There are probably as many approaches to this as there are people doing sound design, there's no hard and fast rules, and finding your way is part of the 'art' of it, the thing that makes it yours rather than someone else's recipe, or worse, a cliche.
First thing to do is get comfortable in some audio editing or sequencing software package. It doesnt which one it is as long as you're comfortable working with it, and it does the kind of things you want.
How do you know what things you might want to do with it? Well, up-front, you wont. It takes time and experience to find 'your' way of doing things, so just experiment until you start to get a feel for it. That might, along the way, entail changing the tools you use, but that's fine.
Dont worry too much about going straight for the specific sounds in your question. Get used to what the software can do; how you can chop sounds up, layer them, alter how they sound, how they play back, and the character that individual kinds of effects processors have when they alter sounds. As you do so, hopefully some of these processes will resonate with you in producing the kinds of sounds you're talking about, your way.
At the same time, think about the sources of your sounds; original real-world sound recordings often have sets of qualities that are hard to replicate in synthesisers, and vice versa. Sometimes you might want something more artificial, sometimes you might want something more organic, sometimes you want realism, sometimes you want the abstract, the alien; sometimes the transformation of something familiar is more unsettling than something comletely abstract.
You'll get further if you focus on the specifics of what you want to achieve, and why, than the mechanism for getting there. Almost any set of audio processing tricks 'can' get you some sort of passable sounds (high pass it, drop it two octaves, drench it in a long 100% wet reverb tada) but once you've built a framework in your head for how these processes fit together, and what to expect of sounds when you transform them in particular ways, you'll be much better off.