lead a transitional government[175][647] and to organise a new, free, and fair presidential election.[176] A list of members was circulated on 17 August 2020 and included Nobel Prize laureate Svetlana Alexievich.[648][649] The first meeting of the Council took place on 18 August and its leadership was elected the following day.[650]

Lukashenko decried the creation of the council as an 'attempt to seize power' and promised "appropriate measures".[651] On 20 August, the chief prosecutor launched a criminal case against the council, calling it unconstitutional.[225]

United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, in a statement urged the Belarusian government to actively engage Belarusian society, including through the newly established Coordination Council, "in a way that reflects what the Belarusian people are demanding, for the sake of Belarus’ future, and for a successful Belarus."[652]

Dmitry Peskov, spokesperson for Russian President Vladimir Putin welcomed the fact that the leadership of the Coordination Council did not want to reduce their ties with Russia and instead hoped to continue with good bilateral relationships between the two countries.[653]

On 17 September, the European Parliament recognized the coordination council as the "interim representation of the people" of Belarus.[479]

In late October, the Coordination Council created a shadow government, called National Anti-Crisis Management (NAM), for organising the detailed administrative tasks for a peaceful transfer of power to a fairly and freely elected president.[654][655] NAM is led by Pavel Latushko and states that it will lose its powers when a new president is inaugurated.[656] In November, NAM published internal reports from the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs showing that 4000 complaints for torture and other illegal actions by security forces had been submitted between 9 August and 9 November, but all had been ignored by the ministry.[657]

Deaths

Rally in memory of Alexander Taraikovsky on 15 August
Makeshift board with photographs and a drawing of a dead OMON on a gallows, holding a bloody stick.

On 10 August, a protester, Alexander Taraikovsky, died near Pushkinskaya metro station. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the protester tried to throw an explosive device at the government troopers and it exploded in his arms.[658][659][660] However, some doubts in the circumstances of the death of the 34-year-old man were expressed.[659] It was reported that a massive blood loss due to an open chest wound was recorded in a death certificate.[661] A video was published on 15 August that showed the protester empty handed and while being shot at by police.[662] On 15 August, the Associated Press published a single frame from a video made on 10 August. It showed a man in a white shirt that looked similar to Taraikovsky and that was staggering unsteadily with a big red spot on his chest.[663][664][665] No further commentary from the Ministry of Internal Affairs followed, however, according to the Belarusian Investigative Committee, as of 15 August 2020, the circumstances of the Taraikovsky's death were under investigation.[658] Elena German, the wife of Taraikovsky, saw the body in the morgue and reported that there were no injuries to his hands, but there was a small hole in his chest, consistent with a bullet hole.[156] On 15 August, thousands of people gathered at the funeral in Minsk.[661][666]

On 12 August, 25-year-old Alexander Vikhor died in Homel. He is believed to have had a heart-related disease. According to preliminary information, he died due to waiting in a security forces detainee van for several hours in hot weather. He was in the van because the city's temporary detention centers were overcrowded. Vikhor was sentenced to 10 days in prison, but it was reported that he didn't receive proper medical attention in time.[127][667][668][669]

Also on or around 12 August, 28-year-old Nikita Krivtsov went missing. His body was found on 22 August near Minsk. Krivtsov was a fan of FC Maladzyechna, whose home ground is in the city of Maladzyechna. On 9 August, the day of the election, there was a peaceful protest in Maladzyechna against the official election result. Photographs show Krivtsov at the front of the protest, carrying a white-red-white flag, confronting a line of police. A friend stated that Krivtsov phoned him on 10 August, stating that he was in Minsk and had nearly been arrested by riot police. The friend said Krivtsov phoned him again on 11 August saying that he spent much of the day in a bar. On 12 August, the friend tried phoning Krivtsov but got no answer, which he said was out of character.[670] Another report suggests that on 12 August, Krivtsov was in the city of Zhodzina, where his estranged wife lives with their five-year-old daughter, and that he left Zhodzina to go to the village of Karaliou Stan, where he worked, but he never arrived.[671] On 22 August a watchman found Krivtsov's body in a forest near Minsk. The body was hanging by the neck, but its feet were on the ground. The condition of the body suggested that Krivtsov had been dead for about a week. Police claim that Krivtsov committed suicide, but his family stated that they didn't believe them.[670]

On 15 August, 29-year-old Konstantin Shishmakov (Belarusian: Kanstantsin Shyshmakou), director of the Bagration Military History Museum in Vaukavysk, disappeared. As a member of the election commission, he refused to sign the protocols, called his wife at about 5 pm and said: "I will not work here anymore, I am going home." Shishmakov was later found dead in a river. This was announced by the search and rescue squad "Angel".[672][673]

On 17 August, the human rights advocates from the Belarusian education and social association "Zvyano" ("Link") issued a report, which said that at least five people had been murdered during the protests, and seven people were in critical medical condition.[674][675]

On 19 August, 43-year-old Hienadz Shutau died in the Minsk military hospital after he had received a gunshot to his head during the 11 August protests in Brest. It was reported that the shot may have been fired by the police.[676][677]

On 3 October, Denis Kuznetsov, a 41-year-old male who was detained on 29 September, died in an intensive care unit after being transported there from Akrestsina. According to Kuznetsov's relatives and his medical history, during transportation to the hospital, he informed the medics that he was beaten by the Akrestsina staff, who, in turn, claimed that Kuznetsov "fell from the top of a bunk bed". The Kuznetsov's clinical diagnosis, among other things, included moderate traumatic brain injury, numerous hematomas, basilar skull fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and fractures of 11 right ribs.[678][679][680] In a further comment by the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs, it was reported that results of the preliminary investigation supported the version presented by the Akrestsina staff.[681]

On 11 November, Raman Bandarenka, a 31-year-old Minsk resident, a manager and an art-designer, was attacked and kidnapped from his yard in The Square of Changes. After some time, an ambulance was called to the Central District Department of Internal Affairs, which found Bandarenka unconscious. He was admitted to the intensive care unit of the Minsk BHMP (Minsk City Emergency Hospital) on 12 November 2020 at 00:05, where he was diagnosed with a severe closed traumatic brain injury, the acute subdural hematomas of the head, cerebral hemorrhage, and multiple soft tissue injuries. He was in a coma and underwent surgery, but medics were unable to save Bandarenka due to his serious condition. Bandarenka died on the evening of 12 November 2020.[682]

The authorities and leaders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs never claimed that people died at the hands of police representatives.[683]

Human rights issues

According to numerous publications, the suppression of the 2020 Belarusian protests was accompanied by extreme police violence, and systematic violation of human rights throughout stages of the detention process.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148]

On 14 August, the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) issued a statement that condemned the arbitrary detainment and torture of protesters across Belarus following the election. According to the statement, such actions suggested crimes against humanity. The statement also called for an unbiased worldwide investigation into the "systematic and extremely violent oppression" of peaceful protests in Belarus.[684]

On 19 August, the classification of these events as crimes against humanity, in accordance with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, was supported in a Human Rights Foundation (HRF) statement. According to the statement, HRF identified fifteen persons from the Belarusian state apparatus who were responsible for the arbitrary detention, beating, and torture of thousands of peaceful protesters. Letters informing these persons of imminent criminal prosecution for crimes against humanity were sent to each of them on 17 August.[685]

On 17 August, the human rights advocates from the Belarusian education and social association "Zvyano" ("Link") issued the "Report on the violation of human rights of the participants in the protests in Belarus from 7 to 14 August 2020", based on interviews with 30 victims of the police abuse, as well as on interviews with doctors of several Minsk hospitals. Some of the cases were supported by audio or video evidence.[675] On that same day, a statement to the Prosecutor General's Office of Belarus with request to perform an investigation of the police' actions on the basis of 16 articles of Criminal Code of Belarus, including murder, torture, and rape, was issued by Viktar Babaryka's electoral campaign manager, Maria Kalesnikava.[686]

The numerous human rights violations were corroborated and condemned by a number of former or current Belarusian police officers, such as Sergei Mikhasev, former employee of the Viciebsk police department, who was detained along with other protesters and spent several days in a detention center,[687] and Yuri Makhnach, a police officer from Lida, who stated that the authorities had prepared them for a war against their own people.[688]

In a 20 August statement by the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo underlined that the USA supported international efforts to look independently into Belarus’ electoral irregularities, the human rights abuses that surrounded the election, and the crackdown that had followed.[652]

In a 21 August statement by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, it was noted that, despite the majority of the detainees being released, serious concerns remained about the eight missing protesters and the sixty accused of serious criminal acts. The statement underlined the lack of information about the detainees' status and called for the government to stop unlawfully detaining people. The Commissioner also confirmed that there were four deaths and was greatly concerned about the allegations of large-scale torture and ill-treatment of people, including journalists and children.[689]

On 1 September, in a statement by the UN human rights experts, more than 450 documented cases of torture and ill-treatment of detainees were mentioned, including sexual abuse and rape with rubber batons of men, women, and children.[69]

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Belarus rejected allegations of abuse and torture of citizens detained during the protests.[690] However, the beatings of the detainees, including at Akrestsina, were recognized by Alexander Lukashenko himself.[691][692]

On 26 October, Anais Marin, the UN human rights investigator, called on the Belarus government to "stop repressing its own people". Around 20,000 people were detained in August and September, while hundreds have been reportedly beaten, intimidated, tortured, or ill-treated in custody, according to the sources described by Anais Marin. Belarus has witnessed large-scale demonstrations against President Alexander Lukashenko's re-election to a sixth term in the August 9 voting, which the opposition argues was rigged.[693]

On 3 November 2020, UN experts criticized Belarus government for targeting women human rights defenders, during the mass protests. Three women human rights defenders were detained and persecuted by the authorities for their work as rights activists in September and early October.[694]

On 6 November 2020, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe revealed in a letter about the human rights violations and cases of torture in Belarus, following the elections, where security forces used excessive violence against protesters. The report also stated to hold new presidential elections and initiated an investigation into allegations of torture.[695]

On 15 November 2020, the UN human rights office said the government of Belarus continued to commit human rights violations with impunity against peaceful protesters three months after the country's disputed presidential elections. The Un claimed that the government had responded to these peaceful demonstrations in a heavy-handed manner, with the use of unnecessary or excessive force by law enforcement officials.[53]

On 22 November, more than 200 people were detained in Minsk.[696][697]

Attacks on journalists and censorship

During the 2020 Belarusian presidential election, reports of attacks increased. On 23 July, Lukashenko stated during a meeting with the leaders of the country's economic bloc, that his main concern was that the BBC and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty had encouraged riots while streaming protests. Lukashenko also threatened to expel media and ban them from reporting on the election.[698]

On 9–11 August, several independent journalists were arrested in Minsk, Brest, and Babruisk.[114] According to a statement by the Belarusian Association of Journalists, on 10 August, internal troops and other government forces deliberately shot rubber bullets at independent journalists in Minsk (including TUT.BY and Nasha Niva). The journalists wore special high visibility jackets and had personal IDs. Nasha Niva editor-in-chief (also wearing a jacket) disappeared during the night. He managed to send an SOS SMS message to his wife, saying he was arrested. His fate was unknown as of 13:30 local time, and the Nasha Niva website was not updated for several hours after his presumed arrest.[699] Several journalists, including foreigners, were slightly injured during the suppression of the protests. A rubber bullet hit the plastic ID of Getty Images' photojournalist Michal Fridman. Several Russian journalists from both official media and Internet projects were arrested but released soon after.[700]

On 10 August, local journalists reported problems with all major communication platforms and pro-opposition websites.[101]

On 11 August, it was reported that police officers and other government agents forcibly took away memory cards from journalists' devices. They also forced them to delete photos or crushed their cameras.[121] BBC News Russia reported that three of its journalists were beaten by the government forces that night while covering the protests.[701] Russian journalist Nikita Telizhenko was heavily beaten in Belarusian jail: he was arrested in Minsk and sent to Zhodzina because of jails' overcrowding in Minsk. In Zhodzina he was beaten on his kidneys, legs, and neck, but he was soon released at the Russian embassy's request.[702] Arrested Russian journalist Artyom Vazhenkov was reported to be accused of mass rioting (up to 15 years of prison in Belarus).[703]

On 12 August, Belsat journalist Jauhien Merkis was arrested in Homel while covering the protests. Even though he was there as a journalist, the next day, the local court sentenced him to 15 days in jail for "participation in an unauthorized mass event".[704] He was released soon after, but on 21 August he was arrested again and was given 5 days in jail.[705] Journalist Ruslan Kulevich from Hrodna, arrested on 11 August, was freed on 14 August with fractures of both hands.[706]

One of the few communication systems that managed to avoid censorship wass the independent Belarusian-owned Nexta Telegram channel based in Warsaw. The channel's subscribers rose from 100,000 on election night to over a million after a day.[707] The channel published user-generated videos, photos, and comments of the protests.[708] The founder of Nexta himself faced up to 15 years of prison after being indicted by the regime.[709] The use of Telegram software provided the protesters with communication channels to share information and coordinate protest action.[126] Its sister channel Nexta TV has more than 700,000 followers. Belarus of the Brain's had over 470,000 followers. Officials opened a criminal probe into Stepan Putilo, founder of Nexta, on charges of fomenting mass riots.[710] Ihar Losik, founder of the Telegram channel "Republic of Belarus of the Brain", was arrested before the election, but the channel also continued to operate.[710]

On 15 August, a meeting was held with the head of the upper chamber of Parliament of Belarus Natalia Kochanova and press Secretary of the President of Belarus Natalia Eismont. The audience, the workers at the Belarusian TV and radio company in Minsk, asked why the station was not broadcasting the truth. The officials had been escorted to the building by riot police who took control of the building.[711] Thousands of protesters outside demanded the station show people the truth. It was also reported that some staff had resigned and one hundred were planning to strike on Monday.[712][713]

It was reported that on 18 June, reporters from various countries, arriving in Minsk airport, were pulled out of passport control, interrogated and locked up before being refused entry and being told to buy a plane ticket to some other country, in an attempt to suppress the media.[714]

On 21 August 72 to 73 websites were blocked in Belarus, including several independent news portals (Radio Liberty/Free Europe in Belarus svaboda.org, by.tribuna.com sport news, euroradio.fm (European Radio for Belarus), Belsat.eu (Belsat TV), gazetaby.com, the-village.me/news and others), electoral sites of Tsepkalo and Babaryka, "Golos" and "Zubr" platforms, spring96.org human rights portal, and several VPN services.[715][716][717]

As of 21 August, the Belarusian edition of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper failed to print three editions, and Narodnaja Volya failed to print a newspaper edition (both newspapers had a contract with the government-controlled printing house). The Belarusian Association of Journalists stated that the real cause was not technical troubles, but an attempt to block information about the protests and violations of human rights.[718] Two other independent newspapers (BelGazeta and Svobodnye Novosti) also were unable to print new editions in Belarus.[719] New editions of Komsomolskaya Pravda and Narodnaja Volya were printed in Russia, but the state network of newsstands "Belsoyuzpechat'" denied to take them for sale. These newspapers also reported that the post service delayed the delivery by subscription.[720]

On 27 August, around 20 journalists, from both local and international media, were detained on Freedom Square in Minsk.[721][315][316] The journalists were taken to the Kastrychnitski district police supposedly to check their identity and accreditation.[722]

On 29 August, accreditation of several foreign journalists was revoked; they worked for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Associated Press, Reuters, AFP, BBC, ARD, Radio France Internationale, Deutsche Welle and Current Time TV. It was reported that some of them (including Paul Hansen) were deported from Belarus.[723] Independent news web sites naviny.by and nn.by (Nasha Niva) were blocked in Belarus.[724]

On 1 September, 6 Belarusian journalists who covered the protest march of students in Minsk were detained. Initially they were taken to the police office to check the documents, but they were later charged with "participation in an unauthorized mass event" and coordination of the protests.[725][726]

Starting 5 October, only state-approved and sponsored media were allowed to act as journalists in Belarus. This was achieved through journalist licenses, which was first announced on 2 October after TUT.BY, and several other news organizations were stripped of their journalist mandates. The licenses were strictly issued by the Belarusian government and forbid all medias from chronicling protests, demonstrations and other material deemed as "anti-governmental" by the state.[727][728]

Photographers working for the Russian state-owned agencies Komsomolskaya Pravda and TASS were detained on 12 October during the second seniors' march.[729]

On 12 November, anarchist activist and journalist Mikola Dziadok was arrested in a safe house in Asipovichy District.[730] His Telegram channel was captured by the police.[731] He was beaten during the arrest.[732] The "Anarchist Black Cross" claimed that he was tortured to give access to his computer data.[733]

On 19 November, NEXTA founder Stepan Putilo and former chief-editor Roman Protasevich were added to the terrorism list by the Belarusian KGB. The list included 726 persons, Putilo and Protasevich were the only Belarusian citizens on it.[734]

On 3 December, a court in Minsk stripped TUT.BY of its media license over allegedly spreading "false information."[735]

On Sunday 23rd May 2021 Belarusian authorities ordered a Ryanair passenger plane flying from Greece to Lithuania to land while over Belarusian airspace, and sent a fighter jet to intercept the plane and escort it to Minsk. While there police entered the plane and arrested Roman Protesevich, a Belarusian journalist who had been critical of Lukashenko's government; the plane was then allowed to leave. The action prompted widespread condemnation and sanctions from various European countries.

Persecution on religious grounds

During the election campaign and during the protests in 2020, a number of employees of religious organisations were dismissed or forced to resign because of their political beliefs.[736] A number of pastors and priests were detained, sentenced to arrest or fined,[737][738] received formal warnings from law-enforcing agencies[739][740] or lost a permission for pastoral activity in Belarus[738] for participating in protests,[741] their public support,[742] or being[743] close to protest sites. Orthodox priest Vladimir Drobyshevsky and his family,[738] the family of Old Believers German and Natalia Snezhkov[738] and Roman Catholic priest Dzmitry Prystupa[744] left Belarus escaping persecution. The Investigative Committee submitted the content of Roman Catholic priest Viachaslau Barok's video blog for examination on suspicion of extremism.[745] The Belarusian Orthodox Church[738] and two Greek Catholic parishes[738] received formal warnings of violating the law, which, in case of repeated violations, could have been used by courts to close these religious organisations down. The head of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Pavel (Ponomarev), resigned as Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus; he admitted that the change of Exarch was due to the political situation.[738] Roman Catholic Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz was refused re-entry to the country and lived in exile for four months.[746] The broadcast of Sunday's Roman Catholic Mass was canceled by the national radiostation.[747] Peacefully protesting or just praying lay believers were detained and arrested on various grounds.[738] Some were tortured.[748][749] The right of arrested believers to have objects of worship and to use religious literature in pre-trial detention and penitentiary institutions has been repeatedly violated.[738]

On August 22, 2020, Alexander Lukashenko called on religious communities to not support the protests, shame them for their participation in protests, and warned that "the state will not look at it with indifference."[750]

Effects on local industries

One of the industries most affected by the government's reactions to protests was the Belarusian IT industry.

Multiple IT companies operating in Belarus began moving their employees and operations outside of the country due to internet shutdowns, namely in Minsk. The intermittent cut-offs, starting in August 2020, were said to have caused major difficulties in the IT industry.[751] A survey conducted by Belarus IT CEO Club shortly after the presidential elections in 2020, in conjunction with RegisConsult, surveyed 270 owners and managers of IT companies in Belarus. 38% of the participants stated that their companies were exploring options for changing their offices’ location. 11% of participants said that their companies had already left or were in the process of transferring part of their workforce outside of the country; 3% of the surveyed stated that their companies had left Belarus completely or were in the process of relocating all employees.[752][751]

Software developer SoftSwiss transferred more than 100 employees to Ukraine in August 2020, claiming it was unable to continue to provide its services otherwise. The company stated they were planning a permanent move outside of Belarus by the end of 2021, stating their reasons are linked to the volatile situation in the country.

Global game developer, Gismart, was also affected. While Gismart is headquartered in the United Kingdom, it employed dozens of people in Belarus. Similar to SoftSwiss, in August 2020, Gismart began to move its Belarus-based employees out of the country. The company launched a relocation program in response to the growing number of requests from employees concerned about the unrest in Belarus. The company said that these employees’ work would not have been possible without a stable internet connection.[751]

International reactions

International reactions to Lukashenko's re-election
  Belarus
  Congratulated Lukashenko
  Not recognised result
  Expressed criticism over conflict escalation
  No reaction

Countries and organisations voiced their opinions with some accepting and rejecting the election result. Many have commented about the protests with more condemning the violence. Some have done the following actions in relation with Belarus.

Economic sanctions

  • On 14 August, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Josep Borrell announced that the EU would bring in sanctions against Belarusian officials responsible for "violence and falsification".[5][753] Charles Michel, President of the European Council went further on 19 August saying the EU would soon impose sanctions on a "substantial number" of individuals responsible for violence, repression, and election fraud.[209] The European Commission announced it would divert €53 million earmarked for Belarus away from the government and towards civil society, victims of the state crackdown on protesters and the country's fight against the coronavirus pandemic.[210][754][755]
  • On 18 August, the Lithuanian parliament agreed to impose economic sanctions.[756]
  • On 19 August, the Prime Minister of Slovakia stated that the Government of Slovakia introduced sanctions against Belarus in the new legislative session.[757]
  • On 10 September, the EU sanctions on Belarus were delayed by a separate dispute between Cyprus and Turkey,[758] which has occupied the northern part of Cyprus since July 1974. Greece and Cyprus were pushing for a sanction on Turkey in a dispute in the Eastern Mediterranean.[759]
  • On 29 September, personal sanctions against 8 members of the regime, including Alexander and Viktor Lukashenko, were imposed by the UK and Canada. The sanctions included travel bans and asset freezes.[760]
  • On 2 October, the EU imposed sanctions on 40 Belarusian officials. Lukashenko was exempted from the sanctions as the EU aims to encourage Lukashenko to engage in talks with the opposition. Hours later, Belarus retaliated with sanctions against EU officials.[68]
  • On 6 November, the EU imposed sanctions on Alexander Lukashenko and 14 other officials for repression of the pro-democracy movement following August's contested election. Their assets in EU member states were frozen and they are banned from entering EU territory.[761]
  • On 19 November, the EU announced an upcoming list of sanctions targeting the country's firms and entrepreneurs that finance Lukashenko. According to Borrell, up to date no positive signs were seen from the regime and the new measures will increase economic pressure on the self-proclaimed president.[762][763]
  • On 17 December, the EU imposed a third round of economic sanctions on dozens of Belarusian individuals and entities. They include restrictive measures imposed on the head of Belarusian state television, Ivan Eismant, Deputy Prime Minister Anatol Sivak, Information Minister Ihar Lutsky, and 26 other individuals. The sanctions package also included asset freezes on seven Belarusian companies, including arms exporter CJSC Beltechexport.[764]

Allegations of foreign interference

According to Russia's press service statement issued on 19 August 2020, "Russia pointed out that foreign attempts to interfere in the country’s domestic affairs were unacceptable and could further escalate tensions".[765] Georgy Saralidze, advisor to the director of the All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company on program policy, noted in an interview with Vestnik Kavkaza that western countries had been striving to isolate Belarus away from Russia for several years. "The main goal is to prevent the expansion of the Union State, and ideally just to destroy it. What Vladimir Putin said to Merkel and Macron is a very symptomatic thing, because now there are attacks that Russia allegedly interferes in the affairs of Belarus. Moreover, there are no statements on the part of Russia, apart from the recognition of the election results. If you call it interference, then those who do not recognize the election also interfere in the affairs of Belarus."[766]

Lukashenko announced a week after the election that NATO forces were, "at the gates" and threatening the country (which was denied by NATO[767]), prompting President Putin to offer to send in military assistance,[167] A Kremlin spokesman, Dmitry Peskov, on 19 August stated that there was no need for Russia to help Belarus militarily or otherwise at present.[211] Belarus and Russia are members of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO), a Russia-led military alliance of six former Soviet states,[768] and part of a Belarus–Russia Union State.[769][770] President of the European Council Charles Michel spoke on 19 August about interference in Belarus, "It’s important for both the EU and Russia to support the democratic process in Belarus. We want to avoid external interference in Belarus." He added that he had read recent statements from Kremlin that it does not intend to interfere militarily.[771]

On 18 September 2020, Belarus Foreign Minister accused United Nations Human Rights Council of meddling in Belarus internal affairs over the UN Human Rights Council's resolution calling for the close monitoring of alleged rights violations in Belarus. The resolution came after the violent crackdown on protests of disputed presidential election.[772]

On 17 April 2021, the Russian FSB issued a statement that it had prevented an attempt at a coup d'état in Belarus, said to have been planned with the support of the United States, in collaboration with the Belarusian KGB.[773] Some political pundits and the US Department of State dismissed the allegation as false.[774][775]

Support for victims

Unregistered candidate Valery Tsepkalo created a non-profit organization "Belarus of the Future". The primary goal of the program was to support citizens of Belarus who suffered from political repression. Before the organization existed, people self-organized the funds with the same concept to support victims of oppression in Belarus, paying for received fines they received during the protests.[776]

9 November 2020 protest in Toruń against Poland's new abortion laws: protesters supporting Belarus democratic rallies

Mikita Mikado, the CEO of PandaDoc, which has Belarusian roots, offered to support authorities (police officers, army and security forces) that want to retire, but cannot because for financial reasons.[777][778] The CEO was planning to resign based on the latest events. Mikado published a video and asked to contact him directly to get full support.[777]

Alexander Shneerson, the CEO of ISSoft, announced "The Belarusian society has invested a lot in the IT industry. We are part of the people of Belarus and we believe that the time has come for IT specialists to support those who suffered during the peaceful protests."[779]

The Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki announced on 14 August an €11 million fund to help protesters get visas and settle in Poland. Morawiecki stated that Poland would provide support for Belarusian independent media and non-governmental organisations, and scholarships would also be available to Belarusian students in Poland.[753] Lithuania offered medical assistance to injured protesters.[753]

On 19 August, the EU promised €2 million to assist the victims of state violence and €1 million to support independent media as part of a €53 million package to support a peaceful transition.[755]

Mikhail Orda, chairman of the Federation of Trade Unions of Belarus, called for law officers to investigate every case of violence in a detailed and objective manner, adding that the trade unions were willing to provide legal assistance to all victims.[780]

Symbols

Protesters are waving the flags of the European Union and red-and-white flags (the official Belarusian flag from 1991 to 1995) during a rally against Lukashenko.

The red-and-white flag, the official flag of independent Belarus from 1991 to 1995, has been adopted by the pro-democracy opposition, becoming a symbol. De facto banned by the authorities, the flag has been frequently confiscated by the police at demonstrations[8] and became a symbol for everyone who actively opposed Lukashenko.[10] Other symbols used by opposition supporters include the former coat of arms of Belarus, known as the Pahonia (the historical coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania),[781] and the song Vajacki marš,[782] which was the national anthem of the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic, as well as the song Pahonia (lyrics based on the poem by Maksim Bahdanovich, music by Mikola Kulikovich).[783][784][785] A common slogan used by protesters is the phrase Long live Belarus! (Жыве Беларусь!, romanised: Žyvie Biełaruś!).[786][787] Anti-Lukashenko protesters have also used the current state flag of Belarus on rare occasions.[788] In a few isolated cases anti-Lukashenko demonstrators have used the flag of Europe.[789]

The current state flag of Belarus has been universally used at demonstrations in support of Alexander Lukashenko.[790][791] In a few isolated cases pro-Lukashenko demonstrators have used the flag of Russia, the Banner of Victory against Nazi Germany, the flag of the Soviet Union and the Ribbon of Saint George.[792][791][793]

See also

  • 2021 Russian protests
  • 2011 Belarusian protests
  • 2017 Belarusian protests
  • 1996 Belarusian protests
  • 1991 Belarusian Revolution
  • Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic

Notes

  1. Freedom March
  2. March of New Belarus

References

  1. "More Than 1,000 Belarusians Protest Lukashenka's Bid For Sixth Term". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-05-24. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  2. Паслухайце, як віцебскі чыноўнік прымушае выбарчую камісію замяніць лічбы ў пратаколах АЎДЫЯ. Наша Ніва (in Belarusian).
  3. "Belarus: Anti-government protesters rally ahead of presidential vote". Deutsche Welle. 2020-07-19. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  4. "Belarus protests have roots in Lukashenko's repression | DW | 19.08.2020". DW.COM.
  5. "Belarus election: Exiled leader calls weekend of 'peaceful rallies'". BBC News. 2020-08-14.
  6. "Тихановская инициировала создание координационного совета для передачи власти". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). 2020-08-14.
  7. "Диалог или коллапс. Уйдёт ли Лукашенко под давлением рабочих". Naviny.by. BelaPAN. 2020-08-18.
  8. Ulasik, Valeriya; Shalayeva, Alena; Wesolowsky, Tony (2019-08-04). "Unflagging Protest: Belarus's Opposition Inspired By A Pensioner And Her Outlawed Banner". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2020-03-24.
  9. "БСДП (Грамада) заклікала галасаваць за Ціханоўскую і адстойваць права на свабодныя выбары". Radio Svaboda (in unknown language). 2020-07-23.
  10. "Here's why are protesters in Belarus are flying a white-and-red flag". Meduza. 2020-08-14. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  11. "К нескольким студентам вчера пришли с обыском". Tut.By (in Russian). 2020-11-13. Archived from the original on 2020-11-13.
  12. Gushtyn, Adar’ya (2020-06-18). "В центре Минска выстроилась цепь солидарности: акция длилась более шести часов". Tut.By (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2020-06-18. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  13. "«Победительницей выборов стала Тихановская». Оппозиция выступила с совместным заявлением". Telegraf.by (in Russian). 2020-08-12.
  14. "КХП-БНФ создаёт Белорусский нацсекретариат: действующих оппозиционеров не позвали" (in Russian). 2020-08-12.
  15. "Заявление Белорусской партии левых «Справедливый мир»" (in Russian). Belarusian Left Party "A Just World". 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  16. "В Минске задержан лидер «Молодого фронта» Денис Урбанович". European Radio for Belarus (in Russian). 2020-05-31.
  17. "Belarus: Anarchists in the Uprising against the Dictatorship". CrimethInc. 2020-08-12.
  18. "Анархисты в Минске провели пикет против клана Лукашенко" (in Russian). Charter 97. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  19. "Call for solidarity actions with the uprising against the Lukashenko regime – 14 August". Belarus Anarchist Black Cross. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  20. "There's no going back". Pramen. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  21. "БЕЛАРУСЫ ЗМАГАЮЦЦА ЗА СВАЮ І ВАШУ СВАБОДУ – ЗВАРОТ СТАРШЫНІ РАДЫ БНР ІВОНКІ СУРВІЛЛЫ (пераклад) | Рада Беларускай Народнай Рэспублікі". Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  22. Moloney, Anastasia (2020-08-26). "'Keep on Fighting', veteran female leader tells young Belarusians". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-08-27.
  23. "Białoruś: "armia nie dopuści do upadku państwa"". Defence24.pl (in Polish). 2020-07-18.
  24. "СМИ: в Бресте подняли 38 бригаду ВДВ". mk.ru.
  25. "В разгоне протестов принимают участие офицеры спецназа Минобороны в штатском?" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  26. "На улицах Минска появились внедорожники, которые есть только у Сил спецопераций. Разобрались в вопросе" (in Russian). 21.by. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  27. "На судзе ў справе Шутава стала вядома, хто загадаў выкарыстоўваць узброеных вайскоўцаў падчас пратэстаў" (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-02-17. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  28. "На суде по делу Шутова стало известно, кто отдал приказ использовать вооруженных военнослужащих во время протестов в Бресте" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-17. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  29. ""Хотел выстрелить в предплечье". Военнослужащий, застреливший 11 августа Геннадия Шутова, дал показания в суде" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-16. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  30. ""Хацеў стрэліць у перадплечча". На судзе ў Берасьці стала вядома, хто забіў Генадзя Шутава" (in Belarusian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-16. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  31. "Участие в митинге на площади Независимости | КОММУНИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ПАРТИЯ БЕЛАРУСИ". comparty.by.
  32. "Belarus opposition leader flees abroad with two sons ahead of election". Reuters. 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-24.
  33. Vasilyeva, Nataliya (2020-08-10). "Belarus' authoritarian leader wins elections by landslide as protests erupt". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  34. Auseyushkin, Yan; Roth, Andrew (2020-08-11). "Will knocking Belarus offline save president from protests?". The Guardian. London.
  35. "Кандрусевіч у інтэрвію польскай тэлевізіі: "Ёсьць падставы меркаваць, што выбары праходзілі несумленна"" [Kondrusiewicz in an interview with Polish television: "There is reason to believe that the election was dishonest."] (in Belarusian). 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  36. "Archbishop stands by detained Belarus protesters". The Tablet. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  37. Dixon, Robyn (2020-08-09). "Belarusan election officials say exit polls favor Lukashenko". The Washington Post.
  38. "Yermoshina: Polls in Telegram channels are a hoax". BelTA. Minsk. 2020-08-09.
  39. "Глава МВД Беларуси взял ответственность за травмы попавших под раздачу". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2020-08-13.
  40. "Глава МВД Белоруссии взял ответственность за попавших под раздачу". RBK Group. 2020-08-13.
  41. "Protestors pack Belarus capital, Russia offers Lukashenko military help". France 24. 2020-08-17.
  42. "Мінск. А вось сколькі людзей прыйшло да Стэлы, каб дамагчыся перагляду вынікаў выбараў. Па адчуванням, іх тут разы ў чатыры больш, чым было на лукашэнкаўскім мітынгу. То бок, тут ужо 200–300 тысяч чалавек, і людзі працягваюць падыходзіць!". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
  43. "🔥🔥🔥У Стелы в Минске сейчас находится более 300 тысяч человек". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
  44. "Мінск. Нешта фантастычнае на Стэле. Экс-прадзюсар "Ляписа Трубецкого" Яўген Калмыкоў — прафесійны арганізатар масавых мерапрыемстваў — сваім намятаным вокам ацэньвае колькасць удзельнікаў акцыі ў 400 тысяч чалавек". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
  45. "У Горадні скончыўся мітынг. Ён сабраў каля 40 тысяч чалавек. Людзі прайшлі ад Савецкай плошчы да плошчы Леніна па цэнтры гораду. Агучылі патрабаваньні да ўладаў. На сцэне працаваў свабодны мікрафон. Падзея прайшла без правакацыяў і затрыманьняў". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
  46. "Могилев. По нашим оценкам, более 10 тысяч человек вышли сегодня на улицы требовать отставки Александра Лукашенко и наказания виновных в избиении белорусов 9–12 августа". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
  47. Franak Viačorka [@franakviacorka] (2020-08-23). "15:10 — ~202k" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2020-08-23 via Twitter.
  48. "According to various estimates, up to 250,000 people have gathered at Independence square and more are gathering at the adjacent streets". belarusfeed. 2020-08-23. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23.
  49. Franak Viačorka [@franakviacorka] (2020-08-23). "According to various estimates, from 80 to 250 thousands joined the rally today. Many rallies are taking part in other cities today as well. According to organizers, more than 0.5 million are protesting today across the country" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2020-08-23 via Twitter.
  50. "Kaatuuko Valko-Venäjän diktaattori Lukašenka pian? Se riippuu ainakin kolmesta tekijästä, vastaa asiantuntija". Yle Uutiset.
  51. "Brutalised Minsk: how Belarusian police beat protesters". Mediazona Belarus. 2020-11-21. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  52. "Protesters keep pressure on Belarus' dictator, and pay the price". CBS News. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-16. At least four people have purportedly died
  53. "UN: Widespread Human Rights Violations Continue Unchecked in Belarus". Voice of America. 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  54. "Агульная лічба затрыманых за час пратэстаў перавысіла 30 тысяч чалавек". Nasha Niva (in Belarusian). 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  55. "Balloon Launches Mark Opposition To Belarus's Lukashenka". Radio Free Eupore. 2020-12-27. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
  56. "Сотня в лікарнях, десятки зникли безвісти: що відомо про долю мітингувальників з Білорусі". 24 Канал.
  57. "Exiled Belarusian leader calls on Ireland to "be more vocal" against Lukashenko regime". BreakingNews.ie. 2020-12-18. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  58. МВД Белоруссии сообщило о 39 пострадавших в столкновениях силовиках (in Russian). RBC. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  59. Karmanau, Yuras (2020-08-13). "Hundreds form human chains as Belarus protests intensify". Global News.
  60. "Belarus election: Opposition disputes Lukashenko landslide win". BBC News. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  61. Shkliarov, Vitali (2020-06-04). "Belarus Is Having an Anti-'Cockroach' Revolution". Foreign Policy.
  62. Hrydzin, Uladz (2020-05-25). "Belarusians Protest Against Lukashenka's Run For a Sixth Term As President". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  63. У Менску загінуў удзельнік акцыі пратэсту. Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). 2020-08-10.
  64. Grekowicz, Nikita (2020-08-16). "Łukaszence został już tylko Putin, Cichanouska wzywa do lokalnego przejmowania władzy" [Lukashenko only has Putin left, Tsikhanovskaya calls for local taking over of power]. OKO.press (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2020-08-16. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
  65. "Belarus: Lukashenko inaugurated in unannounced ceremony". BBC News. 2020-09-23. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  66. "Belarus: Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the so-called 'inauguration' of Aleksandr Lukashenko". www.consilium.europa.eu.
  67. "EU imposes sanctions on Belarus officials but not on Lukashenko". the Guardian. 2020-10-02.
  68. Tidey, Alice (2020-10-02). "Belarus: EU agrees sanctions on 40 officials but not Lukashenko". Euronews. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  69. "UN human rights experts: Belarus must stop torturing protesters and prevent enforced disappearances". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  70. "Human Rights Situation in Belarus in 2020". Viasna. 2021-01-08.
  71. Nechepurenko, Ivan (2020-08-07). "Europe's 'Last Dictator,' Facing Re-Election, Is Increasingly in Peril". The New York Times.
  72. Dorokhov, Vladimir; Goncharenko, Roman (2020-08-06). "Belarus elections: Lukashenko's authoritarian grip faces test". Deutsche Welle.
  73. "Belarus' Lukashenko outlaws protests, arrests opponents". Deutsche Welle. AFP, dpa. 2020-06-01.
  74. Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-08-06). "Five Factors That Ensure Lukashenka Wins Every Election In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  75. "Belarus: Could slippers topple a president who has been in power for 26 years?". Sky News. 2020-06-02.
  76. Dettmer, Jramie (2020-06-22). "'Slipper Revolution' Shakes Belarus". Voice of America.
  77. Новиков, Сергей Петрович. "Рохлин". «Математики за кулисами социализма. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15.
  78. "Watching the Mighty Cockroach Fall". Asia Society. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  79. Beckett, Sandra L. (2013-10-11). Transcending Boundaries: Writing for a Dual Audience of Children and Adults. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-68586-7.
  80. Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-05-27). "Although Banned From Running, Vlogger's Calls To Cast Out 'Cockroach' Lukashenka Resonating With Many Belarusians". Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  81. "Страна для жизни – YouTube". Retrieved 2020-08-18 via YouTube.
  82. "'Slipper Revolution' Shakes Belarus". Voice of America. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  83. "Belarus arrests journalists and protesters as president says he has foiled 'foreign plot'". Agence France-Presse. 2020-06-19 via The Telegraph.
  84. AFP, Tatiana Kalinovskaya for (2020-06-19). "Belarus Leader's Election Rival Detained as Crackdown Intensifies". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  85. Ilyushina, Mary (2020-06-21). "Belarus strongman faces mass protests after jailing of his main rivals". CNN.
  86. "Belarus opposition protests end in arrests". BBC News. 2020-06-20.
  87. "Belarus: The three women on a 'mission' to take on Europe's last dictator". Sky News. 2020-08-08.
  88. "Belarus: Crackdown on Political Activists, Journalists". Human Rights Watch. 2020-07-30. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  89. "How poor handling of Covid-19 has caused uproar in Belarus". New Statesman.
  90. Shotter, James; Seddon, Max (2020-06-23). "Belarus's middle class begins to turn on Lukashenko". Financial Times.
  91. "Jak nie opozycja, to może koronawirus i tonąca gospodarka pokona wreszcie Łukaszenkę". onet.pl. 2020-07-05.
  92. "Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe". osce.org.
  93. Vasilyeva, Nataliya (2020-07-14). "Authorities in Belarus to charge anti-government protesters with rioting for clashing with police". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
  94. Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-08-06). "Five Factors That Ensure Lukashenka Wins Every Election In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  95. "Belarus ruler Lukashenko says Russia lying over 'mercenaries'". BBC News. 2020-08-04.
  96. "Belarus hands over 32 of 33 Russian Wagner mercenaries to Russia". euromaidanpress. 2020-08-15.
  97. "Tens Of Thousands Rally In Minsk In Support Of Opposition Presidential Candidate". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  98. "Belarusian authorities to hold concerts in Minsk park to prevent more opposition rallies". intellinews.com. 2020-08-04. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  99. Hashmi, Faizan (2020-07-31). "Minsk Says 18,250 People Attended Presidential Candidate Tikhanovskayas Rally, Not 63,000". Urdu Point. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  100. "Thousands protest in Belarus calling for a fair election". Euronews. 2020-08-06.
  101. Auseyushkin, Yan; Roth, Andrew (2020-08-10). "Belarus election: Lukashenko's claim of landslide victory sparks widespread protests". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  102. "Belarus election: Protests break out after disputed presidential vote". euronews. 2020-08-09. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  103. Kolos, Tamara (2020-08-10). "Что происходит с интернетом в Беларуси — мнение технических специалистов" [What happens to the Internet in Belarus – technical experts' opinion]. 42.tut.by. Archived from the original on 2020-08-11. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  104. Davlashyan, Naira (2020-08-12). "What is Nexta — the Telegram channel reporting on Belarus' protests?". euronews. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  105. Coalson, Robert. "How Telegram Users Found A Way Through Belarus's Internet Lockdown". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  106. "Belarus elections – crackdown on press freedom". freepressunlimited.org. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  107. "Belarus protesters use vehicles to block police from demonstrations over 'rigged election'". The France 24 Observers. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  108. "Police Crack Down On Protests In Belarus After Results Show Lukashenka Winning In Landslide". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  109. "Hundreds detained, firearms used in third night of Belarus unrest". Bangkok Post. Agence France-Presse. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  110. Gerdžiūnas, Benas (2020-08-11). "As shots and explosions shake Minsk, people call for help from Lithuania". LRT English. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  111. ""Он педагог, интеллектуал". Самому старшему задержанному после выборов 73 года. Его схватили у школы" ["He's an educator, an intellectual." The oldest detainee since the election is 73. He was grabbed by a school]. TUT.BY. 2020-08-14. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14.
  112. "Двух каталіцкіх святароў трымаюць за кратамі ў Баранавічах" [Two Catholic priests in Baranavichy]. Belsat.eu. 2020-08-15. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  113. "Challenger fled Belarus 'for sake of her children'". BBC News. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  114. Второй день протестов в Беларуси. Первый погибший и баррикады. News.tut.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  115. Beswick, Emma (2020-08-11). "Belarus: More arrests and unrest in third night of election protests". euronews.
  116. "Менск: да "Рыгі" дабраліся сілавікі, пачалася зачыстка, чуваць шумавыя гранаты, будуюцца барыкады". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  117. "В МИД Чехии заявили о соблюдении эмбарго на поставки светошумовых гранат в Беларусь" [The Czech Foreign Ministry said it complied with the embargo on the supply of flashbang grenades to Belarus.]. 42.tut.by/TASS.ru. 2020-08-10. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  118. "Журналисты телеканала "Белсат" заметили, что ОМОН в Минске передвигается на машинах скорой помощи" [Belsat TV journalists have noticed that Minsk riot police are moving in ambulances.]. Echo.msk.ru. 2020-08-05. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  119. "В Минске видели машины скорой с водителем в балаклаве. Что это было?" [In Minsk, they saw ambulances with the driver in a balaclava. What was that?]. Tut.by. 2020-08-12. Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  120. Халип, Ирина (2020-08-15). "Каратель по вызову: Избиениями и задержаниями в Минске 10 августа командовал отставной командир "эскадрона смерти"" [On-call prisoner: Beatings and detentions in Minsk on August 10 were commanded by a retired commander of the "death squadron".]. Novaya Gazeta.
  121. "Много техники и силовиков, отобранные у фотографов СМИ флешки. Что происходит 11 августа в городах страны. Онлайн" [A lot of equipment and security personnel, selected from the photographers of the media flash drives. What's happening in the country's cities August 11. Online.]. News.tut.by. 2020-08-11. Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  122. "В Бресте милиция стреляла в протестующих из табельного оружия на поражение. Есть раненый" [In Brest, police shot protesters with a service weapon to kill them. One man was wounded]. Tut.by. Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  123. ""Повреждения мозга у отца тяжелые, он на ИВЛ". Что с брестчанином, в которого стреляли на протестах" ["Dad's brain damage is severe, he's on EVL." What about the Brest man who was shot at the protests]. TUT.BY. 2020-08-14. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14.
  124. "Фейки и Молотов: как прошла вторая ночь белорусских протестов". Газета.Ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  125. Naylor, Aliide. "Belarus Turned Off the Internet. Its Citizens Hot-Wired It". Gizmodo.
  126. "There's more to Belarus's 'Telegram Revolution' than a cellphone app". The Washington Post. 2020-09-11. highlighting the use of the popular messaging app for sharing information.
  127. Рудь, Андрей (2020-08-12). "В гомельской больнице умер задержанный на акции протеста. СК проводит проверку – Люди Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  128. Germanovich, Alena (2020-08-11). "В Гомельской области во время акции протеста задержано около 500 человек" [About 500 people were detained during a protest in the Gomel region.]. Belapan.by. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  129. "У Гародні бранявік карнікаў пратараніў аўто з 5-гадовай дзяўчынкай". charter97.org (in Belarusian).
  130. "После выборов: цепи солидарности, реакция МИД, жалоба Тихановской в ЦИК и помощь пострадавшим" [After the elections: chains of solidarity, reaction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tikhanovskaya's complaint to the CEC and assistance to the victims.]. Onliner.by. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  131. A white ribbon was proposed by the election HQ of Tsikhanouskaya as a sign to identify those who wanted to vote for her.
  132. "Belarus 'uniform shame' becomes viral protest". BBC News. 2020-08-14.
  133. "Belarus protests: Police admit using live rounds in clashes with demonstrators". The Independent.co.uk. 2020-08-12.
  134. "«ОМОН передвигается на машинах скорой помощи". reactor.cc. 2020-08-13.
  135. "«ОМОН в Минске передвигается на машинах скорой помощи". ng.ru. 2020-08-13.
  136. В Минске уже с раннего утра — цепи солидарности. Tut.by (13 August 2020)
  137. Минск сегодня вечером: что происходит в городе. Onliner.by (13 August 2020)
  138. Что сегодня происходит в Гомеле, Гродно, Могилеве и других городах. Onliner.by (13 August 2020).
  139. "Belarus election: Women form 'solidarity chains' to condemn crackdown". BBC. 2020-08-13.
  140. Burkovsky, Denis (11 August 2020) Рассказываем, что за гранатомет был замечен вчера у спецназовца «Алмаза» в Минске. 42.tut.by. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  141. ""Там творится какой-то ад". Истории людей, которые побывали в изоляторе на Окрестина после выборов". TUT.BY. 2020-08-13. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14.
  142. "Белорусские тюрьмы не справляются: подробности об условиях для задержанных активистов". 24 Канал.
  143. ""В тюрьме нас раздели догола и заставили приседать": бывший сотрудник МЧС рассказал, как был жестко задержан и провел одну ночь в заключении". NewGrodno.By. 2020-08-13.
  144. "Белорусский правозащитник — о задержаниях людей, пытках в тюрьмах и конвейерных судах". znak.com.
  145. "'How Can This Be Our Country?': Claims Of Torture Abound As Belarusian Jails Swell". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  146. Sandford, Alasdair (2020-08-14). "Belarus crackdown: Evidence grows of widespread torture as protesters are freed". Euro news.
  147. Fokht, Elizaveta (2020-08-15). "'If you croak we don't care': Brutality in Belarus". BBC News.
  148. "СМИ опубликовали аудиозапись пыток в минском СИЗО. На ней слышны крики и удары". gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
  149. Wavering soldiers and striking workers pile pressure on Lukashenko as Belarus protest take revolutionary turn. The Independent (14 August 2020).
  150. Oliver Carroll, Wavering soldiers and striking workers pile pressure on Lukashenko as Belarus protests take revolutionary turn: Embattled autocrat warns Belarusians to stay off the streets, The Independent (14 August 2020).
  151. "Belarus Victim's Wife". AP Images. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  152. "Видео убийства спецназовцами Александра Тарайковского (обновлено)". charter97.org (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  153. Лукашенко планирует бегтсво в Россию. searchnews (in Russian). 2020-08-15.
  154. "Bloomberg узнал о планах окружения Лукашенко в случае его свержения". Газета.Ru.
  155. "Natallia Radzina To Russian Journalists: Will Russian Troops Invade Belarus?". charter97.org.
  156. Hurst, Luke (2020-08-15). "Lukashenko calls Putin as demonstrators gather once again in Belarus". euronews.
  157. "About 400 people form chain near Belarusian embassy in Moscow". TASS. 2020-08-15.
  158. "Still happening For six consecutive Saturday, thousands march in Khabarovsk in support of ousted governor". Meduza. 2020-08-15.
  159. Sergei Kuznetsov, Massive Belarus opposition rally calls for Lukashenko's ouster, Politico (16 August 2020).
  160. "Lukashenka Rules Out Repeat Vote As Massive Crowd Turns Out For Opposition". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  161. "NATO denies Belarus claim of military buildup, but watching situation". Reuters. 2020-08-16.
  162. "Workers boo Belarus president as protests spread". BBC News. 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  163. "Russia says military help available for Belarus; huge protest held in Minsk". WKZO. 2020-08-16.
  164. "Белорусские СМИ сообщили о задержаниях в Минске после митинга". gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
  165. "В инстаграме от имени бывшего белорусского премьера поддержали протестующих". Meduza (in Russian). 2020-08-16. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  166. "Наша Нiва". Telegram.
  167. "Belarus: Rival rallies as Lukashenko claims NATO deployed to border". Deutsche Welle. 2020-08-16.
  168. Axe, David (2020-08-16). "Russia May Have Just Gotten The Green Light To Intervene In Belarus". Forbes.
  169. "CIT сообщила о грузовиках Росгвардии без опознавательных знаков, следовавших в сторону границы с Беларусью". Dozhd. 2020-08-17.
  170. "Workers boo Belarus president as protests spread". BBC News. 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  171. "Лукашенко приехал на бастующий минский завод. Его встретили криками "Уходи". Видео". gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  172. "Lukashenko pledges adequate response to provocations". eng.belta.by. 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  173. "European Parliament does not recognize Lukashenko as elected president of Belarus". TASS.
  174. "NEXTA Live Translated to English". Telegram.
  175. Teslova, Elena (2020-08-17). "Belarus: Opposition leader says 'ready to lead country'". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  176. "Heckled And Jeered, Lukashenka Says New Election Could Be Held After Constitutional Changes". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  177. "Belarus: Lukashenko hints at new elections after constitutional change". DW. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  178. "Lukashenko about redistribution of authority, amendments to Constitution: Not under pressure". Belta. 2020-08-17.
  179. "Belarusian government resigns". eng.belta.by. 2020-08-17.
  180. "Government of Belarus resigns". EN24. 2020-08-17. Archived from the original on 2020-09-13. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  181. Латушко уволен с поста директора Купаловского. Tut.by. 17 August 2020.
  182. «Мы с народом и ни шага назад». Шахтеры с городской сцены объявили о бессрочной забастовке. Tut.by. 17 August 2020.
  183. Белорусский металлургический завод остановил работу всех печей. Interfax. 17 August 2020.
  184. Belarus potash producer stops some output amid strike -TASS, citing union. Reuters. 17 August 2020.
  185. Предприятия выходят на забастовки, среди них — промышленные гиганты. Как прошел понедельник. Tut.by. 17 August 2020.
  186. МТЗ и другие предприятия объявили забастовки. Онлайн. Onliner.by. 17 August 2020.
  187. Strikes in Minsk: Helicoptering Lukashenka and angry workers (video, photos). Belsat. 17 August 2020.
  188. Сколько человек считаются пропавшими после выборов в Беларуси? Посчитали сами и спросили у МВД. Tut.by. 17 August 2020.<
  189. "Belarus ambassador who sided with protests says Moscow won't send troops". Politico. 2020-08-17.
  190. "Major int'l brands pull commercials from Belarusian TV – media". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 2020-08-18.
  191. "Belarus live updates: Merkel calls for 'national dialogue'". DW. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  192. "Merkel: Belarusian government must avoid violence and start national dialogue". Reuters. 2020-08-18.
  193. "Belarusian ambassador, entire theatre troupe resign as dissent against president mounts". CP24. 2020-08-18.
  194. "Merkel and Putin discuss political crisis in Belarus". Financial Times. 2020-08-18.
  195. "Belarus opposition leader decries "rotting system" as strikes ramp up". CBS News. 2020-08-18.
  196. "Belarus State News Circulates Misleading Anti-Opposition Video". The Moscow Times. 2020-08-18.
  197. "Rally in Mogilev | In Pictures | Belarus News | Belarusian news | Belarus today | news in Belarus | Minsk news | BELTA". eng.belta.by. 2020-08-18.
  198. "Lukashenko Supporters Unfurl Giant Belarus Flag During Rally in Gomel". Yahoo! News.
  199. "Митинги за и против Лукашенко, сладкий стол на пл. Независимости и Вольский в Гродно. Каким был протестный вечер 18 августа". TUT.BY. 2020-08-18. Archived from the original on 2020-08-18.
  200. "В Могилеве автомобиль намеренно сбил участника митинга". The World News. 2020-08-18.
  201. "Премьер Белоруссии: все предприятия реального сектора экономики работают в штатном режиме". ТАСС. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  202. "ОМОН в среду утром разогнал людей у проходной МТЗ. Что происходило у предприятия". finance.tut.by (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  203. "Belarus' President Lukashenko launches a counteroffensive against protests in co-ordination with Moscow". bne intellinews. 2020-08-20.
  204. "Врач президентской лечкомиссии уволился в знак протеста: "Мой народ унизили и растерзали"". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  205. ""Моих коллег сломали и сделали преступниками". Директор школы в Полоцке увольняется в знак протеста". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  206. "Более 200 спортсменов и работников отрасли подписались под письмом с требованиями к власти. Есть суперзвезды". sport.tut.by (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  207. ""Требуем признать выборы недействительными". Более 200 спортсменов и работников отрасли подписались под открытым письмом с требованиями к власти". Прессбол. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  208. Meredith, Sam (2020-08-19). "EU to impose sanctions on Belarusian officials for election fraud, calls for a new vote". CNBC.
  209. "EU threatens Belarus sanctions as it rejects election result". Sky News. 2020-08-19.
  210. "Belarus unrest: Lukashenko steps up efforts to reassert control". BBC. 2020-08-19.
  211. "Над Бобруйском пролетел вертолет с красно-зеленым флагом" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  212. "Вертолет с красно-зеленым флагом пролетел в Борисове" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  213. "Колонна людей идет на митинг в поддержку Лукашенко в Бобруйске" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  214. "Колонна людей идет на митинг в поддержку Лукашенко в Борисове" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  215. ""Не дазволім разваліць краіну". Агітацыя за Лукашэнку пасьля прэзыдэнцкіх выбараў". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  216. "Атмосфера на митинге за Лукашенко у ст. м. "Могилевская" в Минске" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  217. ""Больш ня можам казаць "Добрай раніцы"". На знак пратэсту звальняецца калектыў радыё "Сталіца"". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  218. "Belarusian protesters defy Lukashenko, EU announces sanctions". WTVB. 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-20. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  219. "'Kurapaty-Akrestsin prison: Never again'. Repentance Chain in Minsk (photo report)". belsat.eu.
  220. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  221. "Belarus Opens Criminal Probe Against Oppositions Coordination Council- Prosecutor General". UrduPoint.
  222. "Координационный совет" via Facebook.
  223. "Яшчэ чацьвёра афіцэраў падалі рапарты аб звальненьні". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  224. "Belarus strikes must continue and grow, opposition leader says". BBC News. 2020-08-21.
  225. "Колонна авто с красно зелеными-флагами и вертолет над проспектом Независимости" (in Belarusian) via YouTube.
  226. "'Supporters' Of Cockroach Retreat From Square". charter97.org.
  227. "Belarus opposition council members summoned for questioning". Gulf Times. 2020-08-21.
  228. ""Едзьце да яе. Штаб у Літве". На акцыю пад чырвона-зялёнымі сьцягамі ў Горадні прыйшло 30 чалавек". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  229. "Праўрадавае шэсьце і пратэстоўцы побач у Слуцку. ШМАТ ФОТА". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian).
  230. "Euroradio". Telegram.
  231. "Macron offers EU mediation with Russia on Belarus crisis". WION.
  232. "Macron, Merkel offer EU mediation for Belarus election stand-off in concert with Russia". France 24. 2020-08-20.
  233. "Вадим Девятовский: "Лукашенко не мой Президент!!!!!"". naviny.by. 2020-08-21.
  234. "Vadim Devyatovskiy" via Facebook.
  235. "Belarus authorities raise pressure on protest leaders". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2020-08-21.
  236. "OSCE to meet with government, opposition in Belarus". aa.com. 2020-08-21.
  237. "У Гомлі перакрылі вуліцу Савецкую, на плошчу Леніна гоняць трактары і камбайны". Радыё Свабода.
  238. "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 via YouTube.
  239. "Лукашенко принял решение назначить Караника губернатором Гродненской области, областные депутаты поддержали". belta.by. 2020-08-22.
  240. "Лукашэнка: "Субота, нядзеля на роздумы. З панядзелка хай не крыўдуюць"". Радыё Свабода.
  241. "У Горадні падчас мітынгу за Лукашэнку затрымалі журналістаў". Радыё Свабода.
  242. "14-ы дзень пратэстаў. Акцыі ў Менску і Берасьці. Лукашэнка даў апанэнтам два дні "на роздумы". Што адбываецца ў Беларусі". Радыё Свабода.
  243. "Марш супраць забойстваў і гвалту ў Берасьці. СТРЫМ СВАБОДЫ". Радыё Свабода.
  244. "Belarusians Gather For Anti-Lukashenka Rally As Army Issues Warning". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  245. "Minsk Police Aware Of Planned Provocations During Protests". UrduPoint.
  246. "Tweet". Retrieved 2020-08-30 via Twitter.
  247. Grzegorczyk, Marek (2020-08-22). "Lithuania to recreate spirit of Baltic Way with human chain for Belarus". Emerging Europe | Intelligence, Community, News.
  248. Walker, Shaun (2020-08-23). "Belarusians fear crackdown on planned day of protest". The Guardian.
  249. "Belarus army to take over protection of memorial monuments | The Star". The Star. Malaysia.
  250. "Радыё Свабода — Беларусь". Telegram.
  251. "Euroradio". Telegram.
  252. "Как проходит 15-й день митингующей Беларуси. Онлайн". TUT.BY. 2020-08-23. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  253. "Медиазона. Беларусь". Telegram.
  254. "NEXTA Live". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  255. "Euroradio". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  256. "Радыё Свабода — Беларусь". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  257. "NEXTA Live". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  258. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  259. "#МотолькоПомоги этому городишко от 3% избавиться". Telegram.
  260. "#МотолькоПомоги этому городишко от 3% избавиться". Telegram.
  261. "Наша Нiва". Telegram.
  262. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  263. ""Мы с ними разберемся": Лукашенко прилетел в резиденцию с автоматом и сыном Колей" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  264. "Марш новой Беларуси. Онлайн". Медиазона Беларусь.
  265. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  266. "Белсат". Telegram.
  267. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  268. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  269. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  270. Олехнович, Виталий (2020-08-23). "Перебои с интернетом вызваны обеспечением национальной безопасности. Комментарий оператора – Технологии Onliner". Onliner.
  271. "Белсат". Telegram.
  272. "Власти: на митинге сторонников Лукашенко было в 5 раз больше людей, чем на акциях протеста в разных городах". openmedia.io.
  273. "Belarus holds opposition figures after mass rally". BBC News. 2020-08-24. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  274. hermesauto (2020-08-24). "Belarus detains two members of opposition council". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  275. Reuters (2020-08-24). "Belarus Detains Two Members of Opposition Council". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  276. Roland Nilson [@rolandnil] (2020-08-24). "Sergei Dylevsky and Olga Kovalkova of the Coordination Council detained by police outside MTZ, Minsk, #Belarus t.co/8iPYC90fzB" (Tweet). Retrieved 2021-05-01 via Twitter.
  277. "Сьвятлану Алексіевіч выклікалі ў Сьледчы камітэт у справе аб закліках да "захопу ўлады"". Радыё Свабода.
  278. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  279. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  280. "Белсат". Telegram.
  281. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  282. "16-ы дзень пратэстаў, затрыманьні лідэраў страйкамаў. Што адбываецца ў Беларусі". Радыё Свабода.
  283. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  284. "NEXTA Live Translated to English". Telegram.
  285. "Those unwilling to follow state ideology shouldn't teach at schools, Lukashenko says". TASS.
  286. "Звольнілі супрацоўніка МЗС, які выйшаў на пікет, каб выказаць нязгоду з гвалтам міліцыі ў Беларусі". Радыё Свабода.
  287. "Belarus' Mi-24 helicopter suspected of violating Lithuania's airspace". 2020-08-24.
  288. "Послу Литвы вручена нота протеста в связи с инцидентом на госгранице". belta.by (in Russian). 2020-08-24. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  289. "Balloons spark Lithuania-Belarus border row". 2020-08-24.
  290. "Belarus detains, questions members of opposition Coordination Council". Baltic News Network – News from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia. 2020-08-25. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  291. "Member of the Council of Opposition of Belarus Dylevsky was arrested for ten days". Retrieved 2020-08-26.
  292. "Belarus jails second opposition member for 10 days | The Star". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  293. "Belarus jails two opposition leaders; teachers head rally of thousands". Reuters. 2020-08-26. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  294. "Belarus KGB to question Nobel laureate Svetlana Alexievich". The Australian. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  295. "Teachers protest in face of Lukashenka's order to 'deal with' dissenters in schools". belsat.eu. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  296. "Сьвята Незалежнасьці ў Менску. ВІДЭА". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  297. "NEXTA Live Translated to English". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  298. "Белсат". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  299. "Белсат". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  300. "За падтрымку пратэстоўцаў адкліканы і звольнены яшчэ адзін беларускі дыплямат". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  301. "По 20 округам Минска инициируют отзыв депутатов Палаты представителей. Что это значит?". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-26. Archived from the original on 2020-08-28. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  302. "Criminal probe: Nobel laureate refuses to answer Belarus investigators". today.rtl.lu. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  303. "Search begins in the house of the fugitive leader of the Belarusian opposition". Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  304. "Работнікі БелАЗ у Жодзіна выйшлі на "марш салідарнасьці". Фота". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  305. "Белсат". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  306. "EU calls on Moscow to refrain from Belarus intervention". euronews. 2020-08-28. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  307. "NEXTA Live". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  308. "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 via YouTube.
  309. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  310. "У Менску затрыманьні, АМАП заблякаваў людзей у Чырвоным касьцёле. Каталіцкі біскуп заявіў пратэст сілавікам". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  311. "Біскуп Юрый Касабуцкі заяўляе пратэст на дзеянні сілавых структур на тэрыторыі Чырвонага касцёла". catholic.by (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  312. "Путин: Россия по просьбе Лукашенко создала резерв правоохранителей для помощи Беларуси". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-27. Archived from the original on 2020-08-28. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  313. "Беларусь не сочла необходимым визит глав правительств и МИД стран Балтии-премьер Эстонии". interfax.by (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  314. "Several journalists apprehended in Minsk, including TASS press photographer Bobylev". TASS. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  315. "Belarus detains around 20 journalists preparing to cover protest: Reuters witness". Reuters. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  316. "На менскай плошчы Свабоды масава затрымалі журналістаў. Сярод іх — фатограф Радыё Свабода". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  317. "19-ы дзень пратэстаў. Калесьнікава ідзе ў СК. Макей склікаў паслоў. Што адбываецца ў Беларусі". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  318. "Акцыя пратэсту вернікаў у Менску скончылася затрыманьнямі больш як 260 чалавек на плошчы Незалежнасьці. ФОТА". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  319. "Хроніка пераследу за 27 жніўня. Спіс затрыманых на Плошчы". spring96.org (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  320. "Белсат". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  321. "Митинг в поддержку Лукашенко возле универмага "Беларусь" закончился, когда пошел дождь. Фото и видео". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-27. Archived from the original on 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  322. "20th day of protests: Belarusian women marching, singing Mighty God (photos)". belsat.eu.
  323. "Белсат". Telegram.
  324. "Белсат". Telegram.
  325. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  326. "Белсат". Telegram.
  327. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  328. "Белсат". Telegram.
  329. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  330. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  331. "Белсат". Telegram.
  332. "21-ы дзень пратэстаў. Жаночы марш у Менску. У журналістаў забралі акрэдытацыі". Радыё Свабода.
  333. "#МотолькоПомоги этому городишко от 3% избавиться". Telegram.
  334. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  335. "Euroradio". Telegram.
  336. "Автопробеги, давление на СМИ, женщины и ограждения на площадях. Что произошло 29 августа". TUT.BY. 2020-08-29. Archived from the original on 2020-08-30.
  337. "У цэнтры Менску праходзіць жаночы гранд-марш салідарнасьці. Затрымліваюць мужчын. ВІДЭА". Радыё Свабода.
  338. "TUT.BY новости". Telegram.
  339. "Белсат". Telegram.
  340. "TUT.BY новости". Telegram.
  341. "Белсат". Telegram.
  342. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  343. "NEXTA Live Translated to English". Telegram.
  344. "Белсат". Telegram.
  345. "Putin, Lukashenko Agree To Meet In Moscow In Coming Weeks – Kremlin". UrduPoint.
  346. Мелкозеров, Константин Сидорович, Никита (2020-08-30). "Воскресенье в Минске: десятки тысяч людей в центре, спецтехника и море креатива – Люди Onliner". Onliner.
  347. "Тысячи человек у Дворца Независимости и военная техника на улицах. Что происходит в стране 30 августа. Онлайн". TUT.BY. 2020-08-30. Archived from the original on 2020-08-30.
  348. "22-і дзень пратэстаў. Марш міру і незалежнасьці ў Менску і іншых гарадах Беларусі". Радыё Свабода.
  349. Сидорович, Константин (2020-08-30). "Девушки принесли к Дому правительства тыквы – Люди Onliner". Onliner.
  350. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  351. "Белсат". Telegram.
  352. "Белсат". Telegram.
  353. "Белсат". Telegram.
  354. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  355. "Белсат". Telegram.
  356. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  357. "Белсат". Telegram.
  358. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  359. "Радыё Свабода — Беларусь". Telegram.
  360. "Белсат". Telegram.
  361. "#МотолькоПомоги этому городишко от 3% избавиться". Telegram.
  362. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  363. "Белсат". Telegram.
  364. "Белсат". Telegram.
  365. "Радыё Свабода — Беларусь". Telegram.
  366. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  367. Мелкозеров, Никита (2020-08-30). "Появилось новое фото Лукашенко с оружием — сегодня он тоже находился во Дворце независимости – Люди Onliner". Onliner.
  368. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  369. "Белсат". Telegram.
  370. "Наша Нiва". Telegram.
  371. "МАЯ КРАІНА БЕЛАРУСЬ". Telegram.
  372. "NEXTA Live". Telegram.
  373. "Belarusian opposition leader 'to address UN'". BBC News. 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-31.
  374. "Мітрапаліта Кандрусевіча памежнікі не ўпусьцілі у Беларусь з тэрыторыі Польшчы. Без тлумачэньня прычын". Радыё Свабода.
  375. "Кандрусевіч у інтэрвію польскай тэлевізіі: "Ёсьць падставы меркаваць, што выбары праходзілі несумленна"". Радыё Свабода.
  376. "КГК задержал члена президиума Координационного совета Лилию Власову". TUT.BY. 2020-08-31. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01.
  377. "Лукашэнка зьняў пасла ў Гішпаніі, які выказваўся за перападлік галасоў на выбарах і суд над вінаватымі ў гвалтоўных дзеяньнях". Радыё Свабода.
  378. Гомыляев, Андрей (2020-09-01). "МВД об акции на переходе: люди блокировали движение, будет возбуждено уголовное дело" (in Russian). Onliner.by. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  379. "В Минске милиция задержала несколько десятков протестующих студентов". Kommersant. 2020-09-01. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  380. "Журналисты Еврорадио задержаны во время стрима с протеста студентов". ex-press.by (in Russian). 2020-09-01. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  381. "Взялись за студентов. В первый день осени продолжаются задержания". spring96.org (in Russian). 2020-09-01. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  382. "В Минске и регионах 1 сентября задержали около 80 человек" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  383. Занько, Настасья (2020-09-01). "Лукашенко прокомментировал ситуацию с главой католической церкви, которого не пустили в страну". Onliner.by. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  384. ""Им дали команду "фас", они и вякнули из-под забора" – Лукашенко о санкциях со стороны стран Балтии". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2020-09-01. Archived from the original on 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  385. "Суды над журналистами и вызов в СК представителя Координационного совета. События 2 сентября онлайн" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  386. "Калектыў Гродзенскага мясакамбіната накіраваў зварот у Палату прадстаўнікоў, Генпракуратуру і абласны савет" (in Belarusian). Nasha Niva. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  387. "Адкрыты ліст калектыву Ліцэя БДУ". lyceum.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  388. "Почти 1200 возмущенных итогами выборов и жестокостью милиции работников МНПЗ обратились к директору завода" (in Belarusian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  389. "Лавров: около 200 натренированных на территории Украины экстремистов в настоящее время находятся в Беларуси" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  390. "Хроника дня: задержания возле МГЛУ, Макей у Лаврова, силовики возле стелы" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  391. "Павел Латушко уехал в Польшу: "Ни в каком багажнике я не пересекал границу"" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  392. "В минском офисе PandaDoc проходит обыск. Директора забрали" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  393. "МВД – официально!". mvd.gov.by (in Russian). 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  394. "В Минске засыпали солью место гибели протестующего. Минчане расчищают мемориал, игнорируя милицию — видео" (in Russian). Gomel Today. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  395. "В Минске милиция пыталась "скрыть" надпись "Не забудем" на месте гибели протестующего — люди не разрешили" (in Russian). nv.ua. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  396. ""Налетели со спины, сбили с ног". В Минске задерживали фотокорреспондента TUT.BY Вадима Замировского" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-03. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  397. "Хроника дня: Дылевскому и Ковальковой дали по 15 суток, Рига против ЧМ по хоккею в Минске". Onliner.by. 2020-09-03. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  398. Красовская, Оксана (2020-09-03). "Сотрудники независимых СМИ пришли к МВД. Задержан фотограф Tut.by Дмитрий Брушко". Onliner.by. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  399. "Всем задержанным журналистам дали по трое суток ареста. Корреспонденты выходят на свободу". Onliner.by. 2020-09-04. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  400. "БАЖ протестует в связи с арестами и обвинительными постановлениями суда в отношении журналистов". baj.by. 2020-09-04. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  401. Мелкозеров, Никита; Чернухо, Александр; Ошуркевич, Татьяна (2020-09-04). "Жесткий разговор. Ректор МГЛУ покинула встречу со студентами и их родителями под крики "Позор!"". Onliner.by. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  402. "Masked Men Drag Protesting Belarusian Students Off the Streets". Voice of America. 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
  403. Василевская, Анжелика (2020-09-04). "Коллектив музея истории Могилева требует отставки Лукашенко и готов объявить забастовку". tut.by. Archived from the original on 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  404. "Эксклюзив: Расшифровка переговоров Варшавы и Берлина об отравлении Навального". All-National TV. Archived from the original on 2020-09-04. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  405. "По телевизору показали "расшифровку переговоров Берлина и Варшавы". Вот что перехватили белорусские спецслужбы". Onliner.by. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  406. "Лукашенко встретился с Мишустиным. Главное". BBC. 2020-09-03. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  407. "Лукашенко на встрече с Мишустиным назвал информацию об отравлении Навального фальсификацией". Onliner.by. 2020-09-03. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  408. "Протесты в Беларуси, день 28. Что происходит?" (in Russian). Novaya Gazeta. 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  409. "В центре Минска проходит массовый "Женский марш мира"". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  410. ""Женский марш мира" в Минске обошелся без задержаний" (in Russian). Interfax. 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  411. "В Беларуси арестованы руководители PandaDoc. Основатель IT-компании объявил об эвакуации сотрудников из страны". Meduza (in Russian). 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  412. "По всему Минску протестуют студенты. Начались задержания" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-05. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  413. "МВД Белоруссии сообщило о 91 задержанном на акциях протеста в субботу" (in Russian). Kommersant. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
  414. ""Мы проснулись и уже не уснем". Двести тысяч вышли на Марш единства в Минске" (in Russian). BelaPAN. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  415. "До двухсот тысяч человек пришли ко Дворцу независимости сказать Лукашенко "Уходи!"" (in Russian). BelaPAN. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  416. "Гуляли 6 сентября". partizan-results.com (in Russian). 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  417. "Массовые задержания и применение газа. Как прошел 29-й день протестов в Белоруссии: В акциях приняли участие десятки тысяч человек" (in Russian). TASS. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
  418. "В районе ГУМа появились водомет и заградительные машины "Рубеж"" (in Russian). BelaPAN. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  419. "Сотні тысяч удзельнікаў "Маршаў адзінства" і сотні затрыманых. Што адбываецца на 29-ты дзень пратэстаў" (in Russian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  420. "На протестах в Минске и других городах задержаны более 160 человек. Что о них известно" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-06. Archived from the original on 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  421. "В Марше единства в Минске приняли участие до 200 тысяч человек, более 170 задержали" (in Russian). eurointegration.com.ua. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  422. "Затрыманні ў Мінску і рэгіёнах 4, 5 і 6 верасня". spring96.org (in Belarusian). 2020-09-06.
  423. "В Минске задержали блогера из Хабаровска Алексея Романова". sibreal.org (in Russian). 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  424. "Сотрудники ОСВОД спасли прыгавших в воду от ОМОН протестующих. За это их задержали" (in Russian). Telegraph.by. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  425. ""Брат на Окрестина, говорят, будут судить". Сотрудники ОСВОДа, которые спасали митингующих, — в милиции" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-07. Archived from the original on 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  426. "Видео жесткого задержания в кофейне O'Petit: силовики в гражданском разбили дверь и достали людей" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  427. "Глава ГУБОПиК МВД лично разбил стекло в кафе, чтобы задержать людей". mogilev.online (in Russian). 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  428. "МВД: в воскресенье по стране задержаны 633 человека" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  429. "МВД Белоруссии сообщило о задержании 633 участников воскресных акций протеста" (in Russian). Kommersant. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  430. "Belarus protest leader 'abducted' after mass anti-gov't march". Al Jazeera. 2020-09-07. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  431. "Belarus opposition figure detained at Ukraine border". France 24. 2020-09-08. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  432. "Maria Kolesnikova 'ripped up passport' during deportation attempt". The Times. 2020-09-08. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  433. "Члены Координационного совета Родненков и Кравцов — в Киеве. Они рассказали, как покинули Беларусь" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-08. Archived from the original on 2020-09-08. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  434. "Марш в поддержку Колесниковой омрачен задержаниями женщин" (in Russian). OfficeLife. 2020-09-08.
  435. "Разгон акций на Комаровке и Машерова. Видео" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-08.
  436. "На Марше в поддержку Колесниковой брутально хватали даже девушек" (in Russian). Salidarnasc. 2020-09-08.
  437. "В Минске задержано более 50 человек" (in Russian). REFORM.BY. 2020-09-08.
  438. "Тихановская выступила с обращением к гражданам России" (in Russian). RIA News. 2020-09-09.
  439. ""Не верьте пропаганде": Тихановская записала обращение к россиянам" (in Russian). Rosbalt. 2020-09-09.
  440. "Another Belarus opposition figure detained by 'masked men'". Al Jazeera. 2020-09-09.
  441. "Тихановская обратилась к россиянам, Знак задержан, в квартире Колесниковой обыск" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-09.
  442. "Мария Колесникова находится в СИЗО на Володарского" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-09.
  443. "EU diplomats on guard at Belarusian writer's home". EUobserver.
  444. "Nobel laureate warns arrests won't stop Belarus protests". KOB 4. 2020-09-09.
  445. "Dėl neteisėtos ir Baltarusijai Rusijos primetamos sąjungos" (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas. 2020-09-09. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
  446. "Стачком "Беларуськалия": есть информация, что Юрия Корзуна, объявившего протест, насильно подняли из шахты и передали медикам" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-10.
  447. "Разрезали наручники. Солигорского шахтера, который устроил протест, вынесли из шахты" (in Russian). gomel.today. 2020-09-10.
  448. "У Светланы Тихановской день рождения! 11 фактов о ней, которые интересно узнать". Brest Gazette (in Russian). 2020-09-11.
  449. "Пятница началась с задержаний" (in Russian). Vyasna. 2020-09-11.
  450. Иванейко, Станислав (2020-09-11). "Сотрудники PandaDoc не могут получить зарплату: счета компании заблокированы" (in Russian). Onliner.by.
  451. "Интервью с Лией Ахеджаковой" (in Russian). Voice of America. 2020-09-11.
  452. "34-й день протестов. Главное" (in Russian). BelSat. 2020-09-11.
  453. "Вечер пятницы. Задержания на крыльце Красного костела и "Тры чарапахi" в "Новой Боровой"" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-11.
  454. "Рафаэль Фахрутдинов. "У Лукашенко нет легитимности": США призвали к новым выборам" (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 2020-09-11.
  455. "Женщины на марше, концерт на "Площади перемен", праздники во дворах и другие события 12 сентября. Онлайн" (in Russian). TUT.BY. 2020-09-12. Archived from the original on 2020-09-12.
  456. ""Женский план". Белоруски снова прошли маршем по Минску, задержаны десятки человек" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-12.
  457. "Хакеры написали Лукашенко" (in Russian). Белорусский партизан. 2020-09-12.
  458. "Военные и бронетехника снова стянуты в центр Минска. Начались массовые задержания участников "Марша Независимости"" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2020-09-13.
  459. "Милиционер ударил женщину в Жодино, жесткие задержания в Минске" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-13.
  460. "Рядом с домом главы ЦИК Белоруссии применили светошумовую гранату" (in Russian). rbc.ru. 2020-09-13.
  461. "МВД: на проспекте Победителей был произведен предупредительный выстрел из помпового ружья" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-13.
  462. "Воскресенье в Минске: тысячи людей в центре, милиция провела массовые задержания" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-13.
  463. "Более 400 задержанных в Минске, непривычный маршрут и визит в Дрозды. Как прошел "Марш героев". Фото и видео" (in Russian). TUT.BY. 2020-09-13. Archived from the original on 2020-09-14.
  464. "В Минске мотоциклисты ГАИ въехали в "колючку", а та порвалась и окутала женщину. Что об этом известно" (in Russian). TUT.BY. 2020-09-14. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16.
  465. "Мотоциклисты ГАИ въехали в колючую проволоку — ее отбросило на женщину" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-14.
  466. "Видеофакт: Марш Героев в Минске с высоты" (in Russian). Moy BY. 2020-09-14.
  467. "В Бресте против демонстрантов использовали водомет" (in Russian). onliner.by. 2020-09-13.
  468. ""Покраснело ухо и было разбито колено". В Жодино милиционер ударил девушку по лицу. Что об этом известно" (in Russian). TUT.BY. 2020-09-13. Archived from the original on 2020-09-14.
  469. "УВД: 7 человек задержали в Новополоцке и Полоцке во время акций протеста. Было столкновение с милицией" (in Russian). gorod214.by. 2020-09-13.
  470. ""Выбраться помогли прохожие". В Гродно мужчина, убегая на акции от милиции, прыгнул в воду и переплыл Неман". Life (in Russian). 2020-09-13. Archived from the original on 2020-09-15.
  471. "МВД Белоруссии отчиталось о задержаниях на акциях протеста" (in Russian). EA Daily. 2020-09-14.
  472. "ИВС на Окрестина в Минске заполнен почти на 100%" (in Russian). Interfax. 2020-09-14.
  473. "Putin Resolves to Back Belarus Ally, Wary of Protest Spread". Bloomberg. 2020-09-14.
  474. "Хроника дня. Милиция в МГЛУ, МВД о протестах, встреча Путина с Лукашенко и обращение нового лидера Координационного совета" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-14.
  475. "Что происходит в Беларуси в 37-й день революции? (Онлайн)" (in Russian). Khartya'97. 2020-09-14.
  476. "В усеченном варианте: Россия и Белоруссия проводят совместные учения: На Брестском полигоне стартовали военные учения "Славянское братство—2020"" (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 2020-09-14.
  477. "Protect peaceful protesters in Belarus". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  478. "MEPs call for EU sanctions against Belarusian President and Navalny's poisoners | News | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 2020-09-17.
  479. "Man attempts self-immolation at police office in Belarus' Minsk Region". TASS. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
  480. "Мужчина поджег себя перед зданием милиции в Смолевичах" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-09-18. Retrieved 2020-09-19.
  481. "Belarus protests: Opposition icon, 73, among hundreds detained in Minsk". BBC News. 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  482. "Rights group: More than 300 detained at Minsk women's march". Associated Press. 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  483. "Over 400 detained in women's protest in Minsk". Viasna. 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  484. "Belarus protests: Police arrest more than 390 women in crackdown on peaceful demonstration". Sky News. 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  485. "Hackers appear to leak personal data of 1,000 Belarusian police officers ahead of mass rally". NBC News. 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  486. "Вчера водометы поливали протестующих в Минске оранжевой водой. Почему она такого цвета". 42.tut.by. 2020-09-24. Archived from the original on 2020-09-25.
  487. "Belarus protests enter their seventh week with 100,000 people on the street". Associated Press. 2020-09-21. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  488. Wallace, Danielle (2020-09-21). "Belarus sees another massive Sunday protest after opposition leader detained". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  489. "Police in Belarus detained 442 people at protests on Sunday – ministry". Reuters. 2020-09-21. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  490. "Over 400 people detained at Sunday's rallies in Belarus". TASS. 2020-09-21. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  491. "Lukashenko abruptly sworn in, Belarus opposition calls for more protests". Reuters. 2020-09-23. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  492. "Linas Linkevicius on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  493. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  494. "'Germany Says Does Not Recognise Lukashenko As Belarus President' on AFP". 2020-09-23.
  495. "Urmas Reinsalu on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  496. "Wendy Morton MP on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  497. "Jeppe Kofod on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  498. "Tomáš Petříček on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  499. "Edgars Rinkēvičs on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  500. "Ivan Korcok on Twitter". Retrieved 2020-09-23 via Twitter.
  501. "Belarus: Water cannons disperse protesters denouncing Lukashenko's secret inauguration". EuroNews. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  502. "Belarus: Mass protests after Lukashenko secretly sworn in". BBC News. 2020-09-23. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  503. "Belarusian "Kalykhanka" Told Children Story How Greedy Character Fell From Throne". Charter 97. 2020-09-25. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  504. ""Вы корону видели? Теперь я буду на троне сидеть!" — На "Беларусь 3" вышла символичная "Калыханка"". United Democratic Forces of Belarus (in Russian). 2020-09-25. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  505. "Число участников акции протеста в Минске превысило 100 тысяч человек" (in Russian). Interfax. 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  506. "Число протестующих в Минске превысило 100 тысяч" (in Russian). Gazeta.Ru. 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  507. "Число участников акции протеста в Минске превысило 100 тысяч" (in Russian). REN TV. 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  508. "Спіс затрыманых на мірных акцыях пратэсту 27 верасня". spring96.org (in Belarusian). 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  509. "Тихановская встречается с Макроном в Вильнюсе" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  510. "В Молодечно дали 3 года колонии двум жителям за драку с ОМОНовцем, который достал пистолет". telegraf.by (in Russian). 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  511. "В Гомеле к многодетной семье пришли с обыском, им "шьют" уголовное дело". gomel.today (in Russian). 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  512. "Мининформ приостанавливает статус СМИ для TUT.BY на три месяца с 1 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-29. Archived from the original on 2020-10-02. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  513. "Главред TUT.BY — о действиях властей в отношении независимых СМИ: "Это зачистка информационного поля"" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-30. Archived from the original on 2020-10-02. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  514. ""Рассчитываем на взвешенный подход к ситуации в Беларуси" — в МВД прошла встреча с представителем ООН" (in Russian). Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2020-10-02. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  515. "Облегчённая версия. В Белоруссии придумали новый формат протестов — видео" (in Russian). Life.by. 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  516. "На акции в Солигорске задержаны около 20 человек, в том числе журналисты" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-03. Archived from the original on 2020-10-06. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  517. "Санкции от Украины и новые политзаключенные. Как проходит 3 октября в Беларуси" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-03. Archived from the original on 2020-10-06. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  518. "Tens of thousands rally in Minsk, police use water cannon". Reuters. 2020-10-04. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  519. ""Скромный" миллионер Павел Топузидис". belaruspartisan.by (in Russian). 2020-10-04. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  520. "Воскресенье в Беларуси: десятки тысяч людей на улицах, задержания и неисправные водометы" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-04. Archived from the original on 2020-10-05. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  521. "МВД: Сотрудники милиции 4 октября будут работать в усиленном режиме из-за акций протеста" (in Russian). mail.ru. 2020-10-04. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  522. "Belarus Police Use Water Cannon in Minsk, Detain Protesters". The Moscow Times. 2020-10-04. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  523. "Акции пенсионеров и студентов, вторая волна COVID-19, game over. Что происходит в стране 5 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-05. Archived from the original on 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2020-10-06.
  524. "Встреча Тихановской с Меркель, суды и "сутки", события в Кыргызстане. Что происходит сегодня в стране и не только" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-06. Archived from the original on 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  525. "Тихановская в розыске, изменения в УК, сын мэра на "сутках" и СМС от милиции. События среды онлайн" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-07. Archived from the original on 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  526. "В Минске заметили машину, похожую на станцию подавления дронов. Рассказываем, что это" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-07. Archived from the original on 2020-10-10. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  527. "Командир пожарной части отказался снимать бчб-флаг. Сейчас он уволен и за месяц должен выплатить 6125 рублей" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  528. "Бывший ректор Гродненского медицинского университета Виктор Снежицкий больше не сенатор Совета Республики" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-08. Archived from the original on 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  529. "Акции студентов, обращение заводчан, дешевеющая валюта, ансамбль "Правовой дефолт". Что происходит 9 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-09. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  530. "В помощь пострадавшим за свою позицию: в Беларуси создан Фонд культурной солидарности" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-09. Archived from the original on 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  531. "Суббота в Минске: женщины вышли на демарш" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-10-10.
  532. "Невероятные. Посмотрите, какие стильные минчанки вышли сегодня на улицы" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-10-10.
  533. "Лукашенко встретился в СИЗО КГБ с политзаключенными. Среди них — Бабарико, Знак, Шкляров, Власова" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-10. Archived from the original on 2020-10-10. Retrieved 2020-10-11.
  534. ""Дима, организуй". Адвокат участника встречи с Лукашенко в СИЗО о том, что было на ней и после" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  535. "Что происходило в Беларуси 10 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-10. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12.
  536. "В Минске прошёл Марш гордости: силовики выбрали жёсткую тактику" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  537. "Минск оттачивал солидарность, а силовики — тактику разгона. Основное за 11 октября" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  538. "В воскресенье были задержаны десятки журналистов. В Минске на прессу составляют протоколы" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-11. Archived from the original on 2020-10-13. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  539. "Водометы, жесткие задержания, взрывы и стрельба. Как прошло воскресенье в Минске. Фото и видео" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  540. "Возле стелы в Минске произошли столкновения протестующих с силовиками" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-11. Archived from the original on 2020-10-14. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  541. ""Это был град ударов". С какими травмами госпитализировали участников после воскресного марша" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-13. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  542. ""По требованиям госорганов". В Минске не работал мобильный интернет" (in Russian). TUT.BY. 2020-10-11. Archived from the original on 2020-10-14.
  543. ""Активное противостояние оказала отдельная группа женщин". МВД сообщило о 713 задержанных в воскресенье" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  544. "Бабушки и дедушки снова вышли на марш в центре Минска. Силовики применили спецсредства" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  545. "Милиция подтвердила применение газа и светошумовых патронов против пенсионеров" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  546. "Belarusian police to use lethal weapons against protesters if necessary". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  547. "Горящие покрышки и стрельба. Жители по всему Минску в ответ на разгон марша пенсионеров перекрывали улицы — Видео" (in Russian). Mail.Ru. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  548. "Задержан еще один сын мэра Витебска" (in Russian). Mail.Ru. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  549. "В МВД заявили о готовности при необходимости применять боевое оружие против протестующих" (in Russian). Naviny. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  550. France-Presse, Agence (2020-10-13). "Belarus police will fire on protesters if necessary, says deputy interior minister". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  551. Dapkus, Liudas (2020-10-13). "Belarus opposition leader threatens nationwide strike". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2020-10-14. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  552. "В Минске задержали и жестоко избили владельца цветочного магазина. Из РУВД в шоковом состоянии его забрала "скорая"" (in Russian). Current Time TV. 2020-10-13. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  553. "Владелец цветочного магазина Максим Хорошин из больницы: "Били минут 20, по голове и по всему телу. Потом я потерял сознание"" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  554. "Новые санкции, День матери и очереди за цветами. Что происходит в Беларуси 14 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-14. Archived from the original on 2020-10-16. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  555. "Шахтёр Александр Курбан приковал себя в шахте" (in Russian). European Radio for Belarus. 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  556. "Шахтера "Беларуськалия", приковавшего себя цепями в забое, подняли на поверхность и привезли в больницу" (in Russian). Onliner.by. 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  557. "Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya on wanted list in Belarus, Russia". Deutsche Welle. 2020-10-16. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  558. "Over 50,000 march in Belarus against authoritarian leader". Associated Press. 2020-10-19. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  559. "Police in Belarus detained 280 people at protests on Sunday: ministry". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  560. "Belarus: Thousands turn out for protests despite police threat to open fire". Deutsche Welle. 2020-10-18. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  561. "Партизанский, Ванеева, Серебрянка. Как прошел многотысячный марш на 71-й день после выборов. Фото и видео" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-18. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  562. "Tens Of Thousands March In Belarus Despite Police Threat To Open Fire". International Business Times. 2020-10-18. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  563. "Retirees rally in Belarus against authoritarian president". San Francisco Chronicle. 2020-10-19. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
  564. "Belarus protests: nationwide strike looms after 'people's ultimatum' rally". The Guardian. 2020-10-26. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  565. "Over 500 detained in protests across Belarus". Viasna. 2020-10-26. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  566. "Belarus protests: National opposition strike gains momentum". BBC News. 2020-10-26. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  567. "Ну и кто здесь террорист?". Belarus Partisan.
  568. "Задержанных на границе анархистов подозревают в атаках на здания госорганов в Солигорске и Мозыре" (in Russian). Naviny. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  569. "Анархисты готовили теракты на территории Беларуси" (in Russian). ONT. 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  570. "Партизаны Полесья. Что мы знаем об анархистах, которых КГБ обвинил в терроризме". 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  571. "Hundreds Of Women March Against Lukashenka Despite Threats". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  572. "Belarus Forces Fire Tear Gas, Beat Demonstrators In Minsk As Tens Of Thousands Take To Streets". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  573. "Belarusian Security Forces Detain Protesters". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  574. "Belarus protesters face crackdown, as protest draws tens of thousands". Deutsche Welle. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  575. "Belarusian Pensioners Take To Minsk Streets After Hundreds Of Protesters Detained". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-02. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
  576. "Dozens arrested at latest Belarus election, police protests". Associated Press. 2020-11-08. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  577. "Belarusian Activists Say More Than 800 Detained At Anti-Government Rallies". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-08. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  578. "Over 1,000 protesters detained amid violent dispersals". Vyasna. 2020-11-09. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  579. "Belarus: More than 1,000 people arrested in a single day of peaceful protests amid escalating repression of rights". Amnesty International. 2020-11-09. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  580. "Belarus: Peaceful protester held by police after beating dies in hospital". Amnesty International. 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  581. "Outrage in Belarus, EU after opposition supporter dies". Al Jazeera. 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  582. "Outrage in Belarus, EU after opposition supporter death". Associated Press. 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  583. Andrew Roth (2020-11-15). "Belarus: thousands protest against death of teacher in police custody". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  584. "Belarus: 'Over 1,000 arrested' at latest anti-government protest". BBC News. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  585. "More Than 1,200 Detained In Belarus As Protesters Face Tear Gas, Stun Grenades". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  586. Затрыманні на акцыях пратэсту 15 лістапада. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  587. "Over 1,000 detained again in Sunday protests". Viasna Human Rights Centre. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  588. "Video shows Belarus police beating protesters inside supermarket". CNN. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  589. "Elderly in Belarus Demand Justice For Slain Anti-Government Protester". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  590. Danielle Wallace (2020-11-19). "Legacy of socialism? State violence continues in Belarus". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  591. "Hundreds Detained Despite New Tack By Anti-Government Protesters In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  592. "Belarus: Thousands continue anti-president protests in Minsk". Deutsche Welle. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  593. "380 detained on Day 106 of post-election protests". Viasna Human Rights Centre. 2020-11-23. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  594. "Minor Belarusian Emigrant Church Declares Lukashenka 'Anathema'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
  595. "Minor Scuffles With Police As Elderly March In Support Of Belarus's Democracy Movement". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
  596. "Belarus pensioners march demanding leader's resignation". Associated Press. 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  597. "Senior citizens attend rally in support of protesters in Minsk without incidents". TASS. 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  598. "Anarchist movement activist Dzyadok charged". Belsat TV. 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  599. "Arrested activist Dzyadok tear-gassed, threatened with rape, stifled with pillow". Belsat TV. 2020-11-25. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  600. "Activist Mikalai Dziadok fined for 'illegal' political activity". Belsat TV. 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  601. "Belsat, TUT.BY journos Andreyeva, Chultsova, Barysevich recognised as prisoners of conscience". Belsat TV. 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  602. "Biélorussie: Arrestation d'un ancien prisonnier anarchiste". Secours Rouge (in French). 2020-03-30. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  603. "More Than 300 Reported Detained In Belarus At Anti-Lukashenka Marches". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  604. "Belarus protesters gather in Minsk districts, hundreds arrested". Deutsche Welle. 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  605. "Day 113 of protests: over 400 detained". Viasna. 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  606. "Belarusian Pensioners Detained During Protest As Crackdowns Continue". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  607. Затрыманні на Маршы. Хроніка пераследу 30 лістапада. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  608. "Seniors protesting in Minsk: 'Grandmas and grandpas, let's march to the victory!'". Belsat TV. 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-12-05.
  609. "Belarus opposition to compile 'book of crimes'". Associated Press. 2020-12-01. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  610. "Belarus opposition to compile register of alleged police abuses". Euronews. 2020-12-01. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  611. "Dozens Detained Across Belarus At Anti-Lukashenka Marches". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  612. "Belarusian Police Detain Dozens As Protests Continue". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-12.
  613. "Thousands of protesters march in Belarus, dozens detained". Al Jazeera. 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  614. "Hundreds arrested in fresh Belarus protests against Lukashenko". France 24. 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  615. Беларусь: затрыманні ў Мінску і рэгіёнах 6 снежня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  616. "More Detentions Made In Belarus In Latest Crackdown On Postelection Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-07. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
  617. "Scores Detained In Latest Belarus Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  618. "Belarusian Police Detain Dozens Amid Scattered Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
  619. "Protesters in Belarus keep pushing for leader's resignation". Associated Press. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  620. Затрыманні на нядзельным Маршы 13 снежня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  621. "More Than 100 Detained In Minsk At Anti-Lukashenka Retirees' Rally". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  622. "Minsk: Pensioners' March dispersed, dozens detained". Belsat TV. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  623. Больш за 90 чалавек затрыманыя на Маршы сталых людзей. Хроніка пераследу 14 снежня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  624. "Protests Continue In Belarus Demanding End To Authoritarian Lukashenka Rule". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-19. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  625. У суботу прайшлі «раённыя» шэсьці і калектыўныя сьпевы. ВІДЭА (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-19. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  626. "More Than 150 Anti-Lukashenka Demonstrators Detained In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-12-20. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  627. "Thousands in Belarus protest Lukashenko's rule". Agence France-Presse. 2020-12-20. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  628. Затрыманні на маршах 20 снежня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-12-20. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  629. "March of Balloons: 21st protest Sunday in Belarus". Belsat TV. 2020-12-27. Retrieved 2020-12-27.
  630. Затрыманні ў нядзелю 27 снежня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2020-12-27. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
  631. "Protests in Belarus capital city continue into the new year". TASS. 2021-01-03. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  632. "Belarusian Protests Continue Using 'Flash-Mob' Tactics To Avoid Police Crackdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-01-09. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  633. "As Belarus Protests Enter Sixth Month, Lukashenka Repeats Vague Promise Of Change". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-01-10. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  634. "Belarusians would not stop. Day 155 of protests". Belsat TV. 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  635. Адміністрацыйны пераслед: судовая хроніка за 11 студзеня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  636. "Belarus Protesters March In Residential Areas To Demand Lukashenka's Resignation". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-01-17. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  637. "Nearly 160 Anti-Lukashenka Protesters Detained In Minsk Over Weekend". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  638. Суды над удзельнікамі мірных акцый пратэсту адбываюцца 25 студзеня. Viasna Human Rights Centre (in Belarusian). 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  639. "Belarus protests go on despite cold, pandemic and risk of jail". DW News. 2021-02-07.
  640. "Belarus: To clamp down on dissent the authorities are targeting children". Amnesty International. 2021-02-08. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  641. Staff, Reuters (2021-03-25). "Dozens detained as Belarus marks 'Freedom Day' with new protests" via www.reuters.com.
  642. "Hundreds arrested in Belarus 'Freedom Day' protest". Associated Press. Kyiv. 2021-03-25. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  643. (in Ukrainian) Terrorism from Lukashenko: what threatens the dictator Ryanair-conflict with the West, Europeska Pravda (24 May 2021)
  644. "Lukashenka Signs Amendments Further Restricting Belarus Protests, Media Freedoms". Radio Liberty. 2021-05-24. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  645. "Belarus opposition candidate declares victory | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". www3.nhk.or.jp. Archived from the original on 2020-08-16. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  646. "Thousands rally in Minsk as EU prepares emergency summit on Belarus". euronews. 2020-08-17.
  647. "Названы первые члены Координационного Совета". 2020-08-17.
  648. "Вольга Кавалькова" via Facebook.
  649. "В организованном Тихановской координационном совете по передаче власти назвали дату первой встречи". канал Дождь. 2020-08-17.
  650. Makhovsky, Andrei (2020-08-18). "Belarus opposition sets up council; Lukashenko decries 'attempt to seize power'". Reuters.
  651. "Supporting the Aspirations of the Belarusian People". US Department of State. 2020-08-20.
  652. "Песков оценил заявление белорусской оппозиции о сотрудничестве с Россией". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  653. "Pavel Latushko Announces Establishment Of People's Anti-Crisis Administration". Belarus Feed. 2020-10-29. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  654. Sadouskaya–Komlach, Maryia (2020-11-06). "An Exiled Belarusian Opposition Faces A Credibility Test". Center for European Policy Analysis. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  655. "National Anti-Crisis Management". National Anti-crisis Management. 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  656. Grekowicz, Nikita (2020-11-15). "Białoruś ponownie zawrzała po skatowaniu Ramana Bandarenki. Trwają protesty [relacja z Mińska]" [Belarus again in shock at the assault on Raman Bandarenka. Protests continue [report from Minsk]]. OKO.press (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  657. Опровергает версию МВД. AP опубликовало кадр из видео с гибелью Александра Тарайковского на «Пушкинской». Tut.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  658. В Минске при взрыве погиб демонстрант. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  659. Kennedy, Rachael (2020-08-10). "Belarus election: protests register their first fatality". Euronews.
  660. В Минске попрощались с погибшим на протестах на «Пушкинской» Александром Тарайковским. Tut.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  661. "Опубликовано видео, как в Минске погиб Александр Тарайковский. У него ничего не было в руках — МВД утверждало, что он бросал бомбу". meduza.io. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  662. Associated Press опубликовало снимок с протестов в Минске. На нем человек стоит на дороге с красным пятном на груди. Onliner.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  663. Агентство Associated Press опубликовало кадр с моментом убийства Александра Тарайковского. Charter 97. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  664. "Belarus Victim's Wife". AP Images.
  665. Thousands Mourn Protester As Belarus's Postelection Rallies Continue. Radio Liberty/Free Europe. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  666. ""Мне адмовіліся паказваць цела сына". У Гомлі пасьля затрыманьня памёр 25-гадовы хлопец". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  667. ""Мой сын не умер, он погиб ни за что". В Гомеле скончался 25-летний парень, которого задержали на улице". TUTBY.NEWS (in Russian). 2020-08-12. Archived from the original on 2012-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  668. "Belarus election: Second protester dies as UN sounds alarm". BBC News. 2020-08-13.
  669. "Анонимный свидетель утверждает, что видел Никиту Кривцова живым, но избитым. Друзья восстановили последние дни его жизни". Nasha Niva (in Russian). 2020-09-15. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  670. Borisevich, Katerina (2020-08-24). ""Семья не верит, что ушел из жизни сам". Родные Никиты Кривцова написали заявление в СК". Tut.By (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2020-09-18. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  671. "Директора волковысского музея нашли мертвым". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-18. Archived from the original on 2020-08-18. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  672. "Museum director from Vaukavysk found dead". Voice of Belarus (in Lithuanian). 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  673. "Правозащитники: На уличных протестах в Беларуси убили как минимум пятерых. Семеро – в критическом состоянии" [Human rights defenders: At least five people were killed in street protests in Belarus. Seven are in critical condition.]. gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  674. "Доклад о нарушении прав человека участников протестов в Беларуси с 7 по 14 августа 2020 года" [Report on violation of human rights of protesters in Belarus from 7 to 14 August 2020]. Zvyano (Link). 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  675. "В госпитале умер мужчина из Бреста, в которого силовики выстрелили на протестах. Ему было 43 года". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  676. "Third Belarus protester's death reported". Yarrawonga Chronicle. 2020-08-20.
  677. ""Сказал, что били силовики". Умер мужчина, которого привезли из Окрестина в больницу с черепно-мозговой и переломами ребер". kyky.org (in Russian). 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  678. "Збіты на Акрэсціна Дзяніс К. сёння памёр" (in Belarusian). Belsat TV. 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  679. "Избитый на Окрестина мужчина умер". charter97.org (in Russian). 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  680. ""Знаем, что он ни в чем не участвовал". В БСМП умер мужчина, которого привезли туда с Окрестина" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-03. Archived from the original on 2020-10-06. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  681. "Памёр Раман Бандарэнка, якога хуткая забрала непрытомным з Цэнтральнага РУУС" (in Belarusian). Nasha Niva. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  682. Радыё Свабода. "Відавочцу сьмерці Генадзя Шутава абвінавацілі ў замаху на забойства" (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2020-12-28. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  683. "Belarus: Widespread torture of protesters suggests crimes against humanity / August 14, 2020 / Statements / OMCT". omct.org. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  684. "HRF Sends Letters to Belarusian Security Officers Accused of Crimes Against Humanity". Human Rights Foundation. 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  685. "Заявление в Генеральную Прокуратуру". babariko.vision (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  686. ""Мне стыдно, что я служил в милиции". Экс-замначальника УВД задержали в день выборов бывшие подчиненные". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  687. ""Готовили к войне против своего народа". Действующий подполковник милиции — о выборах и избиениях". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  688. "Press briefing notes on Belarus". reliefweb. 2020-08-21.
  689. "В МВД Беларуси отрицают издевательства над задержанными в камерах". ФОКУС (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-22.
  690. Владыко, Александр (2020-08-17). "Лукашенко про ЦИП на Окрестина: получили те, кто бросался на ментов – Люди Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  691. ""60% фото – фейки", "вы их простите". Лукашенко в Гродно пояснил действия ОМОНа и рассказал о гибридной войне против Беларуси". Hrodna.life – русская версия (in Russian). 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  692. "UN investigator says Belarus must stop repressing its people". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  693. "Belarus targets women human rights defenders after disputed August elections". UN News. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  694. "Belarus should hold new elections after massive and systemic' human rights violations, report finds". The Independent. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  695. "Dozens arrested as thousands of demonstrators join Belarus protests" (in Russian). Reuters. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  696. "Over 200 protesters detained in Minsk on Sunday – police" (in Russian). TASS. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  697. "Belarus: Leader Threatens to Expel Media Over Election News". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 2020-07-23.
  698. О задержанном редакторе "Нашей Нивы". People.onliner.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  699. В Минске пропали фотокорреспондент МИА «Россия сегодня» и главред «Нашай Нівы». Пострадали несколько журналистов. News.tut.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  700. Kozenko, Andrei; Ivshina, Olga; Prosvirova, Olga and Zakharov, Andrei (9 August 2020) Протесты в Беларуси: после третьей ночи столкновений запретили пиротехнику. BBC. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  701. "Корреспондент Znak.com Никита Телиженко был избит в ИВС Жодинского района Белоруссии". znak.com.
  702. "Координатору "Открытой России", задержанному в Белоруссии, грозит до 15 лет колонии". znak.com.
  703. В Гомеле арестовали журналиста Евгения Меркиса Archived 2020-08-18 at the Wayback Machine. Naviny.by (13 August 2020). Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  704. "Задержанному в пятницу в Гомеле журналисту-фрилансеру дали 5 суток". TUT.BY. 2020-08-24. Archived from the original on 2020-09-13.
  705. "У журналіста hrodna.life Руслана Кулевіча пераломы абедзвюх рук". Наша Ніва.
  706. Kuryshko, Diana (2020-08-12). "How messenger app bypassed Belarus news blackout". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  707. "Belarus election: How Nexta channel bypassed news blackout". BBC News. 2020-08-12.
  708. "Criminal case launched against NEXTA. He faces up to 15 years in prison". belsat.eu.
  709. Litvinova, Daria (2020-08-21). "'Telegram revolution': App helps drive Belarus protests". AP News.
  710. "Riot police took custody of the Minsk television centre". kxan36. 2020-08-15.
  711. Tikhanovskaya, Svetlana (2020-08-15). "Belarus: Thousands protest outside state TV building". BBC.
  712. "Lukashenko says Putin has offered help as Belarus gears for 'March of Freedom'". France 24. 2020-08-16.
  713. "Minsk border guards watched journalists like they were prisoners". Postimees. 2020-08-21.
  714. "В Беларуси ограничили доступ к десяткам сайтов. Вот список". TUT.BY. 2020-08-22. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22.
  715. Олехнович, Виталий (2020-08-22). "В Беларуси заблокирован ряд сайтов. В том числе и СМИ – Технологии Onliner". Onliner.by.
  716. "Среди заблокированных — мегапопулярный спортивный сайт By.tribuna.com". Nasha Niva.
  717. "БелаПАН. БАЖ требует от властей прекратить блокировку сайтов СМИ и давление на прессу". belapan.by.
  718. "Свежую "толстушку" "Комсомольская правда" вынужденно печатала в России". Наша Ніва.
  719. "Белорусская "Комсомолка" и "Народная воля" начали печататься в России. Но теперь их не берут в киоски". TUT.BY. 2020-08-26. Archived from the original on 2020-08-27.
  720. "Around 20 journalists arrested for covering anti-government protests in Belarus". Metro. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  721. "На менскай плошчы Свабоды масава затрымалі журналістаў. Сярод іх — фатограф Радыё Свабода". Радыё Свабода.
  722. "Работающих в Беларуси на иностранные СМИ журналистов массово лишают аккредитации". TUT.BY. 2020-08-29. Archived from the original on 2020-08-30.
  723. Штейн, Евгения (2020-08-29). "В Беларуси заблокировали "Нашу Нiву" и naviny.by, журналистов иностранных СМИ лишают аккредитации – Технологии Onliner". Onliner.
  724. "Шестерых журналистов судят по статье за участие в акции". officelife.media (in Russian). 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  725. "Дела журналистов снова отправляют на доработку в РУВД" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  726. "В Беларуси лишили аккредитации всех журналистов иностранных СМИ" (in Russian). Zik Ukraine. 2020-10-02.
  727. "Belarus cancels all accreditation for foreign journalists". Deutsche Welle. 2020-10-02.
  728. "Газ и стычки с силовиками на марше пенсионеров. Что происходит в Беларуси 12 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  729. "МВД сообщило о задержании блогера, активиста анархистского движения Николая Дедка" (in Russian). Naviny. 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  730. "Неизвестные получили доступ к Telegram-каналу анархиста Дедка. Сам Николай задержан" (in Russian). TUT. 2020-11-12. Archived from the original on 2020-11-27. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  731. Dzyadok, Mikalai (2020-11-13). "Anarchist Dzyadok detained and beaten by police". Belsat. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  732. "Николая Дедка после задержания пытали для дачи показаний и доступа к компьютеру" (in Russian). Belarus Anarchist Black Cross. 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  733. "Belarusian KGB adds creators of opposition Telegram channel 'Nexta' to terrorism list" (in Russian). Meduza. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  734. Anastasiia Zlobina (2020-12-07). "Belarus Escalates Crackdown on Independent Journalism". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  735. "Увольнения в церковных институтах по политическим мотивам — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі" (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  736. "Двух каталіцкіх святароў трымаюць за кратамі ў Баранавічах". belsat.eu (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  737. "A Monitoring of the Persecution in Belarus of People on Religious Grounds During the Political Crisis (UPDATING) — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus. Christian Vision Group of the Co-ordination Council of Belarus. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  738. "Генпрокуратура отреагировала на заявления священнослужителей. «Спросить с деятелей» накануне велел Лукашенко". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-11-18. Archived from the original on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  739. "Суд за малітву: папярэджанні двум святарам і аднаму верніку — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  740. "Заявление группы Координационного совета «Христианское видение» по поводу вынесения второго предупреждения иерею Александру Богдану — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  741. "Statement of the Christian Vision Group of the Coordination Council regarding the Persecution of Fr Viachaslau Barok — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  742. Дайлід, Павел (2020-11-30). "В Ивацевичах на сутки отправили священника". Першы рэгiён (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  743. "«Такого человечища еще поискать». История провинциального ксендза, который бежал от «уголовки» за протесты". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2021-04-07. Archived from the original on 2021-04-29. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  744. "Ксёндз Вячаслаў Барок. Следчы Камітэт пакуль не ўбачыў экстрэмізму на ютуб-канале ксяндза. — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  745. Allen Jr., John L. (2020-10-09). "Vatican 'not optimistic' exiled Belarus archbishop will return". Crux. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  746. "Трансляцый святой Імшы на радыё ў верасні не будзе. Тэхнічныя прычыны — ні пры чым". catholic.by (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  747. ""I remember the words of one riot police officer vividly: "I would burn all of you alive if I had a chance!"". Август 2020. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  748. "Заявление группы Координационного совета «Христианское видение» по поводу административного ареста в отношении Дмитрия Дашкевича и Артема Ткачука — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  749. "Лукашенко: церкви, костелы — не для политики — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  750. ""В стране террор, люди боятся ехать в офис": зачем белорусские IT-предприниматели перевозят сотрудников в другие страны и сколько это стоит". Forbes.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  751. "Кризис 2020 в ИТ: осенний опрос Belarus IT CEO Club | Belarus IT Companies Club". www.bicc.co. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  752. "EU announces sanctions against Belarus over 'violence' on protesters and electoral 'falsification'". Euro News. 2020-08-14.
  753. Reuters (2020-08-19). "EU Executive to Reroute 53 Million Euros to Help Civil Society, Fight Against COVID in Belarus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  754. "Threat of new crackdown on protesters as EU signals support for 'peaceful transition' in Belarus". Euro News. 2020-08-19.
  755. "Lithuanian lawmakers vote for sanctions against Belarus NEW". WVVA. 2020-08-18.
  756. "Bieloruská kríza: Matovič chce ekonomické sankcie proti páchateľom". slovensko.hnonline.sk.
  757. "Cyprus says its issues with Turkey not linked to EU Belarus sanctions (Updated)". Cyprus Mail. 2020-09-10.
  758. "Greece Presses EU to Draw Up 'Severe' Sanctions on Turkey". Bloomberg. 2020-09-10.
  759. "Belarus: UK sanctions 8 members of regime, including Alexander Lukashenko". Government of the United Kingdom. 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  760. "EU slaps sanctions on Belarus leader Lukashenko for crackdown". BBC News. 2020-11-06. Retrieved 2020-11-07.
  761. "EU to slap sanctions on Belarus firms close to Lukashenko". Deutsche Welle. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  762. Jo Harper (2020-11-17). "Lukashenko, Belarus brace for economic winter of discontent". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  763. Rikard Jozwiak (2020-12-17). "EU Officially Slaps More Economic Sanctions On Belarus Over Crackdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  764. "Putin tells Merkel foreign interference in Belarus' affairs is unacceptable". TASS. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  765. "Москва призвала Париж и Берлин не вмешиваться в дела Беларуси". vestikavkaza.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  766. "NATO Secretary General discusses Belarus with President of Poland". NATO. 2020-08-18.
  767. "Is Belarus closer to the West or to Russia?". Deutsche Welle. 2020-08-18.
  768. "Russia Slams 'Foreign Meddling' in Belarus, Rules Out Immediate Military Aid". The Moscow Times. 2020-08-19.
  769. "Kremlin Says It Sees No Need to Help Belarus Militarily for Now". The New York Times. 2020-08-19.
  770. "EU no longer recognises Lukashenko as president of Belarus". Brussels Times. 2020-08-19.
  771. "Belarus accuses UN Human Rights Council of interfering in internal affairs". France 24. Retrieved 2020-09-19.
  772. "ФСБ РОССИИ СОВМЕСТНО С КГБ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ ПРЕСЕЧЕНА ПРОТИВОПРАВНАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ГРАЖДАН РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ ЗЯНКОВИЧА ЮРИЯ ЛЕОНИДОВИЧА И ФЕДУТЫ АЛЕКСАНДРА ИОСИФОВИЧА, ПЛАНИРОВАВШИХ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЕ ВОЕННОГО ПЕРЕВОРОТА В БЕЛОРУССИИ". fsb.ru. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  773. "Дело о попытке госпереворота в Беларуси: КГБ обманул оппозиционеров?". dw.com/ru. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  774. "Дзяржаўны дэпартамэнт ЗША адказаў на абвінавачаньні ў датычнасьці да «спробы замаху» на Лукашэнку". svaboda.org. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  775. "Беларусь будущего – Главная". belarus-future.org. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  776. ""Если проблема в деньгах". Микита Микадо поможет силовикам перейти на сторону добра". dev.by (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  777. Zvezda, Sergey (2020-08-13). "Глава PandaDoc предложил финансовую помощь белорусским силовикам, которые не могут уйти со службы только из-за денег — Офлайн на vc.ru". vc.ru. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  778. Иванейко, Станислав (2020-08-14). "Компания ISsoft выделит $500 тысяч на помощь пострадавшим в акциях – Технологии Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  779. "Belarus' trade unions call to investigate all cases of violence". BELTA. 2020-08-20.
  780. "Split Identity and a Tug-of-War for Belarus's Memory". The Jamestown Foundation. 2019-12-20.
  781. "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 via YouTube.
  782. "Pesnyary – Пагоня (Pagonya) lyrics + English translation". lyricstranslate.com. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
  783. "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 via YouTube.
  784. "Особенности "беларускага адраджэння" в 1918–1920–х годах — Военный информационный портал Министерства обороны Республики Беларусь". mil.by. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  785. Melnichuk, Tatsiana (2020-08-13). "Shocked by violence, Belarusians lose their fear". BBC.
  786. "People are seeking change in Belarus. Instead, they're being mercilessly beaten and detained ǀ View". euronews. 2020-08-13.
  787. "Барабаны, все флаги вместе и "слово пацана". В Витебске придумали новый формат мирных акций". TUT.BY. 2020-08-22. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23.
  788. "Belarus Protests Eclipse Rally in Defense of Defiant Leader". The New York Times. 2020-08-16.
  789. "Belarus prosecutors open probe against opposition activists". The Belfast Telegraph. 2020-08-20.
  790. "Belarus: 'Za Batku', pro-Lukashenko demonstrators gather in Minsk". Agence France-Presse. 2020-08-25.
  791. "Rally in Minsk in support of Lukashenko". Associated Press. 2020-08-21.
  792. "Belarus: Thousands attend rally in support of Lukashenko in Vitebsk". 2020-08-21.
  793. Фотофакт: выпускники возвращают школам свои награды
  794. 'It's like a war': beatings and indiscriminate arrests as armed men roam streets of Minsk
  795. Фотофакт. В Минске, Бресте, Гродно, Витебске и Гомеле люди вышли на "Марш единства"
  796. Вчера водометы поливали протестующих в Минске оранжевой водой. Почему она такого цвета
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.