What does Nietzsche’s “a monstrosity per defectum” mean?


I was reading through Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy and I came across the phrase -

In Socrates, instinct becomes the critic, consciousness the creator — a monstrosity per defectum!

As far as I was able to find, it roughly describes the "intrinsic defectiveness in Socrates's ideology" in this context. Am I understanding it correctly?


Posted 2020-02-24T14:00:19.753

Reputation: 19


Please, read all previous para: for N, Socrates's daemon is an "inner voice" that acts as a critique: it always dissuades instead of "inspiring".

– Mauro ALLEGRANZA – 2020-02-24T14:23:39.897


Reading N through Freus, we may say that Socrates' daemon is a sort of Super-ego while N think at the "inner voice" of istinct as a "creatively affirmative force", more akin to Id.

– Mauro ALLEGRANZA – 2020-02-24T14:27:03.507

N. links the life instinct to self affirmation ("all naturalism in morality, that is, all healthy morality, is dominated by an instinct of life." (TI V:4)). i would be at least wary of claiming that S's creativity was deficient by being ruled by his super ego, and the paragraph in question links his criticism to a "divine voice" beyond his own "tremendous intelligence" -- perhaps as much to do with a lack of responsibility as too much! you could see the change as S driving a wedge between instinct and consciousness, as much as inverting their roles: critic is not all there is to creativity. – None – 2020-02-24T17:09:56.443

No answers