Gibraltar

This article is about the UK overseas territory. For other uses of the name, see Gibraltar (disambiguation).
Gibraltar
Flag of Gibraltar
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti  (Latin)
"Conquered By No Enemy"
Anthem: Gibraltar Anthem
Location of Gibraltar
Capital Gibraltar
Largest city Gibraltar
Official language English
Government UK overseas territory
 - Head of state Queen Elizabeth II
 - Governor Lt. Gen. Sir Robert Fulton KBE
 - Chief Minister Peter Caruana Q.C.
Independence  
 - Captured 1704 
 - Ceded 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht) 
 - National Day 10 September 
Area
 - Total 6.5 km² (229th)
2.5 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 0
Population
 - Jul 2005 estimate 27,921 (220th)
 - Density 4,290/km² (5th)
11,154/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2000 estimate
 - Total $769 million (200th)
 - Per capita $27,900 (n/a)
HDI  (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency Pound Sterling (GBP)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .gi
Calling code +3501
1 9567 from Spain

Gibraltar is a UK overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula, overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar. The territory shares a land border with Spain to the north. Gibraltar has historically been an important base for the British Armed Forces and is the site of a British naval base. It is probably most famous for the geological formation, the Rock of Gibraltar.

The name of the territory is derived from the original Arabic name Jabal Ţāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Tariq", or from Gibr al-Ţāriq, meaning "rock of Tariq"). It refers to the Berber Umayyad general Tariq ibn-Ziyad, who led the initial incursion into Iberia in advance of the main Moorish force in 711. Earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, one of the Pillars of Hercules. Today, Gibraltar is known colloquially as "Gib" or "the Rock".

The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major issue of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations. Spain requests the return of sovereignty, ceded by Spain in perpetuity in 1713. In a 2002 referendum, 88% of Gibraltarians voted on the question "Do you approve of the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar?": 99% voted no [1].

Contents

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History

Historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar
Historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar

Human settlement in Gibraltar can be traced back to the Phoenicians around 950 BC, although there is earlier evidence of habitation by the Neanderthals, an extinct species of the Homo genus. Semi-permanent settlements were later established by the Carthaginians and Romans. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals, and would later form part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania until its collapse due to the Muslim conquest in 711 AD. At that time, Gibraltar was named as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the legend of the creation of the Straits of Gibraltar.

On April 30, 711, the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad led a Berber-dominated army across the Strait from Ceuta. He first attempted to land at Algeciras but failed. Subsequently, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain. Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control.

The first permanent settlement was built by the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min, who ordered the construction of a fortification on the Rock, the remains of which are still present. Gibraltar would later become part of the Taifa Kingdom of Granada until 1309, when it would be briefly occupied by Castilian troops. In 1333 it was conquered by the Marinids who had invaded Muslim Spain. The Marinids ceded Gibraltar to the Kingdom of Granada in 1374. Finally, it was reconquered definitively by the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1462, ending 750 years of Moorish control.

In the initial years under Medina Sidonia, Gibraltar was granted sovereignty as a home to a population of exiled Sephardic Jews. Pedro de Herrera, a Jewish converso from Córdoba who had led the conquest of Gibraltar, led a group of 4,350 Jews from Córdoba and Seville to establish themselves in the town. A community was built and a garrison established to defend the peninsula. However, this lasted only 3 years. In 1476, the Duke of Medina Sidonia realigned with the Spanish Crown; the Sefardim were then forced back to Córdoba and the Spanish Inquisition. Gibraltar passed under the hands of the Spanish Crown, which had been established in 1479, in 1501. One year later, the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella granted Gibraltar a coat of arms.

The 25th April, 1607, Battle of Gibraltar.
The 25th April, 1607, Battle of Gibraltar.

The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on April 25, 1607 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the 4-hour action, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, British and Dutch troops, allies of Archduke Charles, the Austrian pretender to the Spanish Crown, formed a confederate fleet and attacked various towns on the southern coast of Spain. On 4 August 1704, after six hours of bombardment starting at 5 a.m., the confederate fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke, captured the town of Gibraltar in the name of the Archduke Charles. Terms of surrender were agreed upon, after which much of the population chose to leave Gibraltar. Many others stayed.

Franco-Spanish troops failed to retake the town, and British sovereignty over Gibraltar was subsequently recognised by the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the war. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to the United Kingdom, which has retained sovereignty over the former ever since, despite all attempts by Spain to recapture it.

Gibraltar subsequently became an important naval base for the Royal Navy and played an important part in the Battle of Trafalgar. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it controlled the important sea route between the UK and its colonies in India and Australia. During World War II, the civilian residents of Gibraltar were evacuated, and the Rock was turned into a fortress. An airfield was built over the civilian racecourse. Guns on Gibraltar controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, but plans by Nazi Germany to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix, were frustrated by Spain's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil. Germany's Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr, also helped by filing a pointedly negative assessment of the options. Canaris was a leader of the German high command resistance to Hitler, and it is thought that he frustrated the attack to limit Germany's aggression.

In the 1950s, Spain, then under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, renewed its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar, sparked in part by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Rock's capture. For the next thirty years, Spain restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain. A referendum was held on September 10, 1967, in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished to either pass under Spanish sovereignty, or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government. The vote was overwhelmingly in favour of continuance of British sovereignty, with 12,138 to 44 voting to reject Spanish sovereignty. In response, Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.

In 1981 it was announced that The Prince and Princess of Wales would fly to Gibraltar to board the Britannia as part of their honeymoon. In response, the Spanish King, Juan Carlos I refused to attend their wedding in London.

In 1988, SAS troops shot and killed three unarmed members of the IRA, who were planning an attack on the British Army band.

View of the frontier from the Spanish side.
View of the frontier from the Spanish side.

The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982, and fully reopened in 1985 after Spain's accession into the European Community. Joint talks on the future of the Rock held between Spain and the United Kingdom have occurred since the late 1980s, with various proposals for joint sovereignty discussed. However, another referendum organised in Gibraltar rejected the idea of joint sovereignty by 17,900 (98.97%) votes to 187 (1.03%). The British Government restated that, in accordance with the preamble of the constitution of Gibraltar, the "UK will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their freely and democratically expressed wishes." The question of Gibraltar continues to affect Anglo-Spanish relations.

In September 2006 representatives of the United Kingdom, Gibraltar and Spain concluded in Cordoba, Spain, a landmark agreement on a range of cross-cutting issues affecting the Rock and the campo Gibraltar removing many of the restrictions imposed by Spain.[2]

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Politics

The Governor of Gibraltar, Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton KBE.
The Governor of Gibraltar, Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton KBE.

As an overseas territory of the UK, the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. The UK retains responsibility for defence, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability. The Governor is not involved in the day-to-day administration of Gibraltar, and his role is largely as a ceremonial head of state. The Governor officially appoints the Chief Minister and government ministers after an election. He is responsible for matters of defence, security, and the Royal Gibraltar Police. A new governor, Lt General Sir Robert Fulton KBE, replaced Sir Francis Richards in September 2006. [1]. On 17th July 2006 Sir Francis left on HMS Monmouth leaving the symbolic keys of the fortress of Gibraltar with the Deputy Governor.

The Government of Gibraltar is elected for a term of four years. The unicameral House of Assembly consists of fifteen elected members (eight Government members, seven opposition members) and two ex-officio members appointed by the Governor : the Financial Development Secretary, and the Attorney-General. The speaker is nominated by the Government.

The head of Government is the Chief Minister, currently Peter Caruana. There are three political parties currently represented in the House of Assembly: the Gibraltar Social Democrats, the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party, and the Gibraltar Liberal Party.

New Gibraltar Democracy and the Progressive Democratic Party have been formed since the 2003 election. The Reform Party and Gibraltar Labour Party, having failed to achieve any popular support, ceased operating in 2005.

Gibraltar is a part of the European Union, having joined under the British Treaty of Accession (1973), with exemption from some areas such as the Customs Union and Common Agricultural Policy.

After a ten year campaign to exercise the right to vote in European Elections, from 2004, the people of Gibraltar participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency. [2]

As a result of the continued Spanish claim, the issue of sovereignty features strongly in Gibraltar politics. All local political parties are opposed to any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination for the Rock. This policy is supported by the main UK opposition parties. In view of the UK Government's repeated commitment to respect the wishes of the people of Gibraltar, as laid out in the Constitution, the proposal for joint sovereignty is now considered dead.

In March 2006 Jack Straw announced that a new Gibraltar constitution had been agreed upon and would be published prior to a referendum on its acceptance in Gibraltar that year.

In July 2006, Geoff Hoon Minister for Europe, in a statement to the UK Parliament confirmed that the new Constitution confirms the right of self-determination of the Gibraltarian people.[3]

November 30th 2006, the Gibraltar constitutional referendum, 2006 was held. The turnout was 60.4% of eligible voters of which 60.24% voted Yes to approve the constitution with 37.75% against and the remainder returned blank votes. The acceptance was welcomed by the Chief Minister, Peter Caruana, as a step forward for Gibraltar's political development.

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Geography

The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006.
The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006.

The territory covers 2.53 square miles (6.543 km²). It shares a three-quarter of a mile (1.2 km) land border with Spain and has 7½ miles (12 km) of shoreline. There are two coasts (sides) of Gibraltar – the East Side, which contains the settlements of Sandy Bay and Catalan Bay, and the West Side, where the vast majority of the population lives.

The Bay of Gibraltar, NASA Satellite view
The Bay of Gibraltar, NASA Satellite view

The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers. There are two main prevailing winds, an easterly one known as the "Levante" coming from the sahara in Africa which brings humid weather and warmer sea and the other as "poniente" which is westerly and brings fresher air in and colder sea. Its terrain is a narrow coastal lowland bordering the 1,396 foot (426 m) high Rock of Gibraltar.

It has negligible natural resources and limited natural freshwater resources, until recently using large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect rain water. It now has a desalination plant using reverse osmosis, built into the Rock itself.[3]

Gibraltar is one of the most densely populated territories in the world, with approximately 11,154 people per square mile (4,290/km²). The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation, which comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.

The Rock itself is made of limestone and is 1,396 feet (426 m) high. It contains many miles of tunnelled roads, most of which are operated by the military and hence closed to the public.

Most of its upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 250 Barbary Macaques, the only wild monkeys in Europe. Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before the British capture. Superstition holds that if ever the monkeys leave, so will the British; as a result, they are well looked after by the government (a situation rather analogous to the ravens of the Tower of London).

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Subdivisions

A map of Gibraltar.
A map of Gibraltar.

Gibraltar has no administrative divisions. It is divided into seven Major Residential Areas, which are further divided into Enumeration Areas, used for statistical purposes. The Major Residential Areas are listed below, with population figures from the Census of 2001:

Residential area Population %
1 East Side 429 1.54%
2 North District 4,116 14.97%
3 Reclamation Areas 9,599 34.91%
4 Sandpits Area 2,207 8.03%
5 South District 4,257 15.48%
6 Town Area 3,588 13.05%
7 Upper Town 2,805 10.20%
other 494 1.82%
Gibraltar 27,495 100.00%
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Economy

Gibraltar £10 notes.
Gibraltar £10 notes.

The British military traditionally dominated the economy of Gibraltar, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity. This has however diminished in the last twenty years, and it is estimated to account for only 7% of the local economy, compared to over 60% in 1984.

Today, Gibraltar has an extensive service-based economy, dominated by financial services and tourism. Financial services and persons involved in the industry are regulated by the Financial Services Commission, which operates in a similar manner to the United Kingdom Financial Services Authority.

A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Recently a number of large bookmakers and online gaming operators have opened offices to benefit from operating in a well regulated jurisdiction with a favourable tax regime.

Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular stop for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain. It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free. Many of the large British high street chains have branches in Gibraltar, including Early Learning Centre, Marks and Spencer, Mothercare, BHS, Dorothy Perkins, Next and the supermarket Morrisons.

Other areas of activity are services related to shipping, like bunkering, and ship repair and construction. The economy is considered to be strong and diversified.[4]

Figures from the CIA World Factbook show that Gibraltar has a GDP of over £432 million ($769 million) with a per capita figure of £15,700 ($28,000). The main export markets in 2004 were France (19.4%), Spain (14.1%), Turkmenistan (12.1%), Switzerland (11.7%), Germany (10.1%), the United Kingdom (9.1%), and Greece (6.8%).

The unit of currency in use is the Pound Sterling with notes issued by the Government of Gibraltar although there is an ISO code of GIP for the Gibraltar Pound.

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Demographics

The population of Gibraltar was 27,884 (2005) and has been fairly constant around that number.

The Gibraltarians are often described either as British or Spanish, but they are a distinctive racial and cultural fusion of the many European immigrants who came to the Rock over 300 years. Gibraltarians are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704 (185 Spaniards remained in 1753). Subsequently, Genoese, Maltese, and Portuguese formed the majority of this new population. Other groups include Minorcans (forced to leave their homes when that island was returned to Spain in 1802), Sardinians, Sicilians and other Italians, French, Germans, and, of course, the British. Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until General Francisco Franco decided to close the border with Gibraltar, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the Frontier. The land frontier was opened by the Spanish Socialist Government, however other restrictions remain in place.

The main religion is Christianity, with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Christian religious minorities include the Church of England, Church of Scotland, the Methodist Church, Plymouth Brethren, a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are also a number of Hindu Indians, a Moroccan Muslim population, members of the Bahai faith[5] and a long established Jewish community.

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Language

The official language is English, which is used for government and business purposes. Most Gibraltarians use Llanito (pronounced "Yanito") as their vernacular language - a dialect of Andalusian Spanish, strongly influenced by English while incorporating some words not native to either. Arabic is also spoken by the Moroccan community.

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Culture

The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins. While there are Andalusian and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to British or Andalusian ethnicities. Most ethnicities include Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese, and Germans. A handful of other Gibraltar residents are Jewish of Sephardic origin, North African, or Hindu.

British influence remains strong. Although Gibraltarians often speak to each other in an English-influenced Andalusian dialect called Yanito or Llanito, English is the language of government, commerce, education, and the media. Gibraltarians going on to higher education attend university in the UK. Patients requiring medical treatment not available on the Rock receive it there as private patients paid for by the Gibraltar Government.

There exists a small but interesting amount of literary writings by native Gibraltarians. The first prominent work of fiction was probably Héctor Licudi’s 1929 novel in Spanish 'Barbarita,' a largely autobiographical account of the adventures and misadventures of a young Gibraltarian man. Throughout the decades of the 1940s and 1950s, several noteworthy anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti, Albert Joseph Patron, and Alberto Pizzarello. The decade of the sixties was largely dominated by the theatrical works of Elio Cruz and his two highly acclaimed Spanish plays 'La Lola se va pá Londre' and 'Connie con cama camera en el comedor.' In the decade of the 1990s, the Gibraltarian man-of-letters Mario Arroyo published 'Profiles' (1994), a series of bilingual meditations on love, loneliness and death. Of late there have been interesting works by the lady essayist Mary Chiappe (among these her volume of essays 'Cabbages and Kings' (2006) and the UK-educated academic M. G. Sanchez (author of the hard-hitting novel 'Rock Black 0-10: A Gibraltar fiction' (2006).

National Day is celebrated annually on September 10th.

Gibraltarians encircle the Rock
Gibraltarians encircle the Rock

In 2004 Gibraltar celebrated the tercentenary, or 300th anniversary, of its capture by British forces. To honour them for their effort and in recognition of the long association as a naval base, the freedom of the City was awarded to the Royal Navy.

In another event, as a political gesture of solidarity, almost the entire population took to the streets dressed in red, white and blue and linked hands to form a human chain encircling the rock.


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Transport

The Cable Car.
The Cable Car.

Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorbikes are popular and there is a good modern bus service. Unlike other British territories, traffic drives on the right, as it shares a land border with Spain.

There is a cable car which runs from ground level to the top of the rock, with an intermediate station at the apes den.

Restrictions on transport introduced by the Spanish dictator Franco closed the land frontier and prohibited any air or ferry connections. The frontier was opened in 1982. As the result of an agreement signed in Cordoba [6]  between Gibraltar, the United Kingdom and Spain on September 18 2006 aims to improve areas of mutual interest. The Spanish government is to relax border controls at the frontier, which have plagued locals for decades, and in return Britain will pay increased pensions to workers who lost their jobs when Spain's former dictator, General Francisco Franco, closed the border in 1969. Restrictions on telephones and the Gibraltar Airport saw the first Iberia Airlines flight from Madrid landing on 16th December 2006. [7] Gibraltar maintains regular flight connections to London and Manchester. Flights to Morocco were cancelled after insufficient demand to sustain the service. A new airline, Fly Gibraltar promises to operate flights to the UK and Ireland from March 2007 but has experienced difficulty obtaining a CAA operators licence.

Motorists, and on occasion pedestrians, crossing the border with Spain are randomly subjected to long delays and searches by the Spanish authorities. Spain has closed the border during disputes with Gibraltar authorities, including when the Aurora cruise ship called at Gibraltar, and for an evening by fishermen from Algeciras after a Spanish fishing vessel, the "Pirana", was arrested by the Gibraltar police for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters.[8]

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Communications

Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure. The telephone operator Gibtelecom also operate a GSM network.

International subscriber dialling is provided, and Gibraltar was allocated the access code 350 by the International Telecommunication Union. This works from all countries with IDD, apart from Spain which insists on using 9567 as an access code due to the telecom dispute. However the spanish government has recently announced that as from 20th February 2006, they will also recognise the IDD 350 code.

Dial-up, ADSL, and high speed Internet lines are available along with wifi hotspots in the hotels.

The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation operate a television and radio station on UHF, VHF, Medium Wave and with Internet streaming of the radio service.

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Military

A Royal Navy base in Gibraltar.
A Royal Navy base in Gibraltar.

Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the tri-service British Forces Gibraltar. The army garrison is provided by the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, originally a part-time reserve force which was placed on the permanent establishment of the British Army in 1990. The regiment includes full-time and part-time soldiers recruited from Gibraltar, as well as British Army regulars posted from other regiments.

The Royal Navy maintains a squadron at the Rock. The squadron is responsible for the security and integrity of British Gibraltar Territorial Waters (BGTW). The shore establishment at Gibraltar is called Rooke after Sir George Rooke who captured the Rock for Archduke Charles (pretender to the Spanish throne) in 1704. Gibraltar's strategic position provides an important facility for the Royal Navy and Britain's allies. Ships from the Spanish Navy do not call at Gibraltar.

British and US nuclear submarines frequently visit the Z berths at Gibraltar (source: Hansard). A Z berth provides the facility for nuclear submarines to visit for operational or recreational purposes, and for non-nuclear repairs.

The Royal Air Force station at Gibraltar forms part of Headquarters British Forces Gibraltar. Although aircraft are no longer permanently stationed at RAF Gibraltar, a variety of RAF aircraft make regular visits to the Rock and the airfield also houses a section from the Met Office.

The Rock is believed to be a SIGINT listening post for telecommunications throughout North Africa, and because of its strategic location it still remains a key base for NSA and GCHQ coverage of the Mediterranean[citation needed].

The Naval Base played a part in the Falklands war and there was a foiled plan Operation Algeciras to attack British shipping in the harbour using Argentinian frogmen.[9]

In January 2007 the Ministry of Defence announced that services to the base would be provided by a private company SERCO, resulting in industial action from the trade unions involved.

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Death on the Rock

In 1988, the British SAS killed three unarmed members of the Provisional IRA, Mairéad Farrell, Sean Savage and Daniel McCann as part of Operation Flavius. They were in Gibraltar on a PIRA operation to plant a car bomb. A car hired by the three was subsequently discovered in Spain with 64 Kg of Semtex explosive. This incident was the subject of a contentious Thames Television documentary, Death on the Rock. An inquest was held which ruled their killing to be lawful.

The families of the deceased took the case to the European Court of Human Rights. In 1995, the Court held by ten votes to nine that the British Government had violated Article 2 of the Convention. It also ruled that the three had been engaged in an act of terrorism, and consequently dismissed unanimously the applicants’ claims for damages, for costs and expenses incurred in the Gibraltar Inquest, and the remainder of the claims for just satisfaction.

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National Day

Symbolic release of red and white balloons
Symbolic release of red and white balloons

Every year Gibraltar celebrates its National Day on 10th September to commemorate the 1967 referendum where with a massive majority the people of Gibraltar voted to reject annexation by Spain.

The day is a public holiday, and most Gibraltarians participate by dressing up in the National Colours of red and white and attending the political rally and other events held that day.

The political rally culminates with the release of 30,000 red and white balloons representing the number of people of Gibraltar.

The Conservative MP Andrew Rosindell described the event as:

"a magnificent celebration not only of Gibraltarians' pride in being British but of their love of their homeland."

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Gibraltar UEFA Membership

The Gibraltar Football Association (GFA) applied to UEFA for independent membership of the football confederation, which would enable it to play as a national team in international matches in Europe and around the world (as participation in FIFA flows from UEFA membership).

The Spanish football federation has objected strongly to Gibraltar's membership, leading UEFA to deny entry to the GFA. However, following an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), UEFA have now been ordered to overturn their decision, and admit Gibraltar. The Spanish Government has threatened to withdraw Spanish teams, including their national side, from UEFA, although under current rules this would preclude Spanish involvement in all international football.[10]

The GFA was founded in 1895 making it one of the oldest associations, and complies with all aspects of membership. The Spanish objection is based on its facilities being built on "disputed land".[11]

On 8 December 2006 UEFA announced Gibraltar 'a provisional member'.[12]

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Gibraltar in popular culture

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Famous people from Gibraltar

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Rock bands from Gibraltar

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References

  1. The 2002 referendum
  2. Details of 18th September tripartite agreement
  3. http://www.aquagib.gi/gibraltar_water_supply.html
  4. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/topical_speeches/economy_speech_2005.htm
  5. Bahai's in Gibraltar
  6. The Cordoba Trilateral Agreement 2006
  7. Madrid flights resume
  8. http://www.gibnet.com/fish/pirana.htm
  9. Operation Algeciras
  10. "GFA edges closer to UEFA membership, says Spanish press", Gibraltarnewsonline.com.
  11. "Ruling paves way for Gibraltar to join Uefa", Guardian, 20 September 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  12. "Gibraltar close in on Uefa place", BBC.
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See also

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External links

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Photo sites

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