- Rare gas-forming infection nearly always occurring in patients with DM and obstruction
- Patients appear toxic and septic; nephrectomy may be required
"UTI" frequently refers specifically to acute cystitis, but may also be used as a general term for all urinary infections; use location-specific diagnosis.
- Genitourinary infection
- Urethral issue
- Genital herpes
- Uterine/bladder/vaginal prolapse
- Behavioral symptom without detectable pathology
- Poor prognostic risk factors:
- Creatinine > 1.4mg/dL
- Platelets < 60k
- Altered mental status
- Urological consult for percutaneous drainage, stent placement, or nephrectomy (classes 3 and 4 with 2 or more prognostic risk factors)
- Presence of obstructive stone requires even more urgent surgical intervention
- Mortality rates between ~20-40%
- Tang HJ, et al. Clinical characteristics of emphysematous pyelonephritis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2001 Jun. 34(2):125-30.
- Huang JJ, Tseng CC. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: clinicoradiological classification, management, prognosis, and pathogenesis. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Mar 27. 160(6):797-805.
- Shetty S et al. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Treatment & Management. eMedicine. Apr 11, 2014. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/457306-treatment#showall.