Acute allergic reaction

Background

  • Similar to Anaphylaxis but does not meet all the requirements (i.e. just skin manifestations)
  • Type I hypersensitivity reaction

Clinical Features

  • Presentation can be delayed

Differential Diagnosis

Acute allergic reaction

Evaluation

Management

  1. H1 antagonist: Diphenhydramine 50mg IV/IM/PO
    • H1 antagonists with low sedating activity, such as fexofenadine, loratadine, cetirizine, are preferred over diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine when appropriate[1]
  2. H2 antagonist: Famotidine 40mg OR ranitidine 150mg IV/IM/PO
    • Improves urticaria but not angioedema at 2 hours[2]
  3. Consider corticosteroid: methylprednisolone 125mg IV/IM OR prednisone 60mg PO
    • Continue steroid burst if outpatient (40mg prednisone PO x 5 days)

Disposition

  • Consider brief observation in the ED for improvement of symptoms

See Also

References

  1. [Guideline] Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Walter Canonica G, Church MK, Giménez-Arnau AM, et al. EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: management of urticaria. Allergy. 2009 Oct. 64(10):1427-43
  2. Lin, RY et al. Improved Outcomes in Patients With Acute Allergic Syndromes Who Are Treated With Combined H1 and H2 Antagonists. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 36:5 NOVEMBER 2000.
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