< Radiation astronomy < Neutrinos
This "neutrino image" of the Sun is produced by using the Super-Kamiokande to detect the neutrinos from nuclear fusion coming from the Sun. Credit: R. Svoboda and K. Gordan (LSU), and NASA.

Neutrino astronomy is a lecture as part of the radiation astronomy course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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Quiz







  

1

True or False, A dominant group associated with neutrino astronomy differs from a control group in that it rules the treatment of the control group.

TRUE
FALSE

2

Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force
produced by a positron annihilating an electron
a decay product of a neutron
produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun
may have a mass
comes in mutable varieties

3

Yes or No, A control group may be used in neutrino astronomy to demonstrate no effect or a standard effect versus a novel effort applied to a treatment group.

Yes
No

4

Evidence that demonstrates that a model or idea in neutrino astronomy versus a control group is feasible is called a

.

5

True or False, The disparity between the atomic number of an atom and its atomic mass is explained by the existence of the neutrino.

TRUE
FALSE

6

Complete the text:

A short or

realization of a certain

or idea to

a treament's feasibility in neutrino astronomy is called a proof of

.

7

True or False, Pure neutrino astronomy involves no doing apart from itself.

TRUE
FALSE

8

Complete the text:

A proof-of-concept structure, including a control group, consists of

, procedures, findings, and

.

9

True or False, The purpose of a treatment group in neutrino astronomy is to describe natural processes or phenomena for the first time relative to a control group.

TRUE
FALSE

10

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position

11

True or False, Neutrinos emanate from a neutron star because an atomic nucleus the size hypothesized for a neutron star is unstable and the neutrons decompose giving off neutrinos.

TRUE
FALSE

12

Which of the following is not in the history of neutrino astronomy?

Enrico Fermi coined the term "neutrino"
Wolfgang Pauli postulated the muon neutrino
in the Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment, antineutrinos are created
a hydrogen bubble chamber was used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the neutrino interpretation of beta decay
a neutrino hitting a proton is detectable

13

True or False, Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the discovery of the clear signatures of neutrinos produced in lightning.

TRUE
FALSE

14

Sputnik I was involved in which of the following astronomies?

red astronomy
stellar astronomy
neutrino astronomy
radio astronomy
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

15

True or False, The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 12-meter sphere filled with heavy water surrounded by light detectors located 2 km above the ground in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

TRUE
FALSE

16

Cheomseongdae was involved in which of the following astronomies?

cosmic-ray astronomy
infrared astronomy
neutrino astronomy
visual astronomy
ultraviolet astronomy
radio astronomy

17

True or False, The ANITA experiment is designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos using the Greenland ice sheet.

TRUE
FALSE

18

Which of the following are the differences between a star and an astronomical yellow source?

a star may emit predominantly green rays
an astronomical yellow source is spherical
a yellow star is an astronomical yellow source
a star with nuclear fusion in its chromosphere emits neutrinos, but a yellow source with no nuclear fusion ongoing does not
a yellow source may be cloud like
an astronomical yellow source my be a rocky object

19

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water
coronal clouds
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

20

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

21

Complete the text:

Some neutrinos originating from the Sun may be produced by the

reactions occurring in and above the

. Differentiating these coronal cloud-induced neutrinos from the neutrino background and those theorized to be produced within the

of the Sun may someday be possible with neutrino astronomy.

22

The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

23

Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

under ice
the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Digital Optical Modules
the counting house is on the surface above the array
the baryon neutrino
the electron neutrino

24

ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector designed to be used as a directional Neutrino Telescope residing under the

25

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Neutrinos - G
Muons - H
Gamma rays - I
X-rays - J
Ultraviolet rays - K
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
Infrared rays - U
Submillimeter rays - V
Radio rays - W
Superluminal rays - X
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials

.
F547M

.
511 keV gamma-ray peak

.
F675W

.
broad-band filter centered at 404 nm

.
a cloud chamber

.
ring-imaging Cherenkov

.
coherers

.
effective area is larger by 104

.
F588N

.
pyroelectrics

.
a blemish about 8,000 km long

.
a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate

.
coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum

.
thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals

.
F606W

.
aluminum nitride

.
heavy water

.
18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

.
wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)

.
a recoiling nucleus

high-purity germanium

.
magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions

.
2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons

.

26

The name of a neutrino detector residing 2.5 km under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France, is?

27

The name of a neutrino detector under the ice at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica is?

28

An argon-37 atom is converted by a neutrino by the charged current interaction from what atom?

29

A gallium detector design converts incoming neutrinos to what element?

30

Which of the following are characteristic of solar proton astronomy?

the solar wind
polar coronal holes
protons originating from the photosphere
the electron neutrino
GOES 11
neutrons

31

Neutrinos detected from the solar octant may be from nucleosynthesis within the coronal cloud in the near vicinity of the Sun or perhaps from nucleosynthesis occurring within what theoretical interior structure of the Sun?

32

Which of the following phenomena are associated with the core of the Sun?

origin of the magnetic field
the convection zone
the tachocline
Solar neutrinos
radiative zone
gamma-rays

33

Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

meteor astronomy
cosmic-ray astronomy
neutron astronomy
proton astronomy
beta-ray astronomy
neutrino astronomy
gamma-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy
ultraviolet astronomy
visual astronomy
infrared astronomy
submillimeter astronomy
radio astronomy
radar astronomy
microwave astronomy
superluminal astronomy

34

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position
temperatures at or above 1 MK

35

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a chromosphere which emits neutrinos
coronal loops that are particle accelerator-like
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
a polar temperature inside two radii of 1 MK
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

36

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Crab Nebula?

a core which emits neutrinos
low-energy X-rays detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
hard X-rays
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with X-rays in 1731
Taurus X-1

37

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

.
isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

.
a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

.
detected with X-rays on the Moon

.
an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

.
detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

.
found in the X-ray spectra of comets

.
consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

.
a surface impurity on meteorites

.

38

Which of the following are characteristic of the first true astrophysical gamma-ray source?

a strong 2.223 MeV emission line
a solar flare
the formation of deuterium
the electron neutrino
OSO-3
neutrons

39

Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

limb faculae
polar coronal holes
black body temperature of the photosphere
the electron neutrino
iron (Fe XIV) green line
neutrons

Hypotheses

  1. Even with the limited directionality of the neutrino data, it should be possible to decide between the solar core and the solar corona as the most likely source of neutrinos from the solar octant.

See also

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}

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