Comoros

Union des Comores
Udzima wa Komori
اتحاد القمر

Union of the Comoros
Flag of Comoros Coat of arms of Comoros
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Unité - Justice - Progrès  (French)
"Unity - Justice - Progress"
Anthem: Udzima wa ya Masiwa  (Comorian)
"The Union of the Great Islands"
Location of Comoros
Capital Moroni
Largest city Moroni
Official language Comorian, Arabic, French
Government Federal Republic
 - President Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi
Independence from France 
 - Date July 6 1975 
Area
 - Total 2,235 km² (178th)
838 sq mi 
 - Water (%) negligible
Population
 - 2005 estimate 798,000 (159th)
 - Density 275/km² (25th)
712/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2004 estimate
 - Total $1.049 million (171st)
 - Per capita $1,660 (156th)
HDI  (2004) 0.556 (medium) (132nd)
Currency Comorian franc (KMF)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .km
Calling code +269

The Comoros (IPA: [kəˡmɔːɹəʊz]), officially the Union of the Comoros (French: 'Union des Comores', [ynjɔ̃ de kɔmɔʀ]; Arabic: اتحاد القمر ‎, [ʔitːiˡħæːd ælˈqɒmær]) (prior to 2002 known officially as the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel between northern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. The nearest countries to the Comoros are Mozambique, Tanzania, Madagascar, and the Seychelles.

The country consists of the four islands in the volcanic Comoros archipelago: Ngazidja (French: Grande Comore), Mwali (French: Mohéli), Nzwani (French: Anjouan). Comoros lays claim to Mayotte (aka. Mahoré), a neighboring island in the Comoro archipelago, which however is a French Overseas collectivity.

The Comoros is notable for its diverse culture and history, as a nation formed at the crossroads of many civilizations. It has three official languages—Comorian (Shikomor), Arabic, and French, and it is the only state to be a member of each of the African Union, Francophonie, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Arab League, and Indian Ocean Commission, among other international organizations. However it has had a troubled history since independence in 1975, marked for its inordinate amount of coups. At 2,235 km²[1], the Comoros is the third smallest African nation by area, and one of the smallest in the world, and with a population estimated at 798,000 it is also the sixth smallest African nation by population (though it consequently has one of the highest population densities in Africa). The Comoros is sometimes considered a micronation. Its name derives from the Arabic word qamar ("moon"), as seen depicted on its flag.

Contents

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History

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Pre-colonial inhabitation

The first human inhabitants of the Comoro Islands are thought to have been Polynesian and Melanesian settlers, Malays and Indonesians, travelling by boat. They settled in at least the 6th century AD, the date of the earliest known archaelogical site, found on Nzwani, and some sources speculate settlement as early as the first century.[2] The islands of Comoros became populated by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the Persian Gulf, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Settlers of the Swahili people first reached the islands as a part of the greater Bantu expansion that took place on the continent of Afica throughout the first millenium. Development of the Comoros is periodized into phases beginning with Swahili influence and settlement in the Dembini phase from the 9th to 10th centuries, in which the islands maintained only a single central village each.[3] By the 11th to the 15th centuries, trade with the island of Madagascar and Middle Eastern merchants flourished and smaller villages sprung up while towns grew. Unconfirmed legends tell of early Arab or Persian settlements before their known arrivals, and Swahili oral historians frequently trace genealogies back to Persian or Arab ancestors. Contact with Middle Eastern merchants brought Islam to the islands for the first time, and it gained in popularity, as large mosques were soon constructed. The Comoro Islands, like other coastal areas in the region, were important stops in early Islamic trade routes frequented by Persians and Arabs. Despite its distance from the coast, Comoros is situated amidst the major sea route between Kilwa and Mozambique, an outlet for Zimbabwean gold.[4]

By the 19th century, Shirazi influence dominated the islands. Sunni Arabs from Shiraz, Iran, the Shirazi traded along East Africa, the Middle East, and India, and had established colonies in the Comoros. Arab influence increased with the ascendancy of Zanzibar under Arab Omani rule, and Comorian culture, especially architecture and religion, increasingly reflected Arab contact. Many rival sultanates were established in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.[5] By the time Europeans became interested in the Comoros as more than a stop for traveling merchants, the Arab appearance of the islands led to much of succeeding historiography emphasizing Arab foundations over Swahili and African heritage. Recent scholarship by historians like Thomas Spear and Randall Pouwells emphasizes African historical predominance over the diffusionist perspecitve.[6]

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European contact and French colonization

Portuguese explorers visited the archipelago in 1505.

France first established colonial rule in the Comoros beginning in 1841. The first French colonists landed in Mayotte, and Andrian Tsouli, the King of Mayotte, signed the Treaty of April 1841, which ceded the island to French authorities. In 1886, Mohéli was turned over to French protection by its Queen Salimba Mochimba. That same year, after consolidating his authority over all of Grand Comore, Sultan Said Ali agreed to French protection of his island, though he retained sovereignty until 1909. Also in 1909, Sultan Said Muhamed of Anjouan abdicated in favor of French rule of the island. The Comoros (or Les Comores) was officially made a French colony in 1912, and the islands were placed under the administration of the French colonial governor general of Madagascar in 1914.[7]

The Comoros continued to be used as a way station for merchants to the Far East and India until the construction of the Suez Canal greatly reduced traffic passing through the Mozambique Channel. The only native commodities exported by the Comoros were coconuts. French settlers, French-owned companies, and wealthy Arab merchants established a plantation-based economy that now uses about one-third of the land for export crops. After its annexation, France converted Mayotte into a sugar plantation colony. The other islands were soon transformed as well, and the major crops ylang-ylang, vanilla, coffee, cocoa, and sisal were introduced.[8]

Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for Comoros to become independent in 1978. On July 6, 1975, however, the Comorian parliament passed a resolution declaring independence. The deputies of Mayotte, which stayed under French control, abstained. Referendums on all four of the islands excluding Mayotte showed strong support for independence. Ahmed Abdallah became the first president and proclaimed the Comoros' independence on September 5, 1975.

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Independent Comoros

The next thirty years were a period of political turmoil. It began in 1975 when mercenary Bob Denard with clandestine funding by Jacques Foccart and the French government removed president Ahmed Abdallah from office in an armed coup on August 3, 1975, and replaced him with United National Front of the Comoros (UNF) member Prince Said Mohammed Jaffar. Just a few months later, in January 1976, Jaffar was ousted in favor of his Minister of Defense Ali Soilih.[9] Around that time, in two referendums — December 1974 and February 1976 — the population of Mayotte voted against independence from France (by 63.8% and 99.4% respectively). The three independent islands, ruled by President Soilih, instituted a number of socialist and isolationist policies that soon strained relations with France. On May 13, 1978 Bob Denard returned and overthrew President Solih by force and re-instated Abdallah with the support of the French and South African governments. In contrast to Soilih, Abdallah's presidency was marked by authoritarian rule and increased adherence to traditional Islam.[10] During Soilih's short rule, there had been seven further documented coup attempts before the successful overthrow by Denard in May 1978.[11] Unlike Abdallah, Soilih was killed after being forced from office.

Abdallah continued as president until 1989 when, fearing a probable coup d'état, he signed a decree ordering the Presidential Guard, led by Bob Denard, to disarm the armed forces. Shortly after the signing of the decree, Abdallah was allegedly killed by a disgruntled military officer fatally shooting the president in his office, and injuring Denard at the same time, though later sources claim an anti-tank missile launched into his bedroom was the cause of Abdallah's death.[12] It is suspected that Abdallah's killer was a soldier in Denard's command.[13]A few days later, Bob Denard was evacuated to South Africa by French paratroopers. Said Mohamed Djohar, Soilih's older half-brother, then became president and served until September 1995 when Bob Denard returned and attempted another coup. France intervened with paratroopers and forced Denard to surrender.[14][15] The French moved Djohar to Reunion and the Paris-backed Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim became president by election. He led the country from 1996, during a time of labor crises, government suppression, and secessionist conflicts, until he died in November 1998 and was succeeded by Interim President Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde.[16]

The islands of Anjouan and Mohéli declared their independence from the Comoros in 1997, attempting to rejoin French rule. However, France refused the islands, and there were bloody confrontations between federal troops and rebels during Taki's government.[17] Colonel Azali Assoumani, Army Chief of Staff, seized power in a bloodless coup in April 1999, overthrowing the Interim President Tadjiddine Ben Said Massounde citing weak leadership in the face of crisis. The BBC reported that Azali's takeover was the Comoros' 18th coup d'etat since independence in 1975.[18] A subsequent failed attempt by Azali to consolidate power and reestablish control over these islands was the subject of international criticism, and the African Union, under the auspices of President Mbeki of South Africa, intervened, imposing sanctions on Anjouan to help broker negotiations and effect a reconciliation.[19][20] This involved a system of governmental autonomy for each island, plus a Union government for the three islands. Azali stepped down in 2002 to run in the democratic election of the President of the Comoro Union, which he won. Under ongoing international pressure, as a military ruler who had originally come to power by force and was not always democratic while in office, Azali led the Union through constitutional changes that enabled new elections.[21] A "Loi des compétences" (a law that defines the responsibilities of each governmental body) was passed in early 2005 and is in the process of implementation. The elections in 2006 were won by Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi, a Sunni Muslim Cleric nick-named the "Ayatollah" for his time spent studying Islam in Iran. Azali honored the election results, thus allowing the first-ever peaceful and democratic exchange of power in the archipelagos' recent and turbulent history.[22]

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Mayotte dispute

Comoros lays claim to Mayotte (aka. Mahoré)[23], a neighbouring island, which however is currently a French Overseas collectivity. Mayotte is the only island in the Comoro archipelago that, by a popular vote in a referundum, chose to retain its link with France instead of joining an independent Comoro Islands state. France has also vetoed against United Nations Security Council resolutions that would have affirmed Comorian sovereignty over Mayotte. Other bodies, including the UN General Assembly, the Organization of African Unity, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, have questioned France's sovereignty over Mayotte.[24][25]

[26].

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Geography

Map of Comoros
Map of Comoros

The Comoros is formed by Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Mwali (Mohéli), Nzwani (Anjouan), and Mahoré( Mayotte), the major islands in the Comoros Archipelago, as well as many minor islets. The islands are officially known by their Comorian language names, though international sources still use their French names (in parentheses) commonly. The capital and largest city, Moroni, is located on Ngazidja. The archipelago is situated in the Indian Ocean, in the Mozambique Channel between the African coast (nearest to Mozambique and Tanzania) and Madagascar, with no land borders. At 2,235 km², it is one of the smallest countries in the world.

Ngazidja is the largest of the Comoros Archipelago, or Comoro Islands, and is approximately equal in area to the rest of the islands combined. It is also the most recent island, and therefore has rocky soil. The island's two volcanoes, Karthala and La Grille, and the lack of good harbors are distinctive characteristics of its terrain. Mwali, with its capital at Fomboni, is the smallest of the four major islands. Nzwani, whose capital is Mutsamudu , has a distinctive triangular shape caused by three mountain chains, Sima, Nioumakele, and Jimilime, emanating from a central peak, Mtingui (1,575 m). The oldest of the islands, Mahoré has the richest soil as well as good harbors and local fish populations, due to its ring of coral reefs. Dzaoudzi, a previous capital of all the colonial Comoros, is located on Pamanzi, (French: Petite-Terre), the largest islet of Mahoré. Mahoré's current capital is at Mamoudzou. The term Mayotte (or Mahoré) may also refer to the group of islands, of which the largest is known as Mahoré (French: Grande-Terre), and it includes Mahoré's surrounding islands, most notably Pamanzi (Petite-Terre). The Comoros also has claim to 320 km² of territorial seas. The interiors of the islands vary from steep mountains to low hills. The islands are subject to cyclones during rainy season (December to April) which are strong enough to devastate the infrastructure about twice every decade.

Satellite view of Mount Karthala after a Nov. 2005 eruption. Ash obscures the islands (outlined).
Satellite view of Mount Karthala after a Nov. 2005 eruption. Ash obscures the islands (outlined).

The islands of the Comoros Archipelago were formed by volcanic activity. Mount Karthala, an active shield volcano located on Ngazidja, is the country's highest point, at 2,361 m or 7748 ft. It contains the Comoros' largest patch of its disappearing rainforest. The Karthala is currently one of the most active volcanoes in the world, with a minor eruption in May 2006, and prior eruptions as recently as April 2005 and 1991. In the 2005 eruption from April 17 to 19, 40,000 citizens were evacuated, and the crater lake previously residing in the volcano's 3 by 4 km. caldera was destroyed.

The Comoros also lays claim to the Glorioso Islands, comprised of Grande Glorieuse, Île du Lys, Wreck Rock, South Rock, Verte Rocks (three islets), and three unnamed islets, one of France's Îles Éparses or Îles éparses de l'océan indien (Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean) possessions. The Glorioso Islands were administered by the colonial Comoros before 1975, and are therefore sometimes considered part of the Comosos Archipelago. Banc du Geyser, a former island in the Comoros Archipelago, now submerged, is geographically located in the Îles Éparses, but was annexed by Madagascar in 1976 as an unclaimed territory. The Comoros claims now it as part of its exclusive economic zone.

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Politics

Politics of the Union of the Comoros takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of the Comoros is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. The Constitution of the Union of the Comoros was ratified by referendum on December 23, 2001, and the islands' constitutions and executives were elected in the following months. It had previously been considered a military dictatorship, and the transfer of power from Azali Assoumani to Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi in May 2006 was the first peaceful transfer in Comorian history. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The preamble of the constitution guarantees an Islamic inspiration in governance, a commitment to human rights, and several specific enumerated rights, democracy, "a common destiny" for all Comorians. Each of the islands (according to Title II of the Constitution) has a great amount of autonomy in the Union, including having their own constitutions (or Fundamental Law), president, and Parliament. The presidencey and Assembly of the Union are distict from each of the Islands' governments. The presidency of the Union rotates between the islands.[27] Anjouan holds the current presidency rotation, and so Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi is President of the Union; Mohéli and Ngazidja follow in four year terms.[28]

The Comorian legal system rests on Islamic law and an inherited French (Napoleonic code) legal code. Village elders or civilian courts settle most disputes. The judiciary is independent of the legislative and the executive. The Supreme Court acts as a Constitutional Council in resolving constitutional questions and supervising presidential elections. As High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court also arbitrates in cases where the government is accused of malpractice. The Supreme Court consists of two members selected by the president, two elected by the Federal Assembly, and one by the council of each island.[29]

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Military

The military resources of the Comoros consist of a small standing army and a 500-member police force, as well as a 500-member defense force. A defense treaty with France provides naval resources for protection of territorial waters, training of Comorian military personnel, and air surveillance. France maintains a small troop presence in Comoros at government request. France maintains a small maritime base and a Foreign Legion Detachment (DLEM) on Mayotte. See also Military of Comoros.

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Foreign relations

In November 1975, Comoros became the 143rd member of the United Nations. The new nation was defined as consisting of the entire archipelago, despite the fact that France maintains control over Mayotte. Comoros has repeatedly pressed its claim to Mayotte before the United Nations General Assembly, which has adopted a series of resolutions under the caption "Question of the Comorian Island of Mayotte", opining that Mayotte belongs to Comoros under the principle that the territorial integrity of colonial territories should be preserved upon independence. As a practical matter, however, these resolutions have little effect and there is no foreseeable likelihood that Mayotte will become de facto part of Comoros without its people's consent. More recently, the Assembly has maintained this item on its agenda but deferred it from year to year without taking action.

Comoros also is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, the European Development Fund, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Indian Ocean Commission, and the African Development Bank.

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte & the Glorioso Islands

See also Foreign relations of Comoros.

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Economy

Comoros is one of the poorest countries in the world. Economic growth and poverty reduction are major priorities for the government. With a rate of 14.3%, unemployement is considered very high. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy, and 38.4% of the working population is employed in the primary sector. High population densities, as much as 1000 per square kilometer in the densest agricultural zones, for what is still a mostly rural, agricultural economy may lead to an environemtal crisis in the near future, especially considering ht high rate of population growth. The Comoros' real GDP growth was a low 1.9% in 2004 and real GDP per capita was continuing declining anually in 2004. These declines are explained by factors like declining investment, a drop in consumption, rising inflation, and an increase in trade imbalance in part due to lowered cash crop prices, especially vanilla.[30]

Comoros has inadequate transportation system, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. Comoros is the world's largest producer of ylang-ylang, and a large producer of vanilla.

The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate.

The Comoros claims the Banc du Geyser and the Glorioso Islands as part of its exclusive economic zone.

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Demographics

With less than a million peopple, the Comoros is one of the least populous countries in the world, but is also one of the most densely populated, with an average of 275 people per km². In 2001, 34% of the population was considered urban, but that is expected to grow, since rural population growth is negative, while overall popuation growth is still relatively high.[31] Major urban centers include Moroni, Mutsamudu, Domoni, Fomboni, and Tsémbéhou.

The islands of the Comoros share mostly African-Arab origins. Sunni Islam is the dominant religion, representing as much as 98% of the population. Although Arab culture is firmly established throughout the archipelago, a minority of the citizens of Mayotte (the Mahorais) are Roman Catholic and have been strongly influenced by French culture.[32] Malagasy and Indian minorities also exist, as well as Creole-speaking minorities mostly descended from Reunionnaise. Chinese peoples are also present on Mayotte.

The most common language is Comorian, or Shikomor, a descendant of Swahili with Arabic influences. Shingazidja, Shimwali, Shinzwani, and Shimaore are the local dialects spoken on each of the islands, Ngazidja, Mwali, Nzwani, and Mahoré, respectively. French and Arabic are also official languages, along with Comorian. Arabic is widely known as a second language, being the language of Koranic teaching, and French is the language of all other formal education. Malagasy is also spoken by a small number of Malagasy immigrants.[33] About fifty-seven percent of the population is literate in the Latin alphabet, more with the Arabic alphabet; total literacy is estimated at 62.5%.[34] Comorian has no native script, but both Arabic and Latin scripts have been used.

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Media and culture

Nearly the entirety of the educated populace of the Comoros has attended Koranic schools at some point in their life, often before regular schooling, where boys and girls are taught and memorize the Koran and Arabic at early ages. Some parents specifically choose this early schooling to offset French schools children usually attend later. Since independence and the ejection of French teachers, the education system has been plagued by poor teacher training and poor results, though recent stability may allow for substantial improvements.[35]

Comorian (Shikomori) is the most widely used language on the Comoros (independent islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar). It is a close relative of Swahili with a very strong Arabic influence, and is one of the three official languages of the Comoros, next to French and Arabic. Each island has a slightly different dialect; that of Anjouan is called Shindzuani, that of Moheli Shimwali, that of Mayotte Shimaore, and that of Grande Comore Shingazidja. No official alphabet existed in 1992, but Arabic and Latin scripts were both used.

There is no national newspaper in Comoros; the leading regional paper is Al-Watwan published on Grande Comore; Kwezi is also published on Mayotte. Radio Comoros is the national radio service and Comoros National TV is the television service.

See also:

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See also

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References

This article incorporates text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which is in the public domain.

  1. UN Demographic Yearbook accessed March 21 2006
  2. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program (August 1994). Ralph K. Benesch A Country Study: Comoros (in English). US Department of the Army. Retrieved on January 2007.
  3. Thomas Spear (2000). "Early Swahili History Reconsidered" (fee required). The International Journal of African Historical Studies 33 (2): 257-290.
  4. Thomas Spear (2000). "Early Swahili History Reconsidered" (fee required). The International Journal of African Historical Studies 33 (2): 264-5.
  5. Thomas Spear (1984). "The Shirazi in Swahili Traditions, Culture, and History" (subscription required). History in Africa 11: 291-305.
  6. Randall L. Pouwels (1984). "Oral Historiography and the Shirazi of the East African Coast" (subscription required). History in Africa: 237-267.
  7. Andre Bourde (May, 1965). "The Comoro Islands: Problems of a Microcosm" (JSTOR). The Journal of Modern African Studies 3 (1): 91-102.
  8. Barbara Dubins (Sep., 1969). "The Comoro Islands: A Bibliographical Essay" (JSTOR). African Studies Bulletin 12 (2): 131-137.
  9. Eliphas G. Mukonoweshuro (Oct 1990). "The Politics of Squalor and Dependency: Chronic Political Instability and Economic Collapse in the Comoro Islands" (JSTOR). African Affairs (357): 555-577.
  10. Abdourahim Said Bakar (1988). "Small Island Systems: A Case Study of the Comoro Islands" (JSTOR). Comparative Education 24 (2, Special Number (11): Education and Minority Groups.): 181-191.
  11. Eliphas G. Mukonoweshuro (Oct 1990). "The Politics of Squalor and Dependency: Chronic Political Instability and Economic Collapse in the Comoro Islands" (JSTOR). African Affairs (357): 555-577.
  12. Christopher S. Wren. "Mercenary Holding Island Nation Seeks Deal" (LexisNexis), New York Times, Dec. 8, 1989. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  13. Matloff, Judith. "Mercenaries seek fun and profit in Africa.", Christian Science Monitor, 10/6/95.
  14. Marlise Simons. "1,000 French Troops Invade Comoros to Put Down Coup", New York Times, October 5, 1995, pp. Section A; Page 10; Column 3.
  15. AP. "French Mercenary Gives Up in Comoros Coup", New York Times, October 6, 1995, pp. Section A; Page 7; Column 1.
  16. Kamal Eddine Saindou. "Comoros president dies from heart attack", The Associated Press, November 6, 1998, Friday, AM cycle, pp. International News.
  17. Moyiga Nduru. "COMORO ISLANDS: TENSION RISING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN ARCHIPELAGO", IPS-Inter Press Service/Global Information Network, September 17, 1997.
  18. "COMOROS: COUP LEADER GIVES REASONS FOR COUP", BBC Monitoring Africa (Radio France Internationale), May 1, 1999.
  19. Rodrique Ngowi. "Breakaway island's ruler says no civilian rule until secession crisis resolved", The Associated Press, August 3, 2000.
  20. "Mbeki flies in to Comoros islands summit in bid to resolve political crisis", Agence France Presse, December 20, 2003.
  21. "Comoros said "calm" after Azali Assoumani declared elected as federal president", BBC Monitoring Africa, May 10, 2002.
  22. UN Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Comoros; Ahmed Abdallah Sambi Set to Win Presidency by a Landslide", AllAfrica, Inc. Africa News, May 15, 2006.
  23. Security Council S/PV. 1888 para 247 S/11967 [1] [2]
  24. General Assembly - Thirty first Session
  25. UN General Asembly, Forty-ninth session: Agenda item 36
  26. The first UN General Assembly Resolution regarding the matter, "Question of the Comorian island of Mayotte," United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/31/4, (21 October 1976) states "the occupation by France of the Comorian island of Mayotte constitutes a flagrant encroachemnt on the national unity of the Comorian State, a Member of the United Nations," rejecting the French administered referendums and condemning French presence in Mayotte.[3]
  27. . "FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE UNION OF COMOROS (English excerpts)" (Word document). Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  28. AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE, Elections in the Comoros
  29. . "FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE UNION OF COMOROS (English excerpts)" (Word document). Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  30. Office of the General Commissioner for Planning, Ministry of Planning and Regional Development (October 2005). "UNION OF THE COMOROS: POVERTY REDUCTION AND GROWTH STRATEGY PAPER (UPDATED INTERIM PAPER)" (pdf). Retrieved on ~~~~~.
  31. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unup/, 11 January 2007
  32. CIA World Factbook: Comoros
  33. "Ethnologue report for Comoros," [4]
  34. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, sountry profile of Comoros; 2004. http://www.uis.unesco.org/profiles/EN/EDU/countryProfile_en.aspx?code=1740
  35. Abdourahim Said Bakar. "Small Island Systems: A Case Study of the Comoro Islands" (JSTOR). Comparative Education 24 (2, Special Number 11): 181-191.
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Further reading

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External links

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News

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Overviews

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Directories

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