Република България
Republika Balgariya

Republic of Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria Coat of arms of Bulgaria
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Bulgarian: Съединението прави силата
Transliteration: "Saedinenieto pravi silata;
English: "Unity Makes Strength"[1])
Anthem: "Мила Родино"
"Mila Rodino"
("Dear Motherland")
Capital  Sofia
Largest city Sofia
Official language Bulgarian
Government Parliamentary democracy
 - President Georgi Parvanov
 - Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev
Independence From the Ottoman Empire 
 - Founded 681 
 - Christianized 865 
 - Gained autonomy March 3, 1878 
 - Declared October 5, 1908
(September 22 O.S.) 
Accession to EU January 1, 2007
 - Total 110,912 km² (104th)
42,823 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 0.3%
 - 2005 estimate 7,726,000 (93rd)
 - 2001 census 7,932,984 [1]
 - Density 70/km² (124th)
181/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 - Total $71.235 billion (66th)
 - Per capita $9,600 (66th)
HDI  (2004) 0.816 (high) (54th)
Currency Lev (BGN)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .bg1
Calling code +359
1 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България, IPA: [bɤlˈgarijə]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, IPA: [rɛˈpubliˌkə bɤlˈgarijə]), is a country in Southeastern Europe, and a member state of the European Union. It borders the Black Sea to the east, Greece and Turkey to the south, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, and Romania to the north, mostly along the Danube. Bulgaria also shares a maritime border with Turkey, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia. The capital of Bulgaria is Sofia.

Bulgaria is a country with an ancient history dating back to prehistoric times, the Thracian, Greek and Roman worlds of antiquity and the powerful Bulgarian Empire of the Middle Ages founded in 681. Geographically and climatically, Bulgaria is noted for its diversity, with the landscape ranging from the Alpine snow-capped peaks in Rila, Pirin and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny weather of the Black Sea coast, from the typically continental Danubian Plain (ancient Moesia) in the north to the strong Mediterranean influence in the valleys of Macedonia and the lowlands in the southernmost parts of Thrace.

Bulgaria joined NATO on March 29, 2004 and the European Union on January 1, 2007. The country has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, and is a founding member of OSCE. As a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty, Bulgaria takes part in the governing of the territories situated south of 60° south latitude.




In the 632, the Bulgars, led by Khan Kubrat formed an independent state, often called Great Bulgaria (also known as Onoguria), between the lower course of the Danube to the west, the Black and the Azov Seas to the south, the Kuban river to the east, and the Donets river to the north. The capital of the state was Phanagoria, on the Azov.

The pressure from peoples further east (such as the Khazars) led to diminiton of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the 7th century. One Bulgar tribe migrated to the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers and formed a new state called Volga Bulgaria.

Another Bulgar tribe, led by Khan Asparuh, moved westward, occupying today’s southern Bessarabia. After a successful war with Byzantium in 680, Asparuh’s khanate conquered Moesia and Dobrudja and was recognised as an independent state and formed the First Bulgarian Empire in 681. In 717 the Bulgarians helped relieve the Arab siege of Constantinople, killing some 40,000-60,000 soldiers. Their khan Tervel was called by his contemporaries The Saviour of Europe. In 864 Bulgaria accepted the Orthodox Faith and became a major European power in the 9th and the 10th century, while fighting with the Byzantine Empire for the control of the Balkans.. The greatest territorial extension was reached under Simeon I, the first Tsar, covering most of the Balkans. Following a decline in the middle of the 10th century, warned out by the wars with Croatia and frequent Serbian rebellions sponsored by Byzantine gold, the Bulgarian state was crushed by an assault of the Rus' in 969. The Byzantines then began campaigns to conquer Bulgaria. In 971 they seized the capital Preslav and captured emperor Boris II. The resistance continued in the western Bulgarian lands for nearly half a century until the state was completely destroyed by the Byzantines led by Basil II in 1018.

In 1185 the Bulgarian Empire was reestablished under the Asenevtsi Dynasty and continued to be an important power in Europe for two more centuries, while fighting for dominance in the region with the Byzantine Empire, the Crusader states and Hungary, reaching its zenith under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). By the end of the 14th century the country had disintegrated into several feudal principalities and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Empire. A Polish-Hungarian crusade under the rule of Władysław III of Poland to free the Balkans was crushed in 1444 in the battle of Varna.

The five-century period of Ottoman rule was characterized by great violence and oppression. The Bulgarian population was decimated and most of its cultural relics were lost. Large towns and the areas where Ottoman power was strong were severely depopulated until the 19th century.[2]

Following the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 and the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878, an autonomous Bulgarian principality was proclaimed. The treaty was immediately rejected by the Great Powers for fear that a large Slavic country on the Balkans would serve Russian interests. This led to the Treaty of Berlin (1878) which provided for an autonomous Bulgarian principality comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia. The first Bulgarian prince was Alexander von Battenberg. Most of Thrace was included in the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia, whereas the rest of Thrace along with the whole of Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Ottomans. After uniting with Eastern Rumelia in 1885 (following the Serbo-Bulgarian War), the principality was proclaimed a fully independent kingdom in 1908. This happened during the reign of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria.

Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1393)
Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1393)

Ferdinand, a prince from the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, became the Bulgarian prince after Alexander von Battenberg abdicated in 1886 following a coup d'etat staged by pro-Russian army officers. (Although the counter coup d'etat coordinated by Stefan Stambolov was successful, Alexander von Battenberg could not remain Bulgarian prince without the approval of the Russian emperor Alexander III.) The struggle for liberation of the Bulgarians in the Adrianople Vilayet and Macedonia continued throughout the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century culminating with the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising organised by the IMARO in 1903.

In 1912 and 1913 Bulgaria became involved in the Balkan Wars, entering into conflict with Greece and Serbia against the Ottoman Empire and then against its former Balkan allies in a desperate effort to achieve its national unity. After being defeated in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost most of the territory conquered in the first war, as well as Southern Dobruja. During World War I, Bulgaria found itself fighting on the losing side after its alliance with the Central Powers. The defeat led to new territorial losses (the Western Outlands to Serbia, Western Thrace to Greece and the re-conquered Southern Dobruja to Romania. The Balkan Wars and World War I led to the influx of over 250,000 Bulgarian refugees from Macedonia, Eastern and Western Thrace and Southern Dobruja.

Euxinograd, once a summer palace of the Bulgarian tsars
Euxinograd, once a summer palace of the Bulgarian tsars

These numbers increased in the 1930s following Serbian state-sponsored aggression against its native Bulgarian population. After regaining control over Southern Dobruja in 1940, Bulgaria allied with the Axis Powers in World War II, although no Bulgarian soldiers participated in the war against the USSR. During this time the country occupied parts of Greece and Yugoslavia inhabited mostly by Bulgarians. Bulgaria was the one of two countries (another one being Finland) that saved its entire Jewish population (around 50,000) from the Nazi camps by refusing to comply with a 31 August 1943 resolution. However, Jews in newly acquired territories from Greece and Yugoslavia were sent to death camps by the Bulgarian authorities on German request. In September the Soviet army entered into Bulgaria which later enabled the Bulgarian Communists to seize power and establish a Communist dictatorship. In 1944 Bulgaria's forces were turned against its former German ally (a 450,000 strong army in 1944, reduced to 130,000 in 1945). Overall, more than 30,000 Bulgarian soldiers and officers were killed in the war.

Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence after World War II, became a People's Republic in 1946 and one of the USSR's staunchest allies. In the late 1970s it began normalizing its relations with Greece and in the 1990s with Turkey. The People's Republic ended in 1989 as many Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, as well as the Soviet Union itself, began to collapse (the Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov was removed from power on 10 November 1989). Bulgaria again held multiparty elections and privatized its economy, but economic difficulties and a tide of corruption led over 800,000 Bulgarians, most of them qualified professionals, to emigrate.

Bulgaria joined NATO on 29 March 2004 and the European Union on 1 January 2007 after signing the Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005.



The president of Bulgaria (Georgi Parvanov since 22 January 2002 was re-elected for a second mandate on 29 October 2006 and will enter on his duties in January 2007 for the next five years) is directly elected for a 5-year term with the right to one re-election. The president serves as the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. The president is the head of the Consultative Council for National Security and while unable to initiate legislation, the President can return a bill for further debate, though parliament can overturn the president's veto with a simple majority vote.

The Council of Ministers is chaired by the PM (Sergey Stanishev since 18 August 2005), and is the principal body of the Executive Branch and presently consists of 20 ministers. The Prime Minister is nominated by the largest parliamentary group and is given a mandate by the President to form a cabinet.

The current governmental coalition is made of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), National Movement Simeon II (NMS) and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (representing mainly the Turkish minority).

The Bulgarian unicameral parliament, the National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie, consists of 240 deputies who are elected for 4-year-terms by popular vote. The votes are for party or coalition lists of candidates for each of the twenty-eight administrative divisions. A party or coalition must garner a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter parliament. Parliament is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections, selection and dismissal of the prime minister and other ministers, declaration of war, deployment of troops outside of Bulgaria, and ratification of international treaties and agreements.

The last elections took place on June 2005. The next elections are planned for summer 2009.

The Bulgarian judicial system consists of regional, district and appeal courts, as well as a Supreme Court of Cassation. In addition, there is a Supreme Administrative Court and a system of military courts. The Presidents of the Supreme Court of Cassation, Supreme Administrative Court and the Prosecutor General are elected by a qualified majority of two-thirds from all the members of the Supreme Judicial Council and are appointed by the President of the Republic. The Supreme Judicial Council is in charge of the self-administration and organisation of the Judiciary.

The Constitutional Court is in charge of reviewing the constitutionality of laws and statutes brought before it, as well as the compliance of these laws with international treaties that the Government has signed. Parliament elects the 12 members of the Constitutional Court by a two-thirds majority, the members serve a nine-year term.

The territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is divided into provinces and municipalities. In all Bulgaria has 28 provinces, each headed by a provincial governor appointed by the government. In addition, there are 263 municipalities.



Bulgarian MiG-29.
Bulgarian MiG-29.

The Bulgarian Army represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. They are divided into three parts: Bulgarian Land Forces, Bulgarian Navy, Bulgarian Air Forces. The patron Saint of the Army is Sveti Georgi (St. George) and his day, 6 May is also celebrated as Valour and Army Day. The Bulgarian Army is the only force in the world which never lost a single flag, although it actively participated in all major wars in Europe since the end of the 19th century.

The active troops of the Army are 68,450 after series of reductions since 1989. The military reserve includes 303,000 soldiers and officers. The Bulgarian Army's professional personnel has been involved in international missions in Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afganistan and Iraq. From 2008 the compulsory military service is to be abolished.

The military expenditures account for almost 2.6% of the GDP.


Administrative divisions

Since 1999 Bulgaria consists of 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast), after having been subdivided into 9 provinces since 1987. All are named after the provincial capital, with the national capital itself forming a separate province:

  • Blagoevgrad
  • Burgas
  • Dobrich
  • Gabrovo
  • Haskovo
  • Kardzhali
  • Kyustendil
  • Lovech
  • Montana
  • Pazardzhik
  • Pernik
  • Pleven
  • Plovdiv
  • Razgrad
  • Ruse
  • Shumen
  • Silistra
  • Sliven
  • Smolyan
  • Sofia City
  • Sofia Province
  • Stara Zagora
  • Targovishte
  • Varna
  • Veliko Tarnovo
  • Vidin
  • Vratsa
  • Yambol


Map of Bulgaria
Map of Bulgaria
The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria
The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria
The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast at Sinemorets
The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast at Sinemorets

Bulgaria comprises portions of the classical regions of Thrace, Moesia, and Macedonia. The southwest of the country is mountainous with two alpine ranges - Rila and Pirin and further east are the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains. Rila mountain includes the highest peak of the Balkan Peninsula, peak Musala at 2,925 meters (9,596 ft); the long range of the Balkan mountains runs west-east through the middle of the country, north of the famous Rose Valley. Hilly country and plains are found in the southeast, along the Black Sea coast in the east, and along Bulgaria's main river, the Danube in the north. Other major rivers include the Struma and the Maritsa river in the south.

The Bulgarian climate is temperate, with cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers, and Mediterranean along the Black Sea coast

The Balkan peninsula derives its name from the Balkan or Stara Planina mountain range which runs through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.

The largest cities in the country are Sofia (1,246,791), Plovdiv (376,918), Varna (345,522), Burgas (259,985), Rousse (177,538), Stara Zagora (163,193), Pleven (121,700), Dobrich (115,861), Sliven (100,300).

Bulgaria has a scientific base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

See also:



Bulgaria's economy contracted dramatically after 1989 with the loss of the market of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) member states, to which the Bulgarian economy had been closely tied. The standard of living fell by about 40%, but it regained pre-1990 levels in June 2004. In addition, UN sanctions against Yugoslavia and Iraq took a heavy toll on the Bulgarian economy. The first signs of recovery emerged in 1994 when the GDP grew and inflation fell. During 1996, however, the economy collapsed due to lack of international economic support and an unstable banking system. Since 1997 the country has been on the path to recovery, with GDP growing at a 4 – 5% rate, increasing FDI, macroeconomic stability and EU membership.

Mall of Sofia with the only IMAX cinema in the Balkans
Mall of Sofia with the only IMAX cinema in the Balkans
Tourism has always been a big industry in the country, and still booming: one of the 130 hotels in Slanchev Bryag, one of the most popular resorts in Eastern Europe
Tourism has always been a big industry in the country, and still booming: one of the 130 hotels in Slanchev Bryag, one of the most popular resorts in Eastern Europe

The former government, elected in 2001, pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy objectives adopted by its predecessor in 1997, i.e., retaining the Currency Board, practising sound financial policies, accelerating privatisation, and pursuing structural reforms. Economic forecasts for 2005 and 2006 predict continued growth in the Bulgarian economy. The annual year-on-year GDP growth for 2005 and 2006 is expected to total 5.3% and 6.0%, respectively. Industrial output for 2005 is forecast to rise by 11.9% year-on-year, and for 2006 — by 15.2% year-on-year. Unemployment for 2005 is projected at 11.5% and for 2006 — at about 9%. As of 2006 the GDP structure is: agriculture- 8.0%; industry-26,1%; services- 65.9%.

Agricultural output has decreased since 1989 but production is growing in the recent years. Farming is more important than stock-breeding. The prevalence of mechanisation is higher than most other Eastern European countries but there is lack of modern equipment. There are more than 150,000 tractors, 10,000 combines, alongside aeroplanes and other equipment. Production of the most important crops is: wheat-4,120,000 t; sunflower- 1,080,000 t; maize- 2,120,000 t; grapes- 500,000 t; tobacco- 79,000 t; tomatoes- 530,000 t; barley- 1,180,000 t; potatoes- 650,000 t; peppers- 213,000 t; cucumbers- 110,000 t; cherries- 75,000 ; watermelons- 420,000 t; cabbage- 340,000 t; apples- 150,000 t; plums-150,000 t; strawberries- 52,000 t.

Industry is of great importance for the economy. Although Bulgaria is not very rich in reserves of coal, oil, and gas, the country is a major producer of electricity and the most important exporter in the whole region due to the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant with a total capacity of 3,760 MW. A second plant, the Belene Nuclear Power Plant with a capacity of 2,000 MW is under construction. There is a $1,400,000,000 project for construction of an additional 670 MW for the 500 MW Maritza Iztok 1 TPP (see Energy in Bulgaria).

The production of steel and pig iron is concentrated in Kremikovtsi and Pernik. There is also a third metallurgical base in Debelt. In production of steel and steel products per capita the country is first in the Balkans.

Ferrous metallurgy is very important. The largest refineries for lead and zinc are in Plovdiv (the biggest refinery between Italy and the Ural mountains), Kurdzhali and Novi Iskar; for copper in Pirdop and Eliseina; for aluminium in Shumen. In production of many metals per capita, Bulgaria is first in South Eastern Europe and among the first in Europe and the world.

About 14% of the total industrial production is related to machine building and 24% of the people are employed in this field. Its importance decreased since 1989 but is growing again now. Electronics and electrical equipment production is very well developed. The largest centres are Sofia, Plovdiv and the area around, Botevgrad, Stara Zagora, Varna and many others. These plants produce household appliances, computers, CDs, telephones, medical and scientific equipment. Many of the factories producing transportation equipment do not work with full capacity. There are plants producing trains (Burgas, Dryanovo), trams (Sofia), trolleys (Dupnitsa), buses (Botevgrad), trucks (Shumen), motocars, automotive assembly plant in Lovech. The main centre of agricultural machinery is Ruse. Shipbuilding is concentrated in Varna, Burgas and Ruse. Arms production is mainly developed in central Bulgaria (Kazanlak, Sopot, Karlovo).

The property market has been boosted recently by foreigners seeking additional homes. These buyers come from right across Europe but the largest number are British, encouraged by comparatively cheap property and because the country is more accessible through low cost air travel [2].


Science, technology and telecommunications

Bulgaria offers excellent conditions for high-tech and telecommunication industries and services with its strategic location, highly-qualified workforce, macroeconomic stability, growing domestic market and good education. This is why some multinational companies choose Bulgaria to build their regional offices and headquarters even before the joining to the EU. The most notable of these is Hewlett-Packard, which built its Global Service Centre for Europe, the Near East and Africa in the capital.

Telecommunications is perhaps the fastest growing industry in the country. There are currently three mobile operators:Globul, Mtel and Vivatel which provide almost 100% coverage. They have hundreds of service centres throughout the country which are constantly growing and improving. More than 5,500,000 Bulgarians own mobile cellular phones. Every town and many villages have a fast Internet connection. There are around 100,000 Internet hosts.

The country has good traditions and perfect opportunities in science. The inventor of the earliest known electronic computer John Atanasoff is of Bulgarian descent. Bulgaria used to be a major supplier of scientific and research instruments for the Soviet space programmes, it was one of the first states to develop serial computer production, it has great experience in pharmaceutical research and development. The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading institution with most of the researchers working for its numerous branches.

There are two major astronomic observatories: the Rozhen Observatory, which is the biggest in South Eastern Europe and the Belogradchik Observatory with three telescopes.



Bulgaria's national railroad operator is currently modernizing its fleet
Bulgaria's national railroad operator is currently modernizing its fleet

Bulgaria occupies a unique and strategically important geographic location. Since ancient times, the country has been a major crossroad between Europe, Asia and Africa. Five of the ten Transeuropean corridors run through its territory.

The total length of the roads is 102,016 km of which 93,855 km are paved. There are 416 km of motorways. There are several motorways which are planned, under construction and partially built: Trakiya motorway, Hemus motorway, Cherno More motorway, Struma motorway, Maritza motorway and Lyulin motorway. There other motorways which are planned but their final track is yet to be decided. They include a link between the capital Sofia and Vidin, a link between the Struma and Trakiya motorways south of the Rila mountain, a link between Rousse and Veliko Tarnovo, and the Sofia ringroad. Many roads have been recently reconstructed.

The length of the railways is 6,500 km of which more than 60% are electrified. There is a €360,000,000 project for the modernization and electrification of the Plovdiv-Kapitan Andreevo railway.

Air transportation is relatively well developed. There are four international airports at Sofia, Burgas, Varna and Plovdiv. Massive investment is planned for the first three. There are important domestic airports in Vidin, Pleven, Gorna Oryahovitsa, Rousse, Silistra, Targovishte, Stara Zagora, Kardzhali, Haskovo and Sliven. After the fall of communism in 1989 most of them are not used as the importance of domestic flights declined. There are many military airports and agricultural airfields in the country. 128 of the 213 airports in Bulgaria are paved.

The ports of Varna and Burgas are by far the most important and have the largest turnover. Other than Burgas, Sozopol, Nesebar and Pomorie are big fishing ports. The largest Danube ports are Rousse and Lom which serves the capital.

There is well organised public transport in the cities and in many smaller towns. There are buses, trolleys (in about 20 cities) and trams (in Sofia). The Sofia Metro in the capital is going to have 3 lines with total length of about 48 km and 52 stations. Only a section of one of these is currently completed.



The Rila Monastery is one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and historical monuments
The Rila Monastery is one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and historical monuments

According to the 2001 census[3], Bulgaria's population is mainly ethnic Bulgarian (83.9%), with two sizable minorities, Turks (9.4%) and Roma (4.7%). Of the remaining 2.0%, 0.9% are distributed among some forty smaller minorities, the most numerous of which are the Russians, Armenians, Vlachs, Jews, Crimean Tatars and Karakachans. The people who have not declared their ethnicity are 1.1% of the total population.

Bulgarian is the mother-tongue of 84.8% of the population; it is a member of the Slavic languages. Bulgarian is the only official language, but other languages such as Turkish and Romany, are spoken corresponding closely to ethnic breakdown.

Most Bulgarians (82.6%) are, at least nominally, members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, the national Eastern Orthodox church. Other religious denominations include Islam (12.2%), various Protestant denominations (0.8%), Roman Catholicism (0.5%), with other denominations, atheists and undeclared numbering ca. 4.1%.

Bulgaria has had the slowest population growth of any country in the world since 1950, with the exception of Saint Kitts and Nevis (due to their high emigration rate). In fact, population growth has been negative since the early 1990s [3], due to the economic collapse and high emigration rate. Now Bulgaria suffers a heavy demographic crisis. In 1988 the population of Bulgaria was 8,859,000 people (after a census), and a 2001-census shows a 7,950,000 population.



The Roman theatre in Plovdiv
The Roman theatre in Plovdiv
Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre, Varna
Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre, Varna

A country often described to lie at the crossroads linking the East and West, Bulgaria was the centre of Slavic Europe during much of the Middle Ages, exerting considerable literary and cultural influence over the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world by means of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools. Bulgaria is also the birthplace of the Cyrillic alphabet, the second most widely used alphabet in the world, which was developed in these two schools in the 10th century. Bulgaria is well-known for its rich folklore, distinctive traditional music, rituals and tales, but the country's contribution to humanity also continued in the 19th and 20th century, when individuals such as John Atanasoff - born in USA with Bulgarian origin, regarded as the father of the digital computer, a number of noted opera singers (Nicolai Ghiaurov, Boris Christoff, Raina Kabaivanska, Ghena Dimitrova) and successful artists (Christo Javacheff, Pascin, Vladimir Dimitrov) popularized the culture of Bulgaria abroad.

A number of ancient civilizations, most notably the Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Slavs and Bulgars, have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria. The country has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Of these, two are Thracian tombs (one in Sveshtari and one in Kazanlak), three are monuments of medieval Bulgarian culture (the Boyana Church, the Rila Monastery and the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo), while the Pirin National Park and the Srebarna Nature Reserve represent the country's natural beauty, and the ancient city of Nesebar is a unique combination of European cultural interaction, as well as, historically, one of the most important centres of naval trade in the Black Sea. In addition, the Varna Necropolis, a 3200-3000 BC burial site, contains what are believed to be the oldest examples of worked gold in the world.



In winter, Borovets, Bansko and Pamporovo are ski resorts. There are summer resorts on the Black Sea at Sozopol, Nessebur, Golden Sands, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Albena, St. St. Constantine & Helena and many others. Spa resorts such as Bankya, Hisarya, Sandanski, Velingrad, Varshets and many others are popular all over the year. Bulgaria is becoming an attractive destination because of the quality of the resorts and prices below those found in Western Europe.

Bulgaria has enjoyed a substantial growth in income from international tourism over the past decade. Beach resorts are popular with tourists from Germany, Russia, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. The ski resorts are a favourite destination for British tourists.



The Vasil Levski National Stadium
The Vasil Levski National Stadium

Football is by far the most popular sport in the country. Many Bulgarian fans follow closely the top Bulgarian league, the Bulgarian A Professional Football Group, as well as the leagues of other European countries, such as those of Spain, England, Italy and Germany. The greatest success of the Bulgaria national football team is the fourth place at the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the USA. Arguably the internationally best known Bulgarian footballer is Hristo Stoichkov, who was widely regarded as one of the world's best football player at the peak of his career between 1992 and 1995, while playing for FC Barcelona. PFC CSKA Sofia (30 times champion of Bulgaria) and PFC Levski Sofia are the most successful Bulgarian football clubs. Litex (Lovech) is the best provincial team in the country. PFC Levski Sofia is the first Bulgarian team played in the modern Champions League (after 1989) in season 2006/2007.

Besides football, Bulgaria boasts great achievements in other sport areas. Maria Gigova and Maria Petrova each have a record of three world titles in rhythmic gymnastics. Some other famous gymnasts include Simona Peycheva, Neshka Robeva (a highly successful coach as well) and Jordan Jovtchev. Bulgarians are also dominant in weightlifting, with around 1,000 gold medals in different competitions, and wrestling; Stefan Botev, Nickolai Peshalov, Demir Demirev and Yoto Yotov are among the most distinguished weightlifters and Serafim Barzakov, Armen Nazarian and Sergey Moreyko are world-class wrestlers. Bulgarians are also proud with the high-jump athlete Stefka Kostadinova, who still holds the women's high-jump record.

Volleyball recently marked big resurgence. The Bulgaria national volleyball team is one of the strongest teams in Europe, currently ranked fifth in the FIVB ranklist. At the 2006 Volleyball World Championship, they won the bronze medal. Chess is also very popular and one of the best chess-masters in the world, Veselin Topalov, is Bulgarian. At the end of 2005 both men`s and woman`s world chess champions were from Bulgaria as well as the junior world champion.

At the 1998 Winter Olympics, Ekaterina Dafovska won the Olympic title from 15 km competition in biathlon and Irina Nikulchina took a bronze medal at the same Olympic Games. Another pride for the Bulgarian nation in winter sports is Evgenia Radanova, who won bronze and silver medals in the following two Olympic Games. Albena Denkova and Maxim Staviski are another example of Bulgarian champions on the ice — this time speaking of ice dancing and figure skating. Holding the world champions' title for 2005–2006, the couple won the Grand Prix series in St. Petersburg at the beginning of December 2006.



The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia is one of the biggest Orthodox cathedrals in Europe
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia is one of the biggest Orthodox cathedrals in Europe
Church of Christ Pantocrator, Nesebar
Church of Christ Pantocrator, Nesebar

Most citizens of Bulgaria are associated — at least nominally — to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. It was founded in 870 AD under the Patriarchate of Constantinople from which it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological texts. It has been autocephalous since 927. The Bulgarian Patriarchate was established in Sofia after the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate, in 1870. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and is considered an inseparable element of Bulgarian national consciousness. The church became subordinate within the Greek Orthodox Church, twice during the periods of Byzantine (1018 – 1185) and Ottoman (1396 – 1878) domination but has been revived every time as a symbol of Bulgarian statehood without breaking away from the Orthodox dogma. In 2001, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church had 6,552,000 members in Bulgaria (82.6% of the population). However, many people raised during the 45 years of communist rule are not religious, even though they may formally be members of the church.

Despite the dominant position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church in Bulgarian cultural life, a number of Bulgarian citizens belong to other religious denominations, most notably Islam, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Islam came to Bulgaria at the end of the 14th century after the conquest of the country by the Ottomans. It gradually gained ground throughout the 15th and 16th centuries by the introduction of Turkish colonists and the conversion of native Bulgarians. At the time of Liberation (1878) no less than 40% of the population was Muslim, but emigration was a key factor in reducing this percentage. In 2001, there were 967,000 Muslims in Bulgaria, accounting for 12.2% of the total population.

In the 16th and the 17th century missionaries from Rome converted Bulgarian Paulicians in the districts of Plovdiv and Svishtov to Roman Catholicism. Today, their descendants form the bulk of Bulgarian Catholics whose number stands at 44,000 in 2001. Protestantism was introduced in Bulgaria by missionaries from the United States in 1857. Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. In 2001, there were some 42,000 Protestants in Bulgaria.

According to the most recent Eurostat "Eurobarometer" poll, in 2005,[4] only 40% of Bulgarian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 40% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", 13% that "they do not believe there is a God, spirit, nor life force", and 6% did not answer.

See also: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Islam in Bulgaria, Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria, and Protestantism in Bulgaria

National and natural parks

View of the Pirin National park
View of the Pirin National park

Bulgaria has 3 national parks, 10 natural parks, 90 reserves, 429 reservation areas and 350 natural landmarks. The best known and most popular of these are listed below. In the European Union, Bulgaria is at second place (after Spain) by the number of the UNESCO Biosphere reserves, 16. The first nature reserve in the country was Silkosia in the Strandzha mountain, declared in 1931; followed by Parangalitsa, Rila in 1933.





  1. Bulgaria’s National Flag. Bulgarian Government (03 October 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  2. Bulgaria Illustrated History, Bojidar Dimitrov, PhD., Author, BORIANA Publishing House 2002
  3. National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, retrieved July 31, 2006
  4. Social values, science and technology (pdf). Eurobarometer. European Commission (June 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.


High Resolution Images from Bulgaria


See also

Topics related to Bulgaria

First Bulgarian Empire, Second Bulgarian Empire, Early Ottoman Bulgaria, National awakening, Independent Bulgaria, Communist Bulgaria, Bulgaria since 1989

Geography and Provinces

Rhodope Mountains, Balkan Peninsula, Rila, Pirin, Cities, Rivers, Reservoirs and dams, Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia Province, Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Politics and Economy

President of Bulgaria, Prime Minister of Bulgaria, National Assembly, Supreme Administrative Court, Supreme Court of Appeal, Bulgarian political parties, European Union, Lev, Transportation, Tourism

Demographics and Culture

Bulgarians, Bulgarian language, Slavic languages, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Customs, Cuisine, Music, Sports

Categories Buildings and structures, Communications, Conservation, Bulgaria stubs, Economy, People, Culture, Geography, Government, Science and technology, Law, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgaria in Antarctica

Further reading


External links




English-language Bulgarian media



      Provinces of Bulgaria
Coat of arms of Bulgaria

Blagoevgrad · Burgas · Dobrich · Gabrovo · Haskovo · Kardzhali · Kyustendil
Lovech · Montana · Pazardzhik · Pernik · Pleven · Plovdiv · Razgrad
Ruse · Shumen · Silistra · Sliven · Smolyan · Sofia City · Sofia Province
Stara Zagora · Targovishte · Varna · Veliko Tarnovo · Vidin · Vratsa · Yambol

Flag of Bulgaria

EU Flag Antarctic Nations
Argentina • Australia • Belgium • Brazil • Bulgaria • Chile • China • Ecuador • Finland • France • Germany • India • Italy • Japan • Netherlands • New Zealand • Norway • Peru • Poland • Russian Federation • South Africa • South Korea • Spain • Sweden • Ukraine • United Kingdom • United States • Uruguay

Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Albania | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bulgaria | Georgia | Greece | Moldova | Romania | Russia | Serbia and Montenegro | Turkey | Ukraine


Retrieved from "http://localhost../../art/d/f.html"

This text comes from Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. For a complete list of contributors for a given article, visit the corresponding entry on the English Wikipedia and click on "History" . For more details about the license of an image, visit the corresponding entry on the English Wikipedia and click on the picture.