There is a complex relationship between language and the objective world. Take for example colour, and in particular red. There are a number of synonyms except of course they are not exact synonyms. For example crimson which is deeper, and scarlet which is brighter. But look at all the reds you see everyday - it is easy to see that there are an immense number of shades none of which have a specific colour name.
In that a person has a worldview and that worldview has to be articulated in words and is inherited and elaborated in words then language is the image of what can be thought and communicated.
Words are not simple. They change meaning either in combination as in compounds such as a blackboard which is not simply a board that is black; or in themselves - gay is not what gay meant a century ago.
What came first - the thought or the idea? The word atom was appropriated by the milesian materialists to formulate an idea of the physical world not directly accessible to their senses; and in fact not directly sensible till recently. Here the idea of a world appeared first and was hammered out in words.
Politicians & rhetoricians use the magic of words to hammer a consensus, a worldview that is exponentially magnified in a world of media saturation.
After reading the article about the Piraha, it seems plausible that they have no need for elaborate counting techniques; nor for elaborate arithmetic. (One could make a case that it was with the invention of cities and trade that these exigencies were forced). The case is made stronger when one reads that when the children were taught they picked it up reasonably well but then decided against it - that is they were bored and ran off. This fits in with my personal experience of how most people find actual mathematics boring as children and as adults.
Two additional and perhaps interesting points: There is a mathematical philosophy called ultrafinitist that disputes the reality of very large numbers; perhaps one could call the Pirahas view of numbers ultra-ultra-finitist. Secondly in advanced mathematics the most common numbers used are: zero, one, two and infinite - aka 0,1,2 and lots. We haven't even got to three.