Yes, That is what happens. There is a reason that most people cannot break the .1mm barrier.
You have several things happening. First if you are using a bowden. Good luck. The bowden treats plastic a lot like a spring. Just wont be able to generate a consistent pressure.
The direct gear will have the same issue. You are trying to spit out 0.1mm on a 0.5mm nozzle. Factor in some simple drooling and your dot of plastic is missing. You wouldn't think it matters, but when we are using such tiny amounts of plastic, and consistently throughout the print, it makes for a really bad result!
Then you have more issues. This is why you jam. You now have a lot of plastic sitting, not being expelled. When you go from 0.2mm to 0.1mm you now take twice the time. Considering the printer was made to print at a 0.7 to 0.2 range (more or less). We are talking about a fair time for this plastic to sit molten, waiting to come out. Some have mentioned the heat crawl, but not exactly what happens or a solution. Now you do a retraction, and you just retracted molten plastic. Which gets jammed. Or your plastic cooks, carbonizes faster and clogs your hotend. Sad times! What you can do is ... turn off retraction, and then increase your flow / extrusion multiplier to account for the extra drooling. Part will have a lot of stringing, but a quick burst from a lighter fixes most of that.
You can get better results with a hotend that has a fan and heat sink / break. I like the e3d hot ends. That will stop the heat crawl.
I will note that Makergear once sent me an experimental 0.1mm nozzle. It could not build enough pressure to expel the plastic. I got one tiny bunny, half melted before it clogged from aforementioned carbonization.
Sounds like to me you really just need a form 1, or you are a tinkerer like me. Making the printer go twice the speed is much more fun than high quality.