Children's Machine

The Children's Machine
The latest prototype of the device, named the 2B1
Manufacturer Quanta Computers
Type Subnotebook
Connectivity 802.11b/g /s wireless LAN
3 USB 2.0 ports
Operating System Fedora Core-based (Linux)
Camera built-in video camera (640×480; 30 FPS)
Media 512 MB – 1 GB flash memory
Input Keyboard
Touchpad
Microphone
Power NiMH battery pack
CPU AMD Geode GX500@1.0W + 5536
Memory 128 MB DRAM
Display dual-mode 19.3 cm diagonal TFT LCD 1200×900

The Children's Machine, also known as XO-1 and previously as the $100 Laptop, is a proposed inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children around the world, especially to those in developing countries, to provide them with access to knowledge and modern forms of education. The laptop is being developed by the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) trade association. OLPC is a U.S. based, non-profit organization created by faculty members of the MIT Media Lab to design, manufacture, and distribute the laptops.

The rugged and low-power computers will contain flash memory instead of a hard drive and will use Linux as their operating system.[1] Mobile ad-hoc networking will be used to allow many machines Internet access from one connection.

The laptops will be sold to governments and issued to children by schools on a basis of one laptop per child. Pricing is currently expected to start at around US$135-140 and the goal is to reach the US$100 mark in 2008. One thousand working prototypes were delivered in late 2006 and full-scale production is expected to start in mid-2007.[2]

Thailand "hopes to order one million laptops from the initiative ... and distribute them free to rural primary school children."[citation needed]

Contents

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One Laptop per Child association

The One Laptop per Child association (OLPC) is a Delaware based, non-profit organization set up to oversee The Children's Machine project and the construction of the 2B1 "$100 laptop". Both the project and the organization were announced at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in January 2005.

OLPC is funded by a number of sponsor organizations. These include AMD, Brightstar Corporation, eBay, Google, Marvell, News Corporation, SES Global, Nortel Networks, and Red Hat. Each company has donated two million dollars.[citation needed]

The organization is chaired by Nicholas Negroponte and its CTO is Mary Lou Jepsen. Other principals of the company include former MIT Media Lab director Walter Bender, who is President of OLPC Software and Content, and Jim Gettys, Vice-President of Software Engineering.[3]

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History

Mary Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay and Nicholas Negroponte unveil the $100 laptop
Mary Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay and Nicholas Negroponte unveil the $100 laptop

OLPC is based on constructionist learning theories pioneered by Seymour Papert, Alan Kay, and also on the principles expressed in Nicholas Negroponte’s book Being Digital.[4] The founding corporate members are Google, News Corp, AMD, Red Hat, Brightstar and Nortel, each of whom donated two million dollars to the project. All three individuals and six companies are active participants in OLPC.

The organization gained much attention when Nicholas Negroponte and Kofi Annan unveiled a working prototype of the CM1 on November 16 2005 at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis, Tunisia. Negroponte showed two prototypes of the laptop at the second phase of the World Summit: a non working physical model and a tethered version using an external board and separate keyboard. The device shown was a rough prototype using a standard development board. Negroponte estimated that the screen alone required three more months of development. The first working prototype was demonstrated at the project's Country Task Force Meeting on May 23 2006. The production version is expected to have a larger display screen in the same size package. The laptops are scheduled to be available by early 2007.

At the 2006 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) announced it would back the laptop. UNDP released a statement saying they would work with OLPC to deliver “technology and resources to targeted schools in the least developed countries”.[5]

The OLPC board of directors announced on December 13 2005 that Quanta Computers had been chosen as the original design manufacturer (ODM) for the $100 laptop project. The decision was made after the board reviewed bids from several possible manufacturing companies. The company emphasized that there was a lot of work that remains to be done: “We still need to put a large amount of research and development into this, and will then hopefully be ready to make a finished product in the second half of next year 2006”, according to Quanta. Over the next six months, a team at Quanta Research Institute is going to be focusing on the $100 laptop.[6]

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Pricing

The project originally aimed for a price of 100 United States dollars. In May 2006, Negroponte told the Red Hat's annual user summit: "It is a floating price. We are a nonprofit organization. We have a target of $100 by 2008, but probably it will be $135, maybe $140. That is a start price, but what we have to do is with every release make it cheaper and cheaper— we are promising that the price will go down."[7]

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Participating countries

The following states have already "committed” to the project in various ways. However, the commitment is not binding. The laptops will be sold to governments, to be distributed through the ministries of education willing to adopt the policy of “one laptop per child”. The operating system and software will be localized to the languages of the participating countries.

Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney has submitted a bill to the legislature to deliver $100 laptops to all children in the state.[12] Nigeria was the first country to order one million laptop computers.[13]

On October 11 2006 The New York Times reported that OLPC had reached an agreement with the government of Libya to supply laptops to all of its 1.2 million school children. The $250 million deal includes satellite Internet access, one server per school and technical support.[14][15]

India has rejected the initiative, saying "it would be impossible to justify an expenditure of this scale on a debatable scheme when public funds continue to be in inadequate supply for well-established needs listed in different policy documents".[16]

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Children's Machine on the Open Market

The BBC recently erroneously reported that OLPC machines would be made available for sale to the general public, claiming that they would be available in 2008 and that each customer would be required to purchase two machines; one for themselves and another to be given to a child in the developing world.[17] Subsequently, OLPC refuted this claim by issuing a press release stating that "[c]ontrary to recent reports, One Laptop per Child is not planning a consumer version of its current XO laptop."[18]

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Technology

$100 laptop in Ebook-Mode.
$100 laptop in Ebook-Mode.

2B1 will be a Linux-based, full-color, full-screen laptop. It will initially have a flat LCD screen, but in later generations may use electronic paper such as e-ink. The laptop will be rugged, use innovative power (a "yo-yo" like system), be Wi-Fi- and VoIP-enabled, and will have a touch pad (including a separate writing pad).

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Design requirements

Mary Lou Jepsen stated the design goals of this device as:

The software design requirements are described in the project wiki. The educational objectives have also been described, in part, in the wiki.

Various use models had been explored by OLPC with the help of Design Continuum and Fuseproject, including: laptop, e-book, theatre, simulation, tote, and tablet architectures. The current design, by Fuseproject, uses a transformer hinge to morph between laptop, e-book, and router modes.

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Hardware

The hardware specifications as of November 2006 are:

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Intentionally omitted features

In keeping with its goals of robustness and low power consumption, the design of the laptop intentionally omits all motor-driven moving parts; it has no hard drive, no optical (CD/DVD), no floppy drives and no fans. An ATA interface is unnecessary due to the lack of hard drive. There is also no PC Card slot, although an SD slot will be available.

Floppy disks, hard disks, CD drives, DVD drives, USB drives, and many other peripherals can be connected via the USB ports. Further expansion is available through an external SD card slot.

A built-in hand-crank generator was part of the original design, but Negroponte stated at a 2006 LinuxWorld talk that it was no longer integrated into the laptop itself, but optionally available as a hand- or foot-operated generator built into a separate power unit.[20]

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Power consumption

The laptop will consume about 2W of power during normal use, compared to 10-45W of conventional laptops.[2]

In e-book mode, all hardware sub-systems are powered down except the monochrome display (including any display backlighting). When the user moves to a different page the system wakes up, draws the new page on the display and then goes back to sleep. Power consumption in e-book mode is estimated to be 0.3 to 0.8 W.

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Display

The first-generation OLPC laptops are expected to have a novel low-cost liquid crystal display. Later generations of the OLPC laptop are expected to use low-cost, low-power and high-resolution electronic paper displays.

The display is the most expensive component of the OLPC Laptop. In April 2005, Negroponte hired Mary Lou Jepsen—who is expected to join the Media Arts and Sciences faculty at the MIT Media Lab in September 2007—as OLPC Chief Technology Officer. Jepsen is developing a new display for the first-generation OLPC laptop, which is derived from the design of small LCDs used in portable DVD players, which she estimated would cost about $35.

Jepsen has described the removal of the filters that color the RGB subpixels as the critical design innovation in the new liquid crystal display. Instead of using subtractive color filters, the display uses a plastic diffraction grating and lenses on the rear of the LCD to illuminate the colored subpixels. This grating pattern is stamped using the same technology used to make DVDs. The grating splits the light from the white backlight into a spectrum. The red, green and blue components are diffracted into the correct positions to illuminate the corresponding R, G or B subpixels. This innovation results in a much brighter display and a corresponding reduction in backlight illumination: While the color filters in a regular display typically absorb 85% of the light that hits them, this display absorbs little of that light.[21]

The remainder of the LCD uses existing display technology and can be made using existing manufacturing equipment. Even the masks can be made using combinations of existing materials and processes.

The display is transmissive with backlighting when used in color/DVD mode. The conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlighting, which accounts for 30% of the cost of a conventional LCD, has been replaced with a lower-power, less fragile alternative such as white LEDs for use at low light levels. This form of backlighting should also improve the color gamut of the display. The display is a reflective display (with no backlighting) when used in monochrome mode for displaying e-book pages. Mode change occurs with a change in use of the device. The landscape format color display is used in laptop mode, whereas the portrait format monochrome display is used in e-book mode, so the displayed pages can be “read vertically like a book”. This is the so-called “curl-up-in-bed mode” to enable reading of e-books for an extended time in bright light such as sunlight.[22] Negroponte has said at the Technology Review’s Fifth Annual Emerging Technologies Conference that the monochrome display has four times the resolution of the color display.[citation needed]

The dual-mode display was not operational in the WSIS prototype. The prototypes were shown with conventional transmission TFT LCDs.

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Wireless Mesh Networking

IEEE 802.11b support will be provided using a Wi-Fi “Extended Range” chipset. Jepsen has said the wireless chipset will be run at a low bitrate, 2Mbit/s maximum rather than the usual higher speed 5.5Mbit/s or 11Mbit/s to minimize power consumption.

Whenever the laptop is powered on it will participate in a mobile ad-hoc network with each node operating in a peer-to-peer fashion with other laptops it can hear and forwarding packets across the cloud. If a computer in the cloud has access to the Internet (either directly or indirectly) then all computers in the cloud will be able to access the net. The data rate across this network will not be high but similar networks like the store and forward Motoman project have supported email services to 1000 schoolchildren in Cambodia, according to Negroponte. The data rate should be sufficient for asynchronous network applications such as email to communicate outside the cloud rather than interactive uses, like web browsing, or high-bandwidth applications, such as video streaming. Interactive network communication should be possible inside the cloud. The IP-Signment for the meshed network should work with an automatic configuration, so no server administrator or an administration of IP addresses is needed.

The conventional IEEE 802.11b system only handles traffic within a local cloud of wireless devices in a manner similar to an Ethernet network. Each node transmits and receives its own data but does not route packets between two nodes that cannot communicate directly. The OLPC laptop will use IEEE 802.11s to form the wireless mesh network.

The source code for this routing protocol is still closed source, despite the fact that one goal of the laptop is that all of its software is open source. Furthermore, even with open source alternatives like OLSR or B.A.T.M.A.N., building a MANET is still untested under the OLPC's current configuration and hardware environment. Whether or not Marvell, the producer of the wireless chipset and owner of the current meshing protocol software, will make the firmware open source is still an unanswered question.

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Keyboard and touchpad

Negroponte and Jepsen have said the keyboard will be changed to suit local needs to match the standard keyboard for the country in which it is used. Some versions of prototype were shown at World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) with a detachable keyboard (tethered by a cord); however, the working prototype demonstrated in May 2006 had a conventional built-in keyboard.

Negroponte has demanded that the keyboard will not contain a caps lock key, which frees up keyboard real estate for new keys such as a "view source" key.[23]

Beneath the keyboard is a large area that resembles a very wide touchpad that Jepsen referred to as the “mousepad”. Negroponte has said that this device can be used for “calligraphy” presumably to support languages that use ideograms. The central third is a capacitive sensor that can be used with a finger, while the full width is a resistive sensor that can be used with a stylus. The trackpad was not operational in the WSIS prototype.

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Enclosure

The enclosure is dirt- and moisture-resistant and is constructed with 2 mm thick plastic (thicker than typical laptops). It features a pivoting, reversible display, movable WiFi antennas, and a sealed rubber-membrane keyboard.

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Software

Children in a remote Cambodian school where a pilot laptop program has been in place since 2001.
Children in a remote Cambodian school where a pilot laptop program has been in place since 2001.

All of the software on the laptop will be open source.[23] The projected software as of November 2006[24] is:

The laptop will use the Sugar graphical user interface, written in Python, on top of the X Window System. This interface is not based on the typical desktop metaphor but presents an iconic view of programs and documents and a map-like view of nearby connected users. The current active program is displayed in full-screen mode.[2]

Steve Jobs had offered Mac OS X free of charge for use in the laptop, but according to Seymour Papert, a professor emeritus at MIT who is one of the initiative's founders, the designers want an operating system that can be tinkered with: “We declined because it’s not open source.”[26] Therefore Linux was chosen.

Jim Gettys, responsible for the laptops' system software, has called for a re-education of programmers, saying that many applications use too much memory or even leak memory. "There seems to be a common fallacy among programmers that using memory is good: on current hardware it is often much faster to recompute values than to have to reference memory to get a precomputed value. A full cache miss can be hundreds of cycles, and hundreds of times the power consumption of an instruction that hits in the first level cache."[27]

On 4 August 2006, the Wikimedia Foundation announced that static copies of selected Wikipedia articles would be included on the laptops. Jimmy Wales, chair of the Wikimedia Foundation, said that "OLPC's mission goes hand in hand with our goal of distributing encyclopedic knowledge, free of charge, to every person in the world. Not everybody in the world has access to a broadband connection."[28] Negroponte had earlier suggested he would like to see Wikipedia on the laptop. Wales feels that Wikipedia is one of the "killer apps" for this device.[29]

While previewing the OLPC machine with Norwegian digi.no, Håkon Wium Lie declared that the Opera Browser "is a perfect match to this machine" and suggested a special OLPC version of Opera.[30] However, unlike the other software bundled with the machine, Opera is not open source.

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Criticism

Third generation prototype
Third generation prototype

Though generally well received at early stages, the project has been criticized as unrealistic.

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Technological aspects

On November 10 2005, Lee Felsenstein criticized the centralized, top-down, imperialistic design and distribution of the OLPC. Lee Felsenstein, currently of the Fonly Institute, draws upon his previous experience with distributed collaboration and open source hardware in the Homebrew Computer Club.[31]

On December 9 2005 Intel Chairman Craig Barrett criticised the project for being a "$100 gadget": "... The problem is that gadgets have not been successful... It turns out what people are looking for is something that has the full functionality of a PC. Reprogrammable to run all the applications of a grown-up PC .... not dependent on servers in the sky to deliver content and capability to them, not dependent for hand cranks for power."[32] However, on December, 5 2006 Intel Corp. announced[33] that they intend to produce a laptop similar to the One Laptop Per Child.

On March 15, 2006, after having introduced the Ultra Mobile PC, Bill Gates criticised the project, saying “If you are going to go have people share the computer, get a broadband connection and have somebody there who can help support the user, geez, get a decent computer where you can actually read the text and you're not sitting there cranking the thing while you're trying to type.”[34]

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Environmental concerns

The project has also received criticism due to the environmental and health impacts of hazardous materials found in computers.[35] Many nations and organizations are working towards the development of “Green Electronics” (e.g. European Union with Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive).[36] While any project on this scale will have environmental impact, OLPC has asserted that it is aiming to use as environmentally friendly materials as they can; also that the laptop and all OLPC-supplied accessories will be fully RoHS compliant; and that the laptop will use an order of magnitude less power than the typical consumer laptops available today (as of 2006), reducing the environmental burden of power generation.[37]

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Good use of money

At the UN conference in Tunisia, several African officials, most notably Marthe Dansokho of Cameroon and Mohammed Diop of Mali were suspicious of the motives of the project, and claimed that the project was using an overly American mindset that presented solutions not applicable to specifically African problems. Dansokho said the project demonstrated misplaced priorities, stating that clean water and schools were more important for African women, who, he stated, would not have time to use the computers to research new crops to grow, and Diop specifically attacked the project as an attempt to exploit the governments of poor nations by making them pay for hundreds of millions of machines.[38]

One criticism has been that the money of purchasing the laptops could be more favorably spent on libraries and schools. John Wood, founder of Room to Read, has emphasized what is affordable and can scale over high-tech solutions. While in favor of the One Laptop Per Child initative for providing education to children in the developing world at a cheaper rate, he has pointed out that a $2000 library can serve 400 children, costing just $5 a child to bring access to a wide range of books in the local languages (such as Khmer or Nepali) and English; also a $10,000 school can serve 400-500 children ($20–$25 a child). According to Wood, these are more appropriate solutions for education in the dense forests of Vietnam or rural Cambodia.[39]

According to the OLPC wiki:

It should be mentioned that a common criticism of the project is to say, "What poor people need is food and shelter, not laptops." This comment, however, is ignorant of conditions in impoverished nations around the world. While it is true there are many people in the world who definitely need food and shelter, there are multitudes of people who live in rural or sub-urban areas and have plenty to eat and reasonable accommodations. What these people don't have is a decent shot at a good education.

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Theft and resale

The OLPC originally planned to restrict the sale of the laptop to governments, meaning that private individuals would not be able to purchase it. This led to the fears of arbitrage. If 2B1 is only made available in certain areas and to certain parties, a parallel black market for the laptops may develop. An arbitrageur could find a way to obtain the laptops for the going rate and resell them in the black market for a higher price. These fears may be seen as less serious following the announcement that the public would be able to purchase the machine, though purchasers would also have to donate a second machine to the developing world.[40]

The presence of a black market could also encourage the intended owners to sell their laptops. Nicholas Negroponte addressed this concern during his presentation in the Emerging technologies Conference in September 2005:

The grey market is a very serious issue. I don't want to be dismissive of it for a moment, and there are three ways of addressing it. Way number one is to have no market at all for it. I mean you can't sell it, who could buy it, and that isn't bullet proof. That's a little bit dreaming, but it's part of the equation. The second is to put the technologies into the device that help stop that. [The laptops distributed to middle schoolers in Maine are Apple iBooks] so they are not only great stuff to steal and we don't necessarily have corruption of that kind, but it's pretty transferable technology. They've put little things so the machine disables itself after a while if it hasn't connected to the school. You can put GPS in it, you can put all sorts of stuff. But then the third one, which I'm doing and I like is to make this machine so distinctive that it is socially a stigma to be carrying one if you are not a child or a teacher. Now you can obviously take it down to your basement, but I hope your spouse will even say: "Oh God! Honey! What did you do?" OK? you stole from the church. It's like a red cross on something. So I'm hoping that the distinctiveness of the product will be the third one that maybe isn't thought of that often. So those three combined will I hope at least limit this to one percent or two percent. It's not going to be just going into it.[41]

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Additional costs

The $100 figure does not take into account any setup, maintenance, damage, or replacement costs. An on-line critic of the project estimated that the true and ongoing cost of the OLPC initiative would be USD$972 per 5 years per laptop.[42] His estimated costs over 5 years included:

The training cost estimate was based on a $3 million USAID program that trained 200 teachers. The Internet access number assumes that a deal OLPC reached with SES Global [3] would collapse after one year. No explanation was given for the setup cost.

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Other criticisms

Another criticism is that developed countries are giving poorer children laptops before they give their own children laptops. It is claimed that many children in the United States and other developed countries would benefit much more from the use of a laptop than children in undeveloped countries. In fact, some states in the U.S. (e.g. Maine and Georgia) are providing commercial laptops to pupils [4] and the OLPC FAQ responds to the question: "Will the laptop be available for relatively developed nations?" by stating "We are exploring the possibility of developing a commercial version and we are in discussions with representatives from these nations about distribution of the non-commercial version. However, our priority is to make the laptop available first where there is the greatest need."

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Sexual Predators and Child Pornography

Concerns has been raised about how best to address the issue of "protecting kids from sexual predators online" [5]. There is also a fear that a online black market of webcam child pornography could emerge. In a situation where impoverished children in poor nations are given laptop with built in camera, commercial sexual exploitation of children by sexual predators in rich country may occur.

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Other laptops aimed at Children in the Developing world

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Intel Eduwise

Intel has dismissed the attempts of the One Laptop Per Child's Children's Machine, which aimed to redesign all of the software and hardware along educational principles, as a 'gadget',[43] and has argued that the developing world wants to have generic PCs. Another factor is also that the OLPC project's Children's Machine is powered by AMDs Geode processor. Therefore Intel, AMD's main rival, has introduced its concept for a developing world educational laptop, codenamed Eduwise, which would use an Intel processor instead.

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Other related initiatives

A list of 25 similar initiatives for children in the developing world is presented in a Quick guide to low-cost computing devices and initiatives for the developing world maintained by infoDev.

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See also

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References

  1. OLPC's Software. One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved on 2006-01-27.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3
  3. OLPC Principals and Staff List Retrieved February 13, 2006
  4. Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. ISBN 0-679-43919-6.
  5. U.N. Lends Backing to the $100 Laptop. Associated Press (January 26 2006). Retrieved on 2006-01-27.
  6. Quanta cool on contract for $100 laptops. Financial Times (December 15 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-17.
  7. Donoghue, Andrew. "$100 laptop 'will boost desktop Linux'", CNET News.com, 2006-06-02. Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  8. Govt studying independent US$100 laptop project. TMCnet (March 10 2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-10.
  9. http://www.linuxtoday.com/infrastructure/2007010902326NWHWEV Linux Today Notes From a Senior Editor: A Close Look at the OLPC
  10. http://laptop.media.mit.edu/laptopnews.nsf/latest/news?opendocument= OLPC News 2007-01-06
  11. Bangkok Post, Education Ministry axes 3 schemes, 28 November 2006
  12. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2005/laptops-1005.html
  13. Nigeria orders 1 million $100 laptops. The Inquirer (July 26 2006).
  14. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/11/world/africa/11laptop.html
  15. All Libyan pupils to get laptop and web access
  16. HRD rubbishes MIT's laptop scheme for kids. The Times of India (July 3 2006).
  17. Public can purchase $100 laptop. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  18. One Laptop per Child Has No Plans to Commercialize XO Computer. Business Wire. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  19. Microsoft looking to run Windows on OLPC, VNUnet, http://www.vnunet.com/vnunet/news/2170209/microsoft-looking-windows-olpc
  20. Stephen Shankland. "Negroponte: Slimmer Linux needed for $100 laptop", CNET, 2006-04-04. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  21. One Laptop Per Child - a Preview of the Hundred Dollar Laptop. Worldchanging (November 3 2005).
  22. Fahrenthold, David A.. "MIT Is Crafting Cheap -- But Invaluable -- Laptops", Washington Post, 2005-11-16, p. A03. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Don Marti: Doing it for the kids, man: Children's laptop inspires open source projects, LinuxWorld.com, 27 October 2006
  24. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Software_components
  25. 25.0 25.1 Interview with Jim Gettys, part II. LWN.net (July 6 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  26. The $100 Laptop Moves Closer to Reality. Wall Street Journal (November 14 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-01.
  27. Interview: Jim Gettys (Part I). LWN.net (June 28 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  28. Wikimedia Foundation (4 April 2006). One Laptop Per Child Includes Wikipedia on $100 Laptops; Subset of Online Encyclopedia to be Available in Static Version to Children and Teachers in Developing World. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  29. User talk:Jimbo Wales. Wikipedia. Retrieved on 2005-12-19.
  30. 100 dollars PC - digi.no. digi.ne (Desember 22 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  31. Problems with the $100 laptop by Lee Felsenstein
  32. World's poorest don’t want ‘$100 laptop’: Intel. Reuters (December 9 2005). Retrieved on 2006-02-02.
  33. Brazil to test US$400 (€300) Intel laptop in schools. International Herald Tribune (December 5 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  34. Bill Gates Mocks $100 Laptop. Red Herring (March 16 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  35. How Much E-Waste Per Child?, WorldChanging, December 19, 2005
  36. Era of Green Electronics, JimTrade, August 20, 2005
  37. OLPC Frequently Asked QuestionsQ, OLPC Wiki, accessed April 25 2006
  38. “The $100 laptop — is it a wind-up?” CNN, December 1 2005. Accessed December 1, 2005.
  39. Software 2006 conference, Scaling Organizations Panel [1] (32:40)
  40. Public can purchase $100 laptop. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  41. Video of Negroponte speech, September 28, 2005 (RealVideo, 55:23).
  42. What is the Real Cost of the OLPC? [2]
  43. World's poorest don't want $100 laptop -Intel
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External links

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News articles (by date)

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Skepticism and criticism

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Video

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