Quantum non-determinism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy.
Stephen R. Palmquist however provides an interesting and appealing case against this supposition, which he states in his paper. Specifically, my question regards this passage:
Kant’s defense of the Second Analogy attempts to prove not that everything in nature must have some definite, objective cause, but that our expectation of everything having such a cause is a necessary component of our “empirical knowledge” of phenomena. 17 This nuance is of utmost importance: it distinguishes a non-perspectival from a perspectival interpretive method.18 The former would attempt to prove the principle of causality holds absolutely, with rational beings having no choice but to view every event solely in terms of causally-determined natural relations. Such a claim would make a mockery of Kant’s subsequent attempt to defend a coherent theory of human freedom (i.e., “noumenal” causality). The perspectival method, by contrast, leaves open a space, not only for the perspectival shift involved in interpreting a nature-determined event (i.e., an event interpreted via the Second Analogy) as also self-determined (i.e., free, or determined by an uncaused cause), but also for other scientific approaches to nature—approaches that may require less emphasis on the principle of causality.19 Sundaram makes this point concisely: “Cassirer, like Kant, regards causality as a category of human understanding. For things in themselves this category has no relevance. From this point, the classical or quantum mechanical causality or determinism should not be regarded as a metaphysical constraint upon all forms of being. Freedom, too, is a transcendental principle” (1987, 100-101; cf. Cassirer 1936).
The first part of my question is this: Does this imply that according to a neo-Kantian perspective the reason we humans cannot understand quantum mechanics, or as Feynman stated it, "nobody understands quantum mechanics," is because we have to view the world through the category of causality even though the world is non-causal?
The second and more important part of my question is: According to neo-Kantians will humans never be able to understand non-causal theories?
Palmquist, S. R. (2013). Kantian causality and quantum quarks: The compatibility between quantum mechanics and Kant’s phenomenal world. THEORIA. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia, 28(2), 283-302.