Since you mentioned modern interpretation, I would highly recommend "The Country of the Blind" by H. G. Wells.
And ~70 years before Plato's account, Heraclitus wrote a whole book on the subject -- of which only a few fragments remained.
‟The Truth holds always, but humans, time and again, prove unable to ever understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it.
In fact here is my meddle of quotes from Ancient Greece, the Upanishad, the Bible, all referencing the same conundrum... or call it Plato-Socrates-Heraclitus effect:
Each subsequent attempt at persuading them cave dwellers to exit would
only bring you tears & sorrow leave you more bewildered, but no closer to the solution.
‟In the beginning was the Truth, and the Truth was with Everything, and the Truth was Everything. All things happened through it, in it was life, and the life was the Light of all men… And the Light shines in the darkness, yet the darkness did not comprehend it.
— John 1:1–5
‟And although the Truth is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding.
‟The mysteries practiced among men are unholy mysteries.
‟The unenlightened sees diversity in Unity but the Gyani (one who know the Ultimate Truth, The Self) realized Oneness in diversity
— Bhagavad Gita, 2nd century BCE
‟Mortals are immortals, immortals are mortals;
Living their death, dying their life.
‟Listening not to me but to the Truth, it is wise to agree that all things are one.
‟The words I say to you I do not speak on my own authority. Rather, it is the Father, living in me, who is doing his work.
‟Though I have been speaking figuratively, a time is coming when I will no longer use this kind of language but will tell you plainly about my Father.
— Gospel of John, 14:10, 16:25
‟Pin your faith to natural knowledge, stumble through the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to supernatural knowledge, stumble through darkness deeper still.
‟One can understand this only if one understands that it can not be understood, and one is not able to understand this if one thinks it can be understood.
‟To find your Self, think for yourself [rather be happy with your subconsciousness, as your very own chatbot, speaking “your thoughts” to you. — Yuri]
‟I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think.
— Socrates, 5th century BCE
‟The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it?
— Jeremiah 17:9
… and yet,
‟Once a man knows good from evil, nothing on earth can compel him to act against that knowledge.