# Ìrànwọ́:Báwo lẹṣe le ṣe àtúnṣe ojúewé

Wikipedia is a wiki, meaning that anyone can easily edit any unprotected page, and save those changes immediately to that page, making the alterations visible to every other reader. You do not even need to register to do this. After your first edit, you will be a Wikipedia editor!

Note: You can use the sandbox to experiment with page editing.

## Editing

Editing most Wikipedia pages is easy. Simply click on the "edit this page" tab at the top of a Wikipedia page (or on a section-edit link). This will bring you to a new page with a text box containing the editable text of the original page.

If you add information to a page, please provide references, as unreferenced facts are subject to removal. When you are finished with an edit, you should write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the legend. To see how the page looks with your edits, press the "Show preview" button. To see the differences between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page, press the "Show changes" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, be bold and press the "Save page" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to all Wikipedia users.

You can also click on the "Discussion" tab to see the corresponding talk page, which contains comments about the page from other Wikipedia users. Click on the "new section" tab to start a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page.

You should also remember to sign your messages on talk pages and some special-purpose project pages with four tildes (~~~~), but you should not sign edits you make to regular articles. In page history, the MediaWiki software automatically keeps track of which user makes each change.

### Minor edits

A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A minor edit is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several options available only to registered users.

### Major edits

All editors are encouraged to be bold, but there are several things that a user can do to ensure that major edits are performed smoothly. Before engaging in a major edit, a user should consider discussing proposed changes on the article discussion/talk page. During the edit, if doing so over an extended period, the {{Inuse}} tag can reduce the likelihood of an edit conflict. Once the edit has been completed, the inclusion of an edit summary will assist in documenting the changes. These steps will all help to ensure that major edits are well received by the Wikipedia community.

A major edit should be reviewed to confirm that it is consensual to all concerned editors. Therefore, any change that affects the meaning of an article is major (not minor), even if the edit is a single word.

There are no necessary terms to which you have to agree when doing major edits, but the recommendations above have become best practice. If you do it your own way, the likelihood of your edits being reedited may be higher.

Occasionally your browser will crash. When doing a large edit it is suggested you copy the code of the article you are working on and placing it in a text editor (preferably one without formatting, such as Notepad) periodically. This ensures that in the case of a browser crash you will not lose your work. It may also be a good idea to save the page after performing a substantial amount of work before adding additional content to the article.

## Sections

Editors are recommended to divide any article, which is more than a few paragraphs long, into sections and subsections. In the wikimarkup the beginning of every section is marked by the section title bracketed by "==" symbols, whereas the subsections inside a section are introduced by the subsection title bracketed by "===" (or more) symbols. For instance, Structured document heading of this section looks like:

==Structured document==

The wikimarkup supports six levels of headings. The Structured document is a level-two heading; the level one headings are normally not used. The details can be found in the table below.

## Wiki markup

Wiki markup is the markup language you use to write a Wikipedia page; please see Editing for details on it, and Wikitext examples for a longer list of the possibilities of Wikitext.

The anchor element, <a>, is not allowed. The following are used instead: [[ ]], [ ], ~~~~, ~~~, http, ISBN, RFC & {{ }}. See the table below.

What it looks like What you type

The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:

User:Patricia Zhang 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)

User:Patricia Zhang

and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:

13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
• The first two both provide a link to your user page.

The character '''tilde''' (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:
:~~~~
Adding three tildes (~~~) will add just your user name:
: ~~~
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

(Redirects)

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]] will redirect to the [[United States]] page, to the History section, if it exists

Pàtàkì: Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia: How to edit a page and Pàtàkì: Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia: How to edit a page

 '''What links here''' and '''Related changes''' pages can be linked as: [[Special: WhatLinkshere/Wikipedia: How to edit a page]] and [[Special: RecentChangeslinked/ Wikipedia: How to edit a page]] 

(User edits)

A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as: [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] or [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]

(Categorize)

• To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.

[[Ẹ̀ka:Character sets]]

(Book sources)

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

Link to a book using alternate text, such as its title.

• Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended. ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
• To create a link to Book Sources using alternate text (e.g. the book's title), use the internal link style with the appropriate namespace.

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

[[Special:BookSources/0670037818|alternate text, such as its title]]

(RFC number)

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

(“As of” tag)

As of” tags like "As of April 2009" and "as of April 2009" categorize info that will need updating.

“[[WP:As of|As of]]” tags like "{{As of|2009|4|df=us}}" and "{{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=on}}" categorize info that will need updating.

### Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What it looks like What you type
A picture:

A picture:
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg]]
With alternative text:

With alternative text:
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.]]
• Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|frame|alt=Puzzle globe logo|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe logo|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
• An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The picture tutorial explains more options.
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|30 px|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The picture tutorial explains more options.
Linking directly to the description page of an image:

Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg

Linking directly to the description page
of an image:
[[:Image:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg]]
• Clicking on an image displayed on a page (such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

Image of the jigsaw globe logo

Linking directly to an image
without displaying it:
[[Media:Wikipedia-logo-v2-yo.svg|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]
Using the span and div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
Example:
<div style="display:inline;
width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
Example: {| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}


See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial.

For a heading, put it on a separate line. A level-two heading, the highest level editors use in an article, for example:

  == Introduction ==
Editing most Wikipedia pages is easy.

Subheadings use '===', '====', and so on, down to level-six.

Level-one headings are automatically generated for the article's title, which is not available in the edit box.

### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Italicized text
Bold text
Italicized & Bold text

''Italicized text''
'''Bold text'''
'''''Italicized & Bold text'''''


Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}

Computer code has a colored background
and more stringent formatting. Suppose we
want to define <code>int  main()</code>:

<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}</source>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material. (Àdàkọ:Du is also possible.)

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup. For backwards compatibility better combine this potentially ignored new logical with the old physical markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>


Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.

<!-- comment here -->


Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

• See special characters.

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined:
ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.
1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

• The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times;
10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;


Mathematical formulae:

Àdàkọ:Math

Àdàkọ:Math

• Complex formulae should use <math> markup.
• Simple formulae may use either <math> markup or HTML/wiki markup using the {{math}} template with <i> and <b> or '' and ''' for formatting. Make sure to replace = with {{=}}.
• Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis. However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Per Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics), wiki markup ('' and ''') is preferred over HTML markup (<i> and <b>), but both are allowed.

$\,\! \sin x + \ln y$<br>
{{math|sin ''x'' + ln ''y''}}

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$<br>
{{math|<b>x</b> {{=}} <b>0</b>}}


Spacing in simple math formulae:
Obviously, Àdàkọ:Math is true when Àdàkọ:Math is a real number.

• Using &nbsp; to prevent linebreak is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.

Obviously, {{math|''x<''<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0}} is true
when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.


Complicated formulae:

• See Ìrànlọ́wọ́:Displaying a formula for how to use <math>.
• A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.

: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


### No or limited formatting—showing exactly what is being typed

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them—what you see, is what you get!

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines
and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<pre> tag:
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →

<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters:
&rarr;
</pre>

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets Wiki markup and
special characters: →
Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
special characters: &rarr;


It's uncommon, but on occasion acceptable, to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. The format is this:

<!-- This is an example of text that won't normally be visible except in "edit" mode. -->

At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the table of contents (TOC) to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also Compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

### Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

• in special Wiki-markup (see Table)
• with the usual HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see When to use tables.

### Variables

Code Effect
{{CURRENTWEEK}}4
{{CURRENTDOW}}0
{{CURRENTMONTH}}01
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} Oṣù Kínní
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} Oṣù Kínní
{{CURRENTDAY}}27
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}}Ọjọ́àìkú
{{CURRENTYEAR}}2019
{{CURRENTTIME}}10:46
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 31,772
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 18,302
{{PAGENAME}}Ìrànwọ́:Báwo lẹṣe le ṣe àtúnṣe ojúewé
{{NAMESPACE}}
{{REVISIONID}}516294
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} /w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} //yo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} //yo.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}}//yo.wikipedia.org
{{ns:1}}Ọ̀rọ̀
{{ns:2}}Oníṣe
{{ns:3}}Ọ̀rọ̀ oníṣe
{{ns:4}}Wikipedia
{{ns:5}}Ọ̀rọ̀ Wikipedia
{{ns:6}}Fáìlì
{{ns:7}}Ọ̀rọ̀ fáìlì
{{ns:8}}MediaWiki
{{ns:9}}Ọ̀rọ̀ mediaWiki
{{ns:10}}Àdàkọ
{{ns:11}}Ọ̀rọ̀ àdàkọ
{{ns:12}}Ìrànlọ́wọ́
{{ns:13}}Ọ̀rọ̀ ìrànlọ́wọ́
{{ns:14}}Ẹ̀ka
{{ns:15}}Ọ̀rọ̀ ẹ̀ka
{{SITENAME}}Wikipedia

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

### Templates

The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia has support for templates. This means standardized text chunks (such as boilerplate text), can be inserted into articles. For example, typing {{stub}} will appear as "This article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it." when the page is saved. See Template messages for the complete list. Other commonly used templates are: {{disambig}} for disambiguation pages and {{sectstub}} like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: {{Geo-stub}}, {{Hist-stub}}, and {{Linux-stub}}. For a complete list of stubs see Stub types.

You may also want to learn about:

### Getting started

• Starting an article
• Policies and guidelines

• Contributing to Wikipedia
• FAQ/Editing
• Cheatsheet
• If you have problems editing a long article

### Naming and moving

• Moving a page
• Naming conventions
• Namespace

### Style and layout

• Layout
• Manual of Style
• Annotated article

### Tools

• Text editor support