Denmark

For other uses, including the disambiguation of "Danmark", see Denmark (disambiguation).
Kongeriget Danmark
Kingdom of Denmark
Flag of Denmark Coat of arms of Denmark
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: none
(Royal Motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke
"God's help, the people's love, Denmark's strength")
Anthem: Der er et yndigt land (national);
Kong Christian (royal & national)
Capital Copenhagen
Largest city Copenhagen
Official language Danish1
Government Constitutional monarchy
 - Queen Margrethe II
 - Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Consolidation (Prehistoric) 
Accession to EU January 1 1973
Area
 - Total 43,094 km² (134th2)
16,6392 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 1.62
Population
 - 2005 estimate 5,431,000 (109th)
 - Density 126/km² (78th2)
326/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 - Total $187.9 billion2 (45th)
 - Per capita $34,7402 (6th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 - Total $259.7 billion (27th)
 - Per capita $47,984 (6th)
HDI  (2004) 0.943 (high) (15th)
Currency Danish krone (DKK)
Time zone CET2 (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST2 (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .dk2
Calling code +453
1 Co-official with Greenlandic in Greenland, and Faroese in the Faroe Islands. German is recognised as a protected minority language in the South Jutland area of Denmark. Danish is recognised as a protected minority language in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany.
2 For Denmark excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The TLD .eu is shared with other European Union countries.
3 The Faroe Islands use +298 and Greenland uses +299.

The Kingdom of Denmark (), IPA: ['dɑnmɑɐ̥g̊]) is the smallest and southernmost of the Nordic countries. Located north of its only land neighbour, Germany, southwest of Sweden, and south of Norway, it is located at 56° N 10° E in northern Europe. From a cultural point of view, Denmark belongs to the family of Scandinavian countries although not located on the Scandinavian Peninsula. The national capital is Copenhagen.

Denmark borders both the Baltic and the North Sea. The country consists of a large peninsula, Jutland, which borders northern Germany, plus a large number of islands, most notably Zealand, Funen, Vendsyssel-Thy, Lolland and Bornholm as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark has historically controlled the approach to the Baltic Sea, and these waters are also known as the Danish straits.

Denmark became a constitutional monarchy in 1849 after having been an absolutist state since 1660 and has been a parliamentary democracy since 1901. Having existed for more than 1000 years, the Danish Monarchy is one of the oldest in the world.[1] Denmark is a part of the European Union. The Kingdom of Denmark also encompasses two off-shore territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, both of which enjoy wideranging home rule. Since the mid-20th century, Danish society has been partly defined by the "Scandinavian Model" of public services.

Contents

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History

Hankehøj, by Johan Thomas Lundbye. A Danish down. Note the glacial character of the terrain and the kurgan, or burial mound of an early chief, in the centre.
Hankehøj, by Johan Thomas Lundbye. A Danish down. Note the glacial character of the terrain and the kurgan, or burial mound of an early chief, in the centre.

The earliest Danish archaeological findings date back to 130,000 – 110,000 BC in the Eem interglacial period.[2] People have inhabited Denmark since about 12,500 BC, and agriculture has been in evidence since around 3,900 BC.[3] The Nordic Bronze Age (1,800 – 600 BC) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings, including lurs and the Sun Chariot.

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south. The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of northwest Europe, and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.[3] The first Danish people came to Denmark between the Pre-Roman and Germanic Iron Age,[4] in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1 – 400).

Before the arrival of precursors to the Danes, who came from Scandinavia and spoke an early form of north Germanic, most of Jutland and part of the islands had been vacated or partly vacated by the earlier Jutes, who settled in Britain together with the Angles and the Saxons to form the Anglo-Saxons.

The exact origin of Denmark has been lost in history, but a short note[5] about the Dani in "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths" from 551 AD by historian Jordanes is believed by some to be an early mention of the Daner,[6] one of the ethnos from which are descended the modern Danish people. The Danevirke defence structures were built in several phases from the 3rd century forth,[7] and the sheer size of the construction efforts in 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.[7] The new runic alphabet was first used at the same time, and Ribe, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about 700.

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Viking age

The Jelling Stones, Denmark's "birth certificate", seen from the north with "Gorm's Mound" in the background.
The Jelling Stones, Denmark's "birth certificate", seen from the north with "Gorm's Mound" in the background.

From the 8th to the 10th century, the Danes were known as Vikings. Together with Norwegians and Swedes, they colonised, raided and traded in all parts of Europe. Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century, on the way towards the Faroe Islands and eventually came across "Vinland" (Land of wine) also known today as Newfoundland, in Canada. The Danish Vikings were most active in England and France where they temporarily conquered parts of England, known as the Danelaw, Ireland and France, giving name to the French region of Normandy. More Anglo-Saxon coins from the Viking age have been found in Denmark than in England.[citation needed] As attested by the Jelling stones, the Danes were united and Christianised about 965 by Harald Bluetooth, the second recognised king of Denmark. In the early 11th century, Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England and Norway for almost 30 years.[8]

Up through the High and Late Middle Ages, the king of Denmark ruled Skåneland (Skåne, Halland and Blekinge), Danish Estonia, as well as the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Most of the latter two now form part of northern Germany. In 1397, Denmark entered the Kalmar Union with Norway and Sweden-Finland. It was a united Scandinavian state which kept the individual interests of the countries, and lasted until Sweden broke out in 1523. The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered a union with Norway and its colonies.

Two and a half centuries of wars with Sweden followed. Skåneland was lost to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 and the Denmark-Norway union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, when Norway entered a new union with Sweden, which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over Danish India (Tranquebar in India) from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies (the United States Virgin Islands) from 1671 to 1917.

Den Grundlovsgivende Rigsforsamling (The founding fathers of the Danish constitution), 1860-1864 painting by Constantin Hansen.
Den Grundlovsgivende Rigsforsamling (The founding fathers of the Danish constitution), 1860-1864 painting by Constantin Hansen.

The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European Revolutions of 1848 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy on June 5, 1849.

After the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig) in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity. After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality, as a result of which Denmark stayed neutral in World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the then-German region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of Schleswig. The two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on February 10 and March 14, respectively. On July 10, 1920, after the plebiscite and the King's signature July 9 on the reunion document, Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984 km². The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year June 15 on Valdemarsdag.

Despite its continued neutrality, Denmark was invaded by Germany (Operation Weserübung), on April 9, 1940. Though accorded self-rule (which ended in August 23, 1943 because of a mounting resistance movement, which was upsetting the German military leadership), Denmark remained militarily occupied throughout World War II. The Danish sympathy for the Allied cause was in general strong, but in spite of this fact the economical coorporation between Germany and Denmark continued throughout the war. In 1944, 1,900 Danish police officers were arrested by the Gestapo and sent to the concentration camp Buchenwald, from which many never returned alive. During the war, Iceland claimed independence and in 1948 the Faroe Islands gained home rule. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the United Nations and NATO and, in 1973, joined the European Economic Community (later, the European Union). In 1979, Greenland gained home rule.

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Politics

The Folketing in session. The speaker's podium seen from the balcony of the former members of parliament.
The Folketing in session. The speaker's podium seen from the balcony of the former members of parliament.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, with executive power with Queen Margrethe II as head of state. This executive power is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the prime minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments. The cabinet, including the prime minister, and other ministers collectively make up the government. These ministers are responsible to Parliament, the legislative body, which is traditionally considered to be supreme (that is, able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors).

While the monarch is head of state and theoretically holds all executive power, it is the prime minister who is head of government. The government is answerable chiefly to Parliament; however, ministers do not have to come from Parliament, though it is the modern day custom.

Folketinget is the national legislature of kingdom. It has the ultimate legislative authority according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, however questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of Denmark’s entry into the European Union. In theory however, the doctrine prevails. Parliament consists of 179 members elected by proportional majority. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to call one sooner. On a vote of no confidence the parliament may force the entire government to resign.

Compared to most other Western European countries, the Danish political system has traditionally emphasised coalitions. In some cases this has been in the form of majority coalitions, although most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions, ruling with more or less stable parliamentary support.

Since November 2001, the Danish Prime Minister has been Anders Fogh Rasmussen from the party Venstre, a right-wing liberal party. Historically, the Social Democrats have led most post-war Danish governments, although the Social Democratic influence has never been as strong as in Sweden.

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Geography

Map of Denmark
Map of Denmark

Denmark's northernmost point is Skagens point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude, the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude, the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude, and the easternmost point is Østerskær (Eastern Skerry) at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago Ertholmene 18 km northeast of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is 452 km (over 280 miles), from north to south 360 km (225 miles).

Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland) and 443 named islands. Of these, 76 are inhabited, with the largest being Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of Bornholm is located somewhat east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden, the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand, and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. Main cities are the capital Copenhagen (on Zealand), Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg (on Jutland) and Odense (on Funen). Along with Equatorial Guinea it is one of two countries in the world with its mainland on a continent and its capital city on an island.

The country is mostly flat with little elevation; the highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 171 metres. Other hills in the same area southwest of Århus are Yding Skovhøj at 170.86 metres (560.6 ft) and Ejer Bavnehøj at 170.77 metres (560.3 ft). The area of inland water is: (eastern Denmark) 210 km² (81 sq mi); (western D.) 490 km² (189 sq mi).

Denmark is split into many islands because the country's average height above sea level is only 31 metres (101 ft). This results in a long coastline, more than 7,400 km (4,600 miles). If Denmark was formed as a perfect circle, the circumference would be only 742 km (461 miles). Another feature that shows the close connection between the land and ocean is that no location in Denmark is farther from the coast than 52 km (32.3 miles). The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 metres (3 to 6.5 feet), and the coastline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6 mile) stretch.[9]

Denmark viewed from International Space Station.
Denmark viewed from International Space Station.

The climate is in the temperate zone. The winters are not particularly cold with mean temperatures of around 0.5 °C and the summers are cool with mean temperature of around 16 °C. There is a lot of wind, which is stronger during the winter and weaker during the summer. Denmark has an average of 170 rainy days. The greatest rainfall comes in September, October and November.[10]

Because of Denmark's northern location, the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8 a.m. and sunset 3:30 p.m., as well as long summer days with sunrise at 3:30 a.m. and sunset at 10 p.m.[11] The shortest and longest days of the year have traditionally been celebrated. The celebration for the shortest day corresponds roughly with Christmas (Danish: Jul) and modern celebrations concentrate on Christmas Eve, the 24th of December. The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.[12] Christianity introduced the celebration of Christmas, resulting in the use of the Norse name also for the Christian celebration. Efforts by the Catholic Church to replace this name with kristmesse were unsuccessful. The celebration for the longest day is Midsummer Day, which is known in Denmark as Sankthansaften (St. John's evening).[13]. Celebrations of Midsummer have taken place since pre-Christian times.[14]

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Administrative divisions

For the administrative divisions used 1970-2006, see Counties of Denmark.

Denmark is divided into five regions (Danish: regioner, singular: region) and a total of 98 muncipalities. The regions were created on January 1, 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform to replace the country's traditional thirteen counties (amter). At the same time, smaller municipalities (kommuner) were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 270 to 98. The most important area of responsibility for the new regions is the national health service. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national 8% (sundhedsbidrag) tax combined with funds from both government and municipalities. Each Regional Council consists of 41 elected politicians elected as part of the 2005 Danish municipal elections.

Most of the new municipalities have a population of least 20,000 people, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands are also parts of the Kingdom of Denmark, but have autonomous status and are largely self-governing, and are each represented by two seats in the parliament.

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Economy

This thoroughly modern services market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of payments surplus and zero net foreign debt. Also of importance is the sea territory of more than 105,000 km² (40,000+ sq mi).

The Danish economy is highly unionised; 75% of its labour force[15] are members of a trade union. Most trade unions take part in the organised umbrella system of trade unions, the biggest umbrella organisation being the so-called LO, the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions. However, an increasingly larger part of the labour force choose not to become members of a trade union or to become members of one of the trade unions outside the organised system (often referred to as the yellow, in Danish gule, trade unions).

Relationships between unions and employers are cooperative: unions have a day-to-day role in managing the workplace, and their representatives sit on most companies' board of directors. Rules on work schedules and pay are negotiated between unions and employers, with minimal government involvement. The unemployment rate November 2006 was 4.0%, for a total of 109,400 persons. The number of unemployed is forecast at 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and the jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000. [16] Parttime jobs included.[17] Because of the present high demand for but lacking supply of skilled labour, especially regarding factory, transport, building and construction jobs, in addition to hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the economic downturn 1987 – 1993.[18]

Danish kroner.
Danish kroner.

Denmark's national currency, the krone (plural: kroner), is very stable and is de facto linked to the Euro. Currently exchanges with American dollars at a rate of about $0.17 USD per krone (about 6 kroner per dollar).

The government has been very successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September 2000 referendum, reconfirmed its decision not to join 11 of 13 other EU members in the euro (UK being the other of the EU not to do so).

The welfare model is the general term for Denmark to organise and finance their social security systems, health services and education. The principle behind the welfare model is that benefits should be given to all citizens who fulfill the conditions, without regard to employment or family situation. The system covers everyone; it is universal. And the benefits are given to the individual, so that e.g. married women have rights independently of their husbands.

In the area of sickness and unemployment, the right to benefit is, however, always dependent on former employment and at times also on membership of a trade union and the payment of contributions; however the largest share of the financial burden is still carried by the central government (staten) and financed from general taxation, not in the main from earmarked contributions.

The State is involved in financing and organising the welfare benefits available to the citizens to a far greater extent than in other European countries. For that reason the welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system which is both broadly based (25% VAT and excise) and with high income tax rates (minimum tax rate for adults is 38%, and 60% if you fail to provide your tax card to your employer) .

The benefits given are more generous than in the British Beveridge model — and in combination with the taxation system this brings about a greater redistribution than in the Bismarck model, which is aimed rather at maintaining the present status.

For the past three years Denmark has ranked first on the Economist Intelligence Unit's "e-readiness" list. "A country's 'e-readiness' is a measure of its e-business environment, a collection of factors that indicate how amenable a market is to Internet-based opportunities."

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Transport

Enormous investment has been made in recent decades in building road and rail links between Zealand and Malmö, Sweden (the Øresund Bridge), and between Zealand and Funen (the Great Belt Fixed Link).

The main railway operator is Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways) for passenger services and Railion for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. Copenhagen has a small Metro system and an extensive S-tog electrified suburban railway network.

Denmark's national airline (together with Norway and Sweden) is Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) and Copenhagen Airport is the country's largest airport, and also the biggest hub in Northern Europe.

A ferry link to the Faroe Islands is maintained by Smyril Line. Other international ferry services are mainly operated by DFDS (to Norway and the UK) and Scandlines (to Germany and Sweden).

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Demographics

The majority of the population is of Scandinavian descent, with small groups of Inuit from Greenland, Faroese, and immigrants. According to official statistics in 2005, immigrants and their descendants made up 461,614 people, or 8.5% of the total population. A large number of these immigrants come from South Asia, and The Middle East.[19] During recent years, anti-immigrant sentiment has surfaced in Denmark as is the case also in many other parts of Europe.[20]

Danish is spoken throughout the country, although a small group near the German border also speak German. Many Danes are fluent in English as well, particularly those in larger cities and the youth, who are taught two or more foreign languages in school.

Regarding religions in Denmark, according to official statistics from January 2005, 83.1% of Danes are members of the Lutheran state church, the Danish People's Church (Den Danske Folkekirke), also known as the Church of Denmark. The rest are primarily of other Christian denominations, and about 4% are Muslims. Denmark has freedom of religion, and there are numerous small religious societies and communities in addition to the official church.

As in most countries, the population is not distributed evenly. Although the land area east of the Great Belt only makes up 9,622 km² (3,715 sq mi), 22.7% of Denmark's land area, it has 45% (2,445,168) of the population. The average population density of this area is 254 inhabitants per km² (658 per sq mi). The average density in the west of the country (32,772 km²/12,653 sq mi) is 91/km² (236/sq mi) (2006).

The median age is 39.8 years with 0.98 males per female. 99% of the population is literate (age 15 and up). 1.74 children born/woman (2006 est.), which reflects a coming drop in worker to retiree ratio. The annual average population growth is 0.33%.[21]

Population 1 October 2006 was 5,444,203, which equals 128.47 inh./km² land area or 332.75 inh./sq mi. land area (16,368 sq mi) Censuses merely for population numbers are not conducted; they are based on the computerised, day-to-day updated Central Office of Civil Registration.

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Education

The Danish education system is sophisticated and offers free access to public school, high school and most kinds of higher education (universities etc.). About 99% of the general population attend elementary school (lasting 9 to 10 years); 86% attend secondary school and 41% pursue further education.

Primary school in Denmark is "den Danske Folkeskole" (translated: "the Danish People's School"). It goes from 0-10th grade. In Denmark one can also go to "Friskole"/"Privatskole" or "free school"/private school: schools that are not under the municipalities. An example is "Rudolf Steiner Skolerne" or "Waldorf Schools". The most special kind of school in Denmark is "Efterskole". If translated directly from Danish it becomes "afterschool". The "afterschool" is an optional school that goes from an 8-10th grade, and it's like a boarding school, but pupils mostly attend afterschools for one year only, although some schools allow for the pupils to stay there for two years. Most pupils attend the school in 10th grade, but many do it in 9th grade instead. On many of these schools there is emphasis on a particular subject, for example sports or languages. One of the big differences between a boarding school and an "afterschool" is the freedom; the pupils have more freedom at an afterschool.

Perhaps the most important Danish contribution to education is the "folkehøjskole", introduced by N.F.S. Grundtvig in the 1800s. Literally translated as "people's high school", the folkehøjskole is a social education structure without tests or grades, putting its emphasis not on demonstrable achievement but rather on communal learning, self-discovery, and learning how to think.[22] Many young Danes attend a folkehøjskole for a few months or a year after they graduate from the Gymnasium, which is a school comparable to High School and the first year of College in the US, before going on to university. However, the folkehøjskoles, as "schools for the people", are also resources for lifelong learning. Some folkehøjskoles have particular focus areas, such as sports, music, or environmental protection. Most, however, offer a broad liberal arts education.

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Culture

Windmills, antique (pictured) and modern, accent the gently rolling meadowlands of Denmark.
Windmills, antique (pictured) and modern, accent the gently rolling meadowlands of Denmark.

Perhaps the most famous Dane is actually Hamlet, the title character of William Shakespeare's famous play, which was set in the real castle of Kronborg in Helsingør. The play was inspired by an old Danish myth of the viking Prince Amled of Jutland, and his quest for vengeance against his father's killer. Another widely known Dane is Hans Christian Andersen, in Denmark referred to as H. C. Andersen, a writer mostly famous for such fairy tales as The Emperor's New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, and The Ugly Duckling. Also Karen Blixen (pen name: Isak Dinesen) and the Philosopher Søren Kierkegaard are well-known world wide. Also Niels Bohr, the famous physicist who developed the first working model for the atom and the quantum theory concept of complementarity. Hans Kirk, although less well-known outside of Denmark, is the author of the bestselling Danish novel of all time, The Fishermen.

The most popular sport in Denmark is football (soccer). The lengthy coastline also provides good opportunity for sailing and other water sports. The "Around Zealand Regatta" is a yacht race that begins in Helsingør and continues for 2 – 3 days. Because of the level terrain, another common sport is cycling, and of late Copenhagen has been nicknamed the "City of Cyclists" for the frequent use of bicycles for transportation and the designated roadtracks for cyclists. Indoor sports such as badminton, handball and various forms of gymnastics are also popular because of the lengthy winters.

Denmark has also been noticed internationally on the music scene, with acts like Aqua, Whigfield, D-A-D and Toy-Box in the 90'tys, as well as acts like Junior Senior, The Raveonettes and Tina Dico. Metallica drummer, Lars Ulrich, is Danish as well. However the country also has a huge national music scene, and in 2001, Copenhagen hosted the Eurovision Song Contest, and again in 2006, it hosted the MTV European Music Awards.

Denmark has also breeded a couple of names on the international acting scene, such as Mads Mikkelsen, Connie Nielsen, Jesper Christensen, Brigitte Nielsen, Svend-Ole Thorsen and many others.

In more recent times, the Danish people have become very interested in stand-up comedy, with a huge wave of comedians like Anders Matthesen, Mick Øgendahl, Casper Christensen, Frank Hvam, Lars Hjortshøj and many others.

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Food

The cuisine of Denmark, like that in the other Scandinavian countries (Sweden and Norway), as well as that of northern Germany, its neighbor to the south, is traditionally heavy and rich in fat, consisting mainly of carbohydrates, meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural past, as well as its geography and climate of long, cold winters.

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Military

The armed forces of Denmark are known as the Danish Defence Force (Danish: Det Danske Forsvar). During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence (FM) in Denmark employs, in four branches, 15,450 in the army, 5,300 in the navy, 6,050 in the air force and more than 55,000 in the Home Guard. Although all four are under the command of the Ministry of Defence, the first three are commanded by the Defence Command (FKO) and have their own subcommand, while the Home Guard is under the direct command of the Danish Ministry of Defence in peacetime. During war, the number of active military employees balloons to more than 45,000 in the army, 7,300 in the navy a 9,500 in the air force with no change to the Home Guard, which is put under the direct command of the Defence Command.

The conscription age is 18 years for compulsory and volunteer military service. Military service is only compulsory for Danish men who are fit enough to serve. At the committee one has to pick a number from a bowl. If the number is large enough then you will not be required to serve. Otherwise one is required to serve either in the military or become a conscientious objector and undertake community service. Conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from four to 12 months according to specialisation. Reservists are assigned to mobilisation units following completion of their conscript service. Women are eligible to volunteer for military service as of 1962, though the first woman in the military appeared in 1971. There are 955,168 males and 935,643 females aged between 18 and 49 fit for military service. (2005 est).[21]

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References

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Footnotes

  1. [1]
  2. Michaelsen (2002), p. 19.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Nielsen, Poul Otto (May 2003). Denmark: History, Prehistory. Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on May 1, 2006.
  4. Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 20.
  5. Jordanes; translated by Charles C. Mierow (April 22, 1997). The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter III. Retrieved on May 1, 2006.
  6. Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 19.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Michaelsen (2002), pp. 122-123
  8. Lund, Niels (May 2003). Denmark - History - The Viking Age. Denmark. Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on May 1, 2006.
  9. Nationalencyklopedin, (1990)
  10. Lerbech Jensen, Mogens (2006). Climate. Denmark. Gyldendal Leksikon. Retrieved on May 1, 2006.
  11. Copenhagen, Denmark - Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year. Gaisma. Retrieved on May 2, 2006.
  12. Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-rom edition, entry Jul.
  13. Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-rom edition, entry Sankthansaften
  14. Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-rom edition, entry Majskikke.
  15. Fuller, Thomas. "Workers and bosses: Friends or foes?", International Herald Tribune, January 11, 2005. Retrieved on May 1.
  16. Arbejdsmarkedet på Sjælland og øerne i 2015, oktober 2006.
  17. Statistikbanken.dk, tables AB513+ BESK11+12+13.
  18. Berlingske.dk/business
  19. (Danish) Flere indvandrere fra de nye EU-lande (pdf). Nyt fra Danmarks Statistik #478. Danmarks Statistik (November 8, 2005). Retrieved on May 1, 2006. Definitions: Immigrants are persons, born in foreign countries, whose parents were not Danish citizens and additionally were not born in Denmark. Descendants are persons, born in Denmark, whose parents were neither Danish citizens nor born in Denmark. Everybody else is Danish, including children of immigrants who have acquired Danish citizenship.
  20. [2]
  21. 21.0 21.1 Denmark. The World Factbook. CIA (April 20, 2006). Retrieved on May 1, 2006.
  22. [3]
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See also

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External links

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Security: CBSS| | EAPC | ICCt | Interpol | NATO | OSCE | PCA | WEU (observer) | ZC
Technology and research: Australia Group | CERN | EIB | ESA | IAEA | IEA | NEA | NSG | OPCW
United Nations: · UN Security Council (temporary member)
  • UN branches: MONUC | UNCTAD | UNHCR | UNMEE | UNMIL | UNMOGIP | UNOMIG | UNTSO
  • UN Specialized Agencies: FAO | ICAO | IFAD | ILO | IMF | IMO | ITU | UNESCO | UNIDO | UPU | WHO | WIPO | WMO | World Bank Group (IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA)

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