Various animals


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum (2): Eumetazoa Parazoa
Phyla (36): Acanthocephala Annelida Arthropoda Brachiopoda Bryozoa Cephalorhyncha Chaetognatha Chordata Cnidaria Ctenophora Cycliophora Echinodermata Echiura Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida Hemichordata Kamptozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Micrognathozoa Mollusca Myxozoa Nematoda Nematomorpha Nemertea Onychophora Orthonectida Phoronida Placozoa Platyhelminthes Porifera Rhombozoa Rotifera Sipuncula Tardigrada Xenacoelomorpha

Source(s) of checklist:
Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist is followed for pragmatic reasons, though the following alternative phyla deserve consideration: Dicyemida Entoprocta Monoblastozoa Myzostomida Priapulida – †Trilobozoa


Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 emend.



Main page: Animalia (classifications).



Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page. 

Animal biodiversity publishing

  • Blagoderov, V. et al. 2010. Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys. ZooKeys 50: 17–28. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.539
  • Penev, L. et al. 2010. Editorial. Taxonomy shifts up a gear: New publishing tools to accelerate biodiversity research. ZooKeys 50: i–iv. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.543
  • Penev, L. et al. 2010. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples. ZooKeys 50: 1–16. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.538
  • Penev, L. et al. 2011. Interlinking journal and wiki publications through joint citation: Working examples from ZooKeys and Plazi on Species-ID. ZooKeys 90: 1–12. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.90.1369
  • Smith, V. & Penev, L. (eds.) 2011. e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150 contents
  • Valdecasas, A.G. 2011. An index to evaluate the quality of taxonomic publications. Zootaxa 2925: 57–62. Preview PDF
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Describing unexplored biodiversity: Zootaxa in the International Year of Biodiversity. Zootaxa 2768: 1–4. Preview PDF
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Accelerating biodiversity descriptions and transforming taxonomic publishing: the first decade of Zootaxa. Zootaxa 2896: 1–7. Preview PDF

Methodology in zoological taxonomy

  • Assis, L.C.S., De Carvalho, M.R. & Wheeler, Q.D. 2011. Homoplasy: from detecting pattern to determining process in evolution, but with a secondary role for morphology? Zootaxa 2984: 67–68. Preview (PDF)
  • Brown, B.V. 2013. Automating the "Material examined" section of taxonomic papers to speed up species descriptions. Zootaxa 3683(3): 297–299. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.3.8 reference page 
  • Chakrabarty, P. 2010. Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. Zootaxa 2632: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Coleman, C.O., Lowry, J.K. & Macfarlane, T. 2010. DELTA for beginners. An introduction into the taxonomy software package DELTA. ZooKeys, 45: 1–75. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.45.263
  • Cruickshank, R.H. & Munck, L. 2011. It’s barcoding Jim, but not as we know it. Zootaxa 2933: 55–56. Preview PDF
  • Ebach, M.C. 2011. Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise. Zootaxa 2742: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Faith, D.P. et al. 2012. Corroboration assessments and recent progress towards integrative systematics: a reply to Farris and Carpenter. Zootaxa 3235: 65–68. Preview (PDF)
  • Farris, J.S. & Carpenter, J.M. 2012. Faith et al. 2011. "corroboration assessment" leads to verificationism. Zootaxa 3235: 62–64. Preview (PDF)
  • Maddison, D.R., Schulz, K.-S. & Maddison, W.P. 2007. The Tree of Life Web Project. Pp. 19–40 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
  • Minelli, A. 2007. Invertebrate taxonomy and evolutionary developmental biology. Pp. 55–60 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
  • Mitchell, A. 2011. DNA barcoding is useful for taxonomy: a reply to Ebach. Zootaxa 2772: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Rodman, J.E. 2007. Reflections on PEET, the Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Pp. 41–46 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
  • Rodríguez-Fernández, J.I. et al. 2011. Barcoding without DNA? Species identification using near infrared spectroscopy. Zootaxa 2933: 46–54. Preview
  • Rogers, D.C. 2012. Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method. Zootaxa 3257: 66–68. Preview (PDF)
  • Santos, L.M. & Faria, L.R.R. 2011. The taxonomy’s new clothes: a little more about the DNA-based taxonomy. Zootaxa 3025: 66–68. Preview PDF
  • Stevens, M.I., Porco, D., D’Haese, C.A. & Deharveng, L. 2011. Comment on "Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise" by Ebach (2011). Zootaxa 2838: 85–88. Preview PDF
  • Stribling, J. et al. 2012: “Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method”: a rebuttal of Rogers (2012). Zootaxa 3359: 65–68. Preview PDF [erratum in Zootaxa 3383: 14–14. Preview PDF (2012)] reference page 
  • Wheeler, Q.D. 2007. Invertebrate systematics or spineless taxonomy? Pp. 10–18 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
  • Wilkins, J.S. 2011. Philosophically speaking, how many species concepts are there? Zootaxa 2765: 58–60. Preview (PDF)
  • Winston, J.E. 2007. Archives of a small planet: The significance of museum collections and museum-based research in invertebrate taxonomy. Pp. 47–54 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF


Zoological nomenclature/terminology

  • Anon. 2010. Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology Updated March 2010
  • Bour, R. 2010. Constant Duméril’s Zoologie Analytique was published in 1805. Bionomina 1: 56–57. Preview (PDF) PDF
  • Carlos, C.J. & Voisin, J.-f. 2009. A few remarks on the proposed amendment of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa 2198: 67–68. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
  • Dubois, A. 2007. Nomina zoologica linnaeana. Pp. 81–106 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
  • Dubois, A. 2008. Authors of zoological publications and nomina are signatures, not persons. Zootaxa 1771: 63–68. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
  • Dubois, A. 2009. Incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked taxa into the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: the nomenclatural status of class-series zoological nomina published in a non-Latinized form. Zootaxa 2106: 1–12. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
  • Dubois, A. 2010. Retroactive changes should be introduced in the Code only with great care: problems related to the spellings of nomina. Zootaxa 2426: 1–42. Preview (PDF) PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2010. Bionomina, a forum for the discussion of nomenclatural and terminological issues in biology. Bionomina 1: 1–10. Preview (PDF) PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2011. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature must be drastically improved before it is too late. Bionomina 2: 1–104. Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2012. The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature. Bionomina 5: 57–80. Preview (PDF)
  • Dubois, A., Minelli, A. & Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Recommendations about nomenclature for papers submitted to Zootaxa. Zootaxa 2943: 58–62. Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. et al. 2013. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany. Zootaxa 3735(1): 1–94. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3735.1.1 Reference page. 
  • Flann, C. 2011. BioCode: third time lucky? Zootaxa 2874: 38–40. Preview (PDF)
  • Hedges, S.B. 2011. On the use of high-level taxonomic names. Zootaxa 2867: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Hoquet, T. 2010. Why terms matter to biological theories: the term “origin” as used by Darwin. Bionomina 1: 58–60. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview (PDF) PDF
  • ICZN 1987: Official Lists and Indexes of Names and Works in Zoology. London: ICZN. ISBN: 0853010048
  • ICZN 2012. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys 219: 1–10. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.219.3944 Reference page. 
  • Kuhn, J.H. & Wahl-Jensen, V. 2010. Being obsessive-compulsive about terminology and nomenclature is not a vice, but a virtue. Bionomina 1: 11–14. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview (PDF) PDF
  • Minelli, A. 2013. Zoological nomenclature in the digital era. Frontiers in zoology 10: 4. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-4
  • Nemésio, A. 2011. Nomenclatural itch versus patrolling itch: comments on O’Hara (2011). Zootaxa 2986: 63–68. Preview (PDF)
  • O’Hara, J.E. 2011. Cyber nomenclaturalists and the “CESA itch”. Zootaxa 2933: 57–64. Preview PDF
  • Sepkoski, J.J. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American paleontology 363: 1–560. [not seen]
  • Steyskal, G.C. 1970. On gender concord in binomina. Coleopterists bulletin 24: 57–58. JSTOR

Additional references

  • Owen, I.L. 2011. Parasites of animals in Papua New Guinea recorded at the National Veterinary Laboratory: a catalogue, historical review and zoogeographical affiliations. Zootaxa 3143: 1–163. Preview (PDF)

Vernacular names

Afrikaans: Diere
Akan: Mbowa
Alemannisch: Tierer
العربية: حيوان
aragonés: Animals
arpetan: Animâl
অসমীয়া: প্রাণী
asturianu: Animal
Bahasa Indonesia: Hewan
Bahasa Melayu: Haiwan
bamanankan: Bagan
বাংলা: প্রাণী
Basa Sunda: Sato
беларуская: Жывёлы
भोजपुरी: जानवर
Boarisch: Viecher
bosanski: Životinje
brezhoneg: Loen
български: Животни
català: Animal
čeština: Živočichové
corsu: Animali
српски / srpski: Животиња
Cymraeg: Anifeiliaid
dansk: Dyr
Deutsch: Tiere
eesti: Loomad
Ελληνικά: Ζώα
English: animals
español: Animales
Esperanto: besto
euskara: Animaliak
فارسی: جانوران
føroyskt: Djór
français: Animaux
Frysk: Dier
Gaeilge: Ainmhí
Gàidhlig: Beathach
galego: Animais
한국어: 동물계(動物界)
Հայերեն: Կենդանիներ
हिन्दी: जन्तु; जानवर; जीव; पशु; प्राणी
hrvatski: Životinje
Ido: Animalo
interlingua: Animales
íslenska: Dýr
italiano: Animali
עברית: בעלי חיים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪ್ರಾಣಿ
Kapampangan: Animal
ქართული: ცხოველები
kernowek: Enyval
kurdî: Candar
Latina: Animalia
latviešu: Dzīvnieki
Lëtzebuergesch: Déiereräich
lietuvių: Gyvūnai
Limburgs: Diere
magyar: Állatok
македонски: Животни
Malagasy: Biby
मराठी: प्राणी
مازِرونی: جانورون
Nāhuatl: Yōlcatl
Nederlands: Dieren
日本語: 動物界
Nordfriisk: Diarten
norsk: Dyr
norsk nynorsk: Dyr
Nouormand: Animâ
occitan: Animals
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਾਨਵਰ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សត្វ
Plattdüütsch: Beester
polski: Zwierzęta
português: Animais / Metazoários
română: Animale
Runa Simi: Uywa
русский: Животные
Basa Sunda: Sato
sicilianu: Armali
Simple English: Animal
slovenčina: Živočíchy
slovenščina: Živali
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Životinje
suomi: Eläinkunta
svenska: Djur
Tagalog: hayop
தமிழ்: விலங்கு
ไทย: สัตว์
Tiếng Việt: Động vật
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hova
Türkçe: Hayvanlar
українська: Тварини
اردو: جانور
West-Vlams: Bêeste
ייִדיש: בעלי־חיים
Zazaki: Heywani
中文(繁體)‎: 動物界
中文(简体)‎: 动物界
For more multimedia, look at Animalia on Wikimedia Commons.
Wikibooks has a Dichotomous Key related to this taxon Animalia.
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