Nelson Mandela

"Mandela" redirects here. For other people named Mandela, or other uses , see Mandela (disambiguation).
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
11th President of South Africa
In office
27 April 1994 – 1999
Vice President(s)   Frederik Willem de Klerk
Thabo Mbeki
Preceded by Frederik Willem de Klerk (State President of South Africa)
Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki
Born July 18 1918 (age 88)
Qunu, Mthatha, Transkei
Political party African National Congress

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA [roli'ɬaɬa])) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections.

Before his presidency, Mandela was a prominent anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC), and was imprisoned on a conviction for sabotage after he went underground and began the ANC's armed struggle. He was released from prison after serving 27 years of his sentence.

Through his imprisonment, much of it spent in a cell on Robben Island, Mandela became the most widely known figure in the struggle against apartheid. Among opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a cultural icon of freedom and equality comparable with Mahatma Gandhi. However, the apartheid government and nations sympathetic to it condemned him and the ANC as communists and terrorists, and he became a figure of hatred among many South African whites, supporters of apartheid, and opponents of the ANC.

Following his release from prison in 1990, his switch to a policy of reconciliation and negotiation helped lead the transition to multi-racial democracy in South Africa. Since the end of apartheid, he has been widely praised, even among white South Africans and former opponents.

Mandela has received over a hundred awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He is currently a celebrated elder statesman who continues to voice his opinion on topical issues. In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela. Many South Africans also refer to him reverently as 'mkhulu' (grandfather) [citation needed].



Early life


Birth and Lineage

Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty which (nominally) reigns in the Transkeian Territories of the Union of South Africa's Cape Province. He was born in the small village of Qunu in the district of Mthatha, the Transkei capital. His great-grandfather was Ngubengcuka (died 1832), the Inkosi Enkhulu or King of the Thembu people, who were eventually subjected to British colonial rule. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. However, being only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne.[1] His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (1880-1928), was nonetheless designated chief of the village of Mvezo. Upon alienating the colonial authorities however, he was deprived of his position, and moved his family to Qunu.[1] Gadla remained, however, a member of the Inkosi's Privy Council, and was instrumental in the ascension to the Thembu throne of Jongintaba Dalindyebo, who would later return this favour by informally adopting Mandela upon Gadla's death. In total, Mandela's father had four wives, with whom he fathered a total of thirteen children (four boys and nine girls). Mandela was born to Gadla's third wife ('third' by a complex royal ranking system), Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, in whose umzi or homestead Mandela spent much of his childhood. His given name Rolihlahla means one who brings trouble upon himself.



At seven years of age, Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where he was given the name "Nelson", after the British admiral Horatio Nelson, by a Methodist teacher. His father died of tuberculosis when Rolihlahla was nine, and the Regent, Jongintaba, became his guardian. Mandela attended a Wesleyan mission school next door to the palace of the Regent. Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute, learning about Western culture. He completed his Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the usual three.

Destined to inherit his father's position as a privy councillor, in 1937 Mandela moved to Healdtown, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort which most Thembu royalty attended. Aged nineteen, he took an interest in boxing and running.


Tertiary education

After matriculating, he started to study for a B.A. at the Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo, and the two became lifelong friends and colleagues.

At the end of his first year, he became involved in a boycott by the Students' Representative Council against the university policies, and was asked to leave Fort Hare.


Move to Johannesburg

Shortly after leaving Fort Hare, Jongintaba announced to Mandela and Justice (the Regent's own son and heir to the throne) that he had arranged marriages for both of them. Both young men were displeased by this and rather than marry, they elected to flee the comforts of the Regent's estate to go to Johannesburg. Upon his arrival, Mandela initially found employment as a guard at a mine. However, this was quickly terminated after the employer learned that Mandela was the Regent's runaway adopted son. He later started work as an articled clerk at a law firm thanks to connections with his friend and fellow lawyer Walter Sisulu. While working there, he completed his BA degree at the University of South Africa (UNISA) via correspondence, after which he started with his law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. During this time Mandela lived in Alexandra township, north of Johannesburg.


Political activity

After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party with its apartheid policy of racial segregation, Mandela was prominent in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental program of the anti-apartheid cause. During this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of Mandela and Tambo, providing free or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who would otherwise have been without legal representation.

Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle, Mandela was arrested with 150 others on 5 December 1956, and charged with treason. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956-61 followed, and all were acquitted. From 1952-59 the ANC experienced disruption as a new class of Black activists (Africanists) emerged in the townships demanding more drastic steps against the National Party regime. The ANC leadership of Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu felt not only that events were moving too fast, but also that their leadership was challenged. They consequently bolstered their position by alliances with small White, Coloured and Indian political parties in an attempt to appear to have a wider appeal than the Africanists. The 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown Conference was ridiculed by the Africanists for allowing the 100,000-strong ANC to be relegated to a single vote in a Congress alliance, in which four secretary-generals of the five participating parties were members of the secretly reconstituted South African Communist Party (SACP), strongly adhering to the Moscow line.

In 1959, the ANC lost its most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial support from Ghana and significant political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo.


Arrest and imprisonment


Guerrilla activities

In 1961, Mandela became the leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated as Spear of the Nation, also abbreviated as MK), which he co-founded. He co-ordinated a sabotage campaign against military and government targets, and made plans for a possible guerrilla war if sabotage failed to end apartheid. A few decades later, MK did indeed wage a guerrilla war against the regime, especially during the 1980s, in which many civilians were killed. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad, and arranged for paramilitary training, visiting various African governments.

Mandela explains the move to embark on armed struggle as a last resort, when increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non-violent protest against apartheid had achieved nothing and could not succeed.[2][3] Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights, and has sharply criticized attempts by parts of his party to remove statements supporting this fact from the reports of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[4]


Arrest and trial

On 5 August 1962, he was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. According to William Blum, a former U.S. State Department employee, the CIA tipped off the police as to Mandela's whereabouts. Three days later, the charges of leading workers to strike in 1961 and leaving the country illegally were read to him during a court appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Two years later on 11 June 1964, a verdict had been reached concerning his previous engagement in the African National Congress (ANC).


Rivonia trial

Further information: Rivonia Trial

While Mandela was in prison, police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg. Mandela was brought in, and at the Rivonia Trial, Mandela, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Andrew Mlangeni, Raymond Mhlaba, Elias Motsoaledi, Walter Mkwayi (who escaped during trial), Arthur Goldreich (who escaped from prison before trial), Denis Goldberg and Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein were charged by Percy Yutar with the capital crimes of sabotage and crimes which were equivalent to treason, but easier for the government to prove.

In his statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the trial on 20 April 1964 at Pretoria Supreme Court, Mandela laid out the clarity of reasoning in the ANC's choice to use violence as a tactic. His statement revealed how the ANC had used peaceful means to resist apartheid for years until the Sharpeville Massacre. That event coupled with the referendum establishing the Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC made it clear that their only choice was to resist through acts of sabotage. Doing otherwise would have been tantamount to unconditional surrender. Mandela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe[5] on 16 December 1961 intent on exposing the failure of the National Party's policies after the economy would be threatened by foreigners' unwillingness to risk investing in the country. He closed his statement with these words:

Nelson Mandela
During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.[2]
Nelson Mandela

Bram Fischer, Vernon Berrange, Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson and George Bizos were part of the defence team that represented the accused. Harold Hanson was brought in at the end of the case to plead mitigation. All except Rusty Bernstein were found guilty, but they escaped the gallows and were sentenced to life imprisonment on 12 June 1964. Charges included involvement in planning armed action, in particular four charges of sabotage, which Mandela admitted to, and a conspiracy to help other countries invade South Africa, which Mandela denied.



Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he was destined to remain for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. It was there he wrote the bulk of his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom.

In that book Mandela did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of Frederik de Klerk in the violence of the eighties and nineties, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he later co-operated with his friend the journalist Anthony Sampson who discussed those issues in Mandela: The Authorised Biography. Another detail that Mandela omitted was the allegedly fraudulent book, Goodbye Bafana. Its author, Robben Island warder James Gregory, claimed to have been Mandela's confidante in prison and published details of the prisoner's family affairs in Goodbye Bafana. Sampson maintained that Mandela had not known Gregory well, but that Gregory censored the letters sent to the future president and thus discovered the details of Mandela's personal life. Sampson also averred that other warders suspected Gregory of spying for the government and that Mandela considered suing Gregory. [6]

While in prison, Mandela was able to maintain contact with the ANC, which published a statement from him on 10 June 1980, reading in part:

Nelson Mandela
Unite! Mobilize! Fight on! Between the anvil of united mass action and the hammer of the armed struggle we shall crush apartheid![7]
Nelson Mandela

Refusing an offer of conditional release in return for renouncing armed struggle in February 1985, Mandela remained in prison until sustained ANC and international campaigning with the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela! culminated in his release in February 1990. State President Frederik de Klerk simultaneously ordered Mandela's release, and the ending of the ban on the ANC.



On the day of his release, 11 February 1990, Mandela made a speech to the nation. While declaring his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority, he made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not yet over:

Nelson Mandela
Our resort to the armed struggle in 1960 with the formation of the military wing of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid. The factors which necessitated the armed struggle still exist today. We have no option but to continue. We express the hope that a climate conducive to a negotiated settlement would be created soon, so that there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle.
Nelson Mandela

But he also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections.




Presidency of South Africa

South Africa's first democratic elections in which full enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won the majority in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated as the country's first black State President, with the National party's de Klerk as his deputy president in the Government of National Unity.

As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid, winning international respect for his advocacy of national and international reconciliation.

Nelson Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Nelson Mandela wearing a Springbok shirt presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. This was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.




Invasion of Lesotho

However, his administration attracted some criticism. In what was South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998. Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili was elected in rigged elections[citation needed] which prompted fierce opposition threatening the unstable government. Lesotho is surrounded and economically dependent on its neighbor and also provides South Africa with jobs and remittances from workers. Troops were brought in to protect the government and secure the Katse dam project which provides water supplies to South Africa’s dry industrial heartland [citation needed].



Certain interest groups [Please name specific person] were also disappointed with the social achievements of his term of office, particularly the government's ineffectiveness in stemming the AIDS crisis. After his retirement, Mandela admitted that he may have failed his country by not paying more attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.[citation needed] He has since taken many opportunities to highlight this South African tragedy.


International diplomacy


Lockerbie trial

President Mandela took a particular interest in helping to resolve the long-running dispute between Libya on the one hand, and the United States and Britain on the other, over bringing to trial the two Libyans who were accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103 on 21 December 1988 with the loss of 270 lives. In November 1994, Mandela offered South Africa as a neutral venue for the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial but the offer was rejected by British Prime Minister John Major. A further three years elapsed until Mandela's offer was repeated to Major's successor, Tony Blair, when the president visited London in July 1997. Later the same year, at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) at Edinburgh in October 1997, Mandela warned: "No one nation should be complainant, prosecutor and judge." A compromise solution was then agreed for a trial to be held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands, governed by Scots law, and President Mandela began negotiations with Colonel Gaddafi for the handover of the two accused (Megrahi and Fhimah) in April 1999.

At the end of their nine-month trial, the verdict was announced on 31 January 2001. Fhimah was acquitted but Megrahi was convicted and sentenced to 27 years in a Scottish jail. Megrahi's appeal was turned down in March 2002, and former president Mandela went to visit him in Barlinnie prison on 10 June 2002. "Megrahi is all alone", Mandela told a packed press conference in the prison's visitors room. "He has nobody he can talk to. It is psychological persecution that a man must stay for the length of his long sentence all alone." Mandela added: "It would be fair if he were transferred to a Muslim country — and there are Muslim countries which are trusted by the West. It will make it easier for his family to visit him if he is in a place like the kingdom of Morocco, Tunisia or Egypt." Megrahi was subsequently moved to Greenock jail and is no longer in solitary confinement. His case is currently being reviewed by the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission, which is expected to rule that Megrahi's case should be referred back to the Scottish High Court of Justiciary for a fresh appeal.


Marriage and family

Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren, and a growing number of great-grandchildren.[8]


First marriage

Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase who, like Mandela, was also from what later became the Transkei area of South Africa, although they actually met in Johannesburg. The couple had two sons, Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (born 1946) and Makgatho (born 1950), and two daughters, both named Makaziwe (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). Their first daughter died aged nine months, and they named their second daughter in her honour. The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years, divorcing under the multiple strains of his constant absences, devotion to revolutionary agitation, and the fact she was a Jehovah's Witness, a religion which professes political neutrality. Thembi was killed in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 25, while Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island. All their children were educated at the Waterford Kamhlaba. Evelyn Mase died in 2004.


Second marriage

Mandela's second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, also came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker. They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi), born 1960. Later, Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife; while her husband was serving a life sentence on the Robben Island prison for terrorism and treason, her father became the agriculture minister in the Transkei. The marriage ended in separation (April 1992) and divorce (March 1996), fuelled by political estrangement.

Mandela still languished in prison when his daughter Zenani was married to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini in 1973, elder brother of King Mswati III of Swaziland. As a member by marriage of a reigning foreign dynasty, she was able to visit her father during his South African imprisonment while other family members were denied access. The Dlamini couple live and run a business in Boston. One of their sons, Prince Ceza Dlamini (born 1976), educated in the United States, has followed in his grandfather's footsteps as an international advocate for human rights and humanitarian aid. Thumbumuzi and Mswati's sister, Princess Mantfombi Dlamini, is the chief consort to King Goodwill Zwelithini of KwaZulu-Natal, who "reigns but does not rule" over South Africa's largest ethnic group under the auspices of South Africa's government. One of Queen Mantfombi's sons is expected to eventually succeed Goodwill as monarch of the Zulus, whose Inkatha Party leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, was the rival of Mandela during much of his presidency.


Third marriage

Mandela himself was re-married in 1998, on his 80th birthday, to Graça Machel née Simbine, widow of Samora Machel, the former Mozambican president and ANC ally killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. The wedding followed months of international negotiations to set the unprecedented bride-price remitted to her clan, which were conducted on Mandela's behalf by his traditional sovereign, King Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo, born 1964. Ironically, it was this paramount chief's grandfather, the Regent Jongintaba, whose selection of a bride for him prompted Mandela to flee to Johannesburg as a young man.

Mandela still maintains a home at Qunu in the realm of his royal nephew (second cousin thrice-removed in Western reckoning), whose university expenses he defrayed and whose privy councillor he remains.[9]




Public activities

After his retirement as President in 1999, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human rights organizations. Mandela has expressed his support for the international Make Poverty History movement of which the ONE Campaign is a part.

Today, Mandela remains a key figure to strong educational organisations which strongly uphold his ideals of international understanding and peace, like the United World Colleges and the Round Square. For the IOC's Celebrate Humanity Campaign for the 2006 Winter Olympics, Mandela appears in a televised public service announcement.


Iraq invasion views

In 2003, Mandela attacked the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration in a number of speeches. Criticizing the lack of UN involvement in the decision to begin the War in Iraq, he said "It is a tragedy, what is happening, what Bush is doing. But Bush is now undermining the United Nations," Mandela stated he would support action against Iraq only if it is ordered by the UN.[10] Mandela also insinuated that President Bush may have been motivated by racism in not following the UN and its secretary-general Kofi Annan on the issue of the War in Iraq. "Is it because the secretary-general of the United Nations is now a black man? They never did that when secretary-generals were white", Mandela said.[11]

He urged the people of the US to join massive protests against Bush and called on world leaders, especially those with vetoes in the UN Security Council, to oppose him. "What I am condemning is that one power, with a president who has no foresight, who cannot think properly, is now wanting to plunge the world into a holocaust." He attacked the United States for its record on human rights and for dropping atomic bombs on Japan during World War II. "If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care." [10] The comments caused a rare moment of controversy and some criticism of Mandela, even among some supporters.


Health and AIDS engagement

In July 2001, Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. He was treated with a seven week course of radiation.[12] In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela announced that he would be retiring from public life. His health had been declining, and he wanted to enjoy more time with his family.

He has made an exception, however, for his commitment to the fight against AIDS. In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference. His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005. In 2003, he had already lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, named after his prison number.


Blood Diamond controversy

In a The New Republic article in December 2006, Nelson Mandela was criticised for a number of positive comments he had made about the diamond industry, specifically in regard to Blood Diamonds. In a letter to Edward Zwick, the director of the movie Blood Diamond, Mandela had noted that:

" would be deeply regrettable if the making of the film inadvertently obscured the truth, and, as a result, led the world to believe that an appropriate response might be to cease buying mined diamonds from Africa. ... We hope that the desire to tell a gripping and important real life historical story will not result in the destabilization of African diamond producing countries, and ultimately their peoples."[13]

It was claimed in the article that this comment, as well as various pro-diamond-industry initiatives and statements during his life and during his time as a president of South Africa, were influenced by both his close personal association with some diamond-industry managers, as well as an outlook for 'narrow national interests' of South Africa (which is a major diamond producer).




Orders and decorations

Mandela has received many South African, foreign and international honours, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, the Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush. In July 2004, the city of Johannesburg, South Africa, bestowed its highest honour on Mandela by granting him the freedom of the city at a ceremony in Orlando, Soweto.

As an example of his popular foreign acclaim, during his tour of Canada in 1998, he had speaking engagement in SkyDome in the city of Toronto, where 45,000 school children greeted him with intense adulation. In 2001, he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen (the only previous recipient, Raoul Wallenberg, was awarded honorary citizenship posthumously). Although the government of Canada had hoped that the vote to make Mandela a citizen would be unanimous, this was not possible due to Canadian Alliance MP Rob Anders who stood up in the Canadian House of Commons and claimed Mandela was a former "communist and a terrorist".[14] While in Canada, he was also made an honorary Companion of the Order of Canada, one of the few foreigners to receive Canada's highest honour.

In 1992 he was awarded the Ataturk Peace Award by Turkey. He refused the award citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time, but later accepted the award in 1999.[15][16][17]

Recently, he received Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award (2006).


Movies and music



For seventeen days, they are roommates.
For seventeen days, they are soulmates.
And for twenty-two seconds, they are competitors.
Seventeen days as equals. Twenty-two seconds as adversaries.
What a wonderful world that would be.
That's the hope I see in the Olympic Games.

Further reading



  1. 1.0 1.1 History at UKZN. Making History: Icon. University of KwaZulu-Natal. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mandela, Nelson (April 20, 1964). Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court.
  3. Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom. Little Brown and Company.
  4. Mandela admits ANC violated rights, too (from, originally published in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Monday 02 November 1998)
  5. Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe. African National Congress (16 December 1961). Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  6. Sampson, Anthony (1999). Mandela: The Authorised Biography,. HarperCollins, 217.
  7. Mandela's Call. African National Congress (10 June 1980). Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  8. Henry Soszynski. Genealogical Gleanings. abaThembu (Tribe). University of Queensland. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  9. de Bruyne, Marnix. Zuidelijk Afrika. Tembu King Zwelibanzi has gained respect in exile. Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  10. 10.0 10.1 CBS News: Mandela Slams Bush On Iraq, January 30, 2003
  11. KDKA 2(CBS): Mandela Slams Bush, January 31, 2003
  12. "Mandela 'responding well to treatment'", BBC News, August 15, 2001.
  13. Half Nelson - Mandela, diamond shill. The New Republic, ((online) post date Friday 08 December 2006, (print) issue date Monday 18 December 2006).
  14. CBC News (Canada): PM blasts MP for blocking Mandela honour, June 8, 2001
  15. Statement on the Ataturk Award given to Nelson Mandela. ANC (12 April 1992).
  16. Yucel Yerilgoz. Double Standard: the Turkish State and Racist Violence. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  17. Mandela changes his mind. Turkish Press Review (7 January 1999). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  18. US threatens world peace, says Mandela. BBC (11 September, 2002). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.

External links

Preceded by:
Frederik Willem de Klerk
(State President of South Africa)
President of South Africa
Succeeded by:
Thabo Mbeki
Presidents of South Africa
 1961-1994  Charles Robberts Swart | Jozua François Naudé (acting) | Jacobus Johannes Fouché | Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs | Marais Viljoen (acting) | B.J. Vorster | Marais Viljoen | Pieter Willem Botha | Frederik Willem de Klerk
 1994–  Nelson Mandela | Thabo Mbeki
Mandela, Nelson
Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela
South African politician and anti-Apartheid fighter, President of South Africa (1994-1999)
18 July 1918
Transkei, South Africa
Retrieved from "http://localhost../../art/r/9.html"

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