Бенџамин Френклин

Бенџамин Френклин (енгл. ; Бостон, 17. јануар 1706[1]Филаделфија, 17. април 1790) је био амерички научник и политичар, борац за слободу човека, учесник у Америчком рату за независност, један од твораца „Декларације о независности“ и америчког устава, плодан писац, штампар и проналазач.[2] Рођен је у Бостону, држава Масачусетс. Као научник познат је као изумитељ громобрана и открића тока и карактеристика Голфске струје. Поред громобрана пронашао је Франклинову пећ, бифокалне наочари и направио је прву машину за умножавање. Први је увео улично осветљење и реорганизовао је амерички поштански систем.[3] Његов најпознатији научни рад, везан је за електрицитет. Развио је модел електричне струје као флуида схватајући да је она у ствари кретање наелектрисаних честица. Основао је прву јавну библиотеку у Америци, филозофско друштво Пенсилваније и „Академију“ која је прерасла у Универзитет Пенсилваније.[4] За њега се везује и чувени експеримент са пуштањем змаја. Тада је доказао да је гром једна врста електричне варнице.

Бенџамин Френклин
Бенџамин Френклин
Датум рођења(1706-01-17)17. јануар 1706.
Место рођењаБостон
Датум смрти17. април 1790.(1790-04-17)(84 год.)
Место смртиФиладелфија
САД
Потпис

Види још

Референце

  1. Engber, Daniel (2006). „What's Benjamin Franklin's Birthday?”. Приступљено 17. 6. 2009. »according to documents from Boston's city registrar, he actually came into the world on the old-style Jan. 6, 1705. So, this year's tricentennial is right on time.«
  2. „Inventor”. The Franklin Institute. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 5. 03. 2007. Приступљено 25. 4. 2012.
  3. Burt, Nathaniel (1999). The Perennial Philadelphians: The Anatomy of an American Aristocracy. University of Pennsylvania Press. стр. 142. ISBN 978-0-8122-1693-6.
  4. Isaacson, Walter (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Литература

Спољашњи видео-запис
Presentation by H.W. Brands on The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, October 5, 2000, C-SPAN
Presentation by Walter Isaacson on Benjamin Franklin: An American Life, July 22, 2003, C-SPAN
Presentation by Edmund S. Morgan on Benjamin Franklin, November 12, 2002, [lC-SPAN
Presentation by Stacy Schiff on A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America, April 12, 2005, C-SPAN
Booknotes interview with James Srodes on Franklin: The Essential Founding Father, May 19, 2002, C-SPAN
Interview with Gordon S. Wood on The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin, June 4, 2004, C-SPAN video7 = Panel discussion on Franklin with Walter Isaacson, Gordon Wood, and Stacy Schiff, hosted by Jim Lehrer, January 8, 2006, C-SPAN

Биографије

  • Becker, Carl Lotus. "Benjamin Franklin", Dictionary of American Biography (1931) – vol 3, with links online
  • Brands, H.W. The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin. 978-0-385-49540-0. – scholarly biography; online free
  • Crane, Vernon W. Benjamin Franklin and a rising people (1954) short biography by a scholar; online free
  • Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin; many editions
  • Gaustad, Edwin S. Benjamin Franklin (2006). :10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305357.001.0001 online
  • Isaacson, Walter (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6084-8., popular biography; online free
  • Ketcham, Ralph. Benjamin Franklin (1966) 228 pp online edition, short biography by scholar
  • Lemay, J.A. Leo. The Life of Benjamin Franklin, scholarly biography, 3 volumes appeared before the author's death in 2008
    • Volume 1: Journalist, 1706–1730 (2005) 568 pp. 978-0-8122-3854-9.
    • Volume 2: Printer and Publisher, 1730–1747 (2005) 664 pp. 978-0-8122-3855-6.
    • Volume 3: Soldier, Scientist, and Politician, 1748–1757 (2008), 768 pp. 978-0-8122-4121-1.
  • Morgan, Edmund S. Benjamin Franklin (2003), interpretation by leading scholar online free
  • Schiff, Stacy, A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America, (2005) Henry Holt
  • James Srodes, Franklin, The Essential Founding Father, (2002, softcover 2003, Regnery History) 978-0-89526-163-2
  • Van Doren, Carl (1938). Benjamin Franklin. Viking. ISBN 978-1-931541-85-5., Pulitzer Prize winning biography; online free
  • Wood, Gordon. The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. 978-0-14-303528-2. , intellectual history by leading historian.
  • Wright, Esmond. Franklin of Philadelphia. 978-0-674-31810-6. – scholarly study

За младе читаоце

  • Asimov, Isaac. The Kite That Won the Revolution, a biography for children that focuses on Franklin's scientific and diplomatic contributions.
  • Fleming, Candace. Ben Franklin's Almanac: Being a True Account of the Good Gentleman's Life.. Atheneum/Anne Schwart, 2003, 128 pp. 978-0-689-83549-0..

Научна истраживања

  • Anderson, Douglas. The Radical Enlightenments of Benjamin Franklin (1997) – fresh look at the intellectual roots of Franklin
  • Buxbaum, M.H., ed. Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)
  • Chaplin, Joyce. The First Scientific American: Benjamin Franklin and the Pursuit of Genius. (2007)
  • Cohen, I. Bernard. Benjamin Franklin's Science (1990) – Cohen, the leading specialist, has several books on Franklin's science
  • Conner, Paul W. Poor Richard's Politicks (1965) – analyzes Franklin's ideas in terms of the Enlightenment and republicanism
  • Dull, Jonathan. Benjamin Franklin and the American Revolution (2010)
  • Dull, Jonathan. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (1985)
  • Dray, Philip. Stealing God's Thunder: Benjamin Franklin's Lightning Rod and the Invention of America. (2005). 279 pp.
  • Ford, Paul Leicester. The Many-Sided Franklin (1899) online edition – collection of scholarly essays
  • Gleason, Philip. "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot." Journal of American Ethnic History 2000 20(1): 3–17.
  • Houston, Alan. Benjamin Franklin and the Politics of Improvement (2009)
  • Lemay, J.A. Leo, ed. Reappraising Benjamin Franklin: A Bicentennial Perspective (1993) – scholarly essays
  • Mathews, L.K. "Benjamin Franklin's Plans for a Colonial Union, 1750–1775." American Political Science Review 8 (August 1914): 393–412.
  • McCoy, Drew R. (1978). „Benjamin Franklin's Vision of a Republican Political Economy for America”. William and Mary Quarterly. 35 (4): 607—28. JSTOR 1923207.
  • Merli, Frank J., and Theodore A. Wilson, eds. Makers of American diplomacy, from Benjamin Franklin to Henry Kissinger (1974) online free
  • Newman, Simon P. "Benjamin Franklin and the Leather-Apron Men: The Politics of Class in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia", Journal of American Studies, August 2009, Vol. 43#2 pp. 161–75; Franklin took pride in his working class origins and his printer's skills.
  • Olson, Lester C. Benjamin Franklin's Vision of American Community: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology. (2004). 323 pp.
  • Schiffer, Michael Brian. Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. (2003). 383 pp.
  • Stuart Sherman "Franklin" 1918 article on Franklin's writings.
  • Skemp, Sheila L. Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist (1994) – Ben's son was a leading Loyalist
  • Sletcher, Michael. 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006).
  • Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp.
  • Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. (1999). 213 pp. Takes position midway between D H Lawrence's brutal 1930 denunciation of Franklin's religion as nothing more than a bourgeois commercialism tricked out in shallow utilitarian moralisms and Owen Aldridge's sympathetic 1967 treatment of the dynamism and protean character of Franklin's "polytheistic" religion.
  • York, Neil. "When Words Fail: William Pitt, Benjamin Franklin and the Imperial Crisis of 1766", Parliamentary History, October 2009, Vol. 28#3 pp. 341–74

Историографија

  • Waldstreicher, David, ed. A Companion to Benjamin Franklin (2011), 25 essays by scholars emphasizing how historians have handled Franklin. online edition

Примарни извори

  • Silence Dogood, The Busy-Body, & Early Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume). 978-1-931082-22-8.
  • Autobiography, Poor Richard, & Later Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume). 978-1-883011-53-6.
  • Bailyn, Bernard, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1992)
  • Benjamin Franklin papers, M.S. Coll. 900, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Finding aid
  • Bailly, J.-S., "Secret Report on Mesmerism or Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.50, No.4, (October 2002), pp. 364–68. :10.1080/00207140208410110
  • Franklin, B., Majault, M.J., Le Roy, J.B., Sallin, C.L., Bailly, J.-S., d'Arcet, J., de Bory, G., Guillotin, J.-I. & Lavoisier, A., "Report of The Commissioners charged by the King with the Examination of Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 50, No. 4, (October 2002), pp. 332–63. :10.1080/00207140208410109
  • The Papers of Benjamin Franklin online, Sponsored by The American Philosophical Society and Yale University
  • Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003)
  • Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography edited by J.A. Leo Lemay and P.M. Zall, (Norton Critical Editions, 1986); 390 pp. text, contemporary documents and 20th century analysis
  • Houston, Alan, ур. (2004). Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue. Cambridge University Press.. 371 pp.
  • Ketcham, Ralph, ed. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. (1965, reprinted 2003). 459 pp.
  • Leonard Labaree, and others., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 39 vols. to date (1959–2008), definitive edition, through 1783. This massive collection of BF's writings, and letters to him, is available in large academic libraries. It is most useful for detailed research on specific topics. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online at the Wayback Machine (archived 2010-09-28).
  • The Way to Wealth. Applewood Books.1986.  978-0-918222-88-6.
  • Poor Richard's Almanack. Peter Pauper Press.1983.  978-0-88088-918-6.
  • Poor Richard Improved by Benjamin Franklin (1751)
  • Writings (Franklin)|Writings. 978-0-940450-29-5.
  • "On Marriage."
  • "Satires and Bagatelles."
  • "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain."
  • "Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School." Carl Japikse, Ed. Frog Ltd.; Reprint ed. 2003.  978-1-58394-079-2.
  • "Heroes of America Benjamin Franklin."
  • "Experiments and Observations on Electricity." (1751)

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