BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Type Broadcast radio and
television
Country Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom
Availability National; international (via BBC Worldwide, BBC World Service and bbc.co.uk)
Founder John Reith
Slogan "This is what we do" (Used in various promotional trails for the Corporation)
Motto "Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation"
Key people Chitra Bharucha, Acting Chairwoman
Mark Thompson, Director-General
Launch date 1922 (radio)
1927 (incorporation)
1932 (television)
Past names British Broadcasting Company Ltd. (1922-1927)
Website www.bbc.co.uk

The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion.[1]

Founded in 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd, it was subsequently incorporated and made a state-owned but independent corporation in 1927. The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting on television, radio, and the Internet. The stated mission of the BBC is "to inform, educate and entertain",[2] and the motto of the BBC is Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation.

The BBC is a quasi-autonomous Public Corporation operating as a public service broadcaster. The Corporation is run by the BBC Trust; however, the BBC is, per its charter, to be "free from both political and commercial influence and answers only to its viewers and listeners".[3]

Its domestic programming and broadcasts are primarily funded by levying television licence fees (under the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949), although money is also raised through commercial activities such as sale of merchandise and programming. The BBC World Service, however, is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In order to justify the licence fee the BBC is expected to produce a number of high-rating shows in addition to programmes that commercial broadcasters would not normally broadcast.[3]

Quite often domestic audiences have affectionately referred to the BBC as the Beeb, (coined by Kenny Everett[citation needed]) or as Auntie; the latter said to originate in the somewhat old fashioned Auntie knows best[4] attitude dating back to the early days when John Reith was in charge. Occasionally the terms are used together as Auntie Beeb.

Contents

[edit]

History

The original British Broadcasting Company was founded in 1922 by a group of telecommunications companies (including subsidiaries of General Electric and AT&T) to broadcast experimental radio services. The first transmission was on 14 November of that year, from station 2LO, located at Marconi House, London.[5]

The Company, with John Reith as general manager, became the British Broadcasting Corporation in 1927 when it was granted a Royal Charter of incorporation and ceased to be privately owned. It started experimental television broadcasting in 1932 using an entirely mechanical 30 line system developed by John Logie Baird. It became a regular service (known as the BBC Television Service) in 1936 alternating between a Baird mechanical 240 line system and the all electronic 405 line EMI system. The superiority of the electronic system saw the mechanical system dropped later that year. Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September, 1939 to 7 June, 1946 during the Second World War. A widely reported urban myth is that, upon resumption of service, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted..." In fact, the first person to appear when transmission resumed was Jasmine Bligh and the words said were "Good afternoon, everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh...?"[6]

The European Broadcasting Union was formed on 12 February, 1950, in Torquay with the BBC among the 23 founding broadcasting organisations.

Competition to the BBC was introduced in 1955 with the commercially and independently operated ITV. As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of 1962, in which the BBC was lauded and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming,[7] the BBC was awarded a second TV channel, BBC2, in 1964, renaming the existing channel BBC1. BBC2 used the higher resolution 625 line standard which had been standardised across Europe. BBC2 was broadcast in colour from 1 July, 1967, and was joined by BBC 1 and ITV on 15 November, 1969. The 405 line transmissions were continued for compatibility with older television receivers for some years.

In 1974 the BBC's teletext service, Ceefax, was introduced but was not finally transmitted in-vision as such until April 1980.[citation needed] In 1978 the BBC went on strike just before the Christmas of that year, thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one.[citation needed]

Since the deregulation of the UK television and radio market in the 1980s, the BBC has faced increased competition from the commercial sector (and from the advertiser-funded public service broadcaster Channel 4), especially on satellite television, cable television, and digital television services.[citation needed]

The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. In the early days it carried out essential research into acoustics and programme level and noise measurement.[citation needed]

The 2004 Hutton Inquiry, and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality. This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General, Greg Dyke. In January 2007, the BBC released minutes of the Board meeting which led to Greg Dyke's resignation. Many commentators have considered the discussions documented in the minutes to have made Dyke's ability to remain in position untenable and tantamount to a dismissal.[citation needed]

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Corporation

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Royal Charter

The BBC is a quasi-autonomous Public Corporation operating as a public service broadcaster incorporated under a Royal Charter reviewed on a 10 yearly basis. Until 2007 The Corporation was run by a board of governors appointed by The Queen or King on the advice of the government for a term of four years but on 1 January 2007 the Board of Governors was replaced with the BBC Trust. The BBC is required by its charter to be free from both political and commercial influence and to answer only to its viewers and listeners.[3]

The most recent Charter came into effect on 1 January, 2007.[3] It has created a number of important changes to the Corporation's management and purpose:

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Corporate structure

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Management

The BBC is a nominally autonomous corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen by the BBC Trust, formerly the Board of Governors. General management of the organisation is in the hands of a Director-General, who is appointed by the Trust.

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BBC Trust

The BBC Trust came into effect on 1 January 2007, replacing the Board of Governors.

The BBC Trust works on behalf of licence fee payers: it ensures the BBC provides high quality output and good value for all UK citizens and it protects the independence of the BBC. — BBC Trust [8]

The Trust sets the overall strategic direction for the corporation and assess the performance of the BBC Executive Board. Tessa Jowell, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, announced the board members in October 2006 as: Michael Grade, Dermot Gleeson, Jeremy Peat and Richard Tait; plus eight new members: [9]

Michael Grade, then Chairman of the Governors, was to become Chairman of the Trust at the time of the announcement, but due to his move to ITV, Chitra Bharucha became the Acting Chair. A new appointment to the Trust will be made by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

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Executive Board

The Executive Board oversees the effective delivery of the corporation's objectives and obligations within a framework set by the BBC Trust, and is headed by the Director-General, Mark Thompson. In December 2006, Thompson announced the final appointments to the new Executive Board, consisting of ten directors from the different operations of the group, and five non-executive directors, appointed to provide independent and professional advice to the Executive Board. The members are: [11]

Non-executive directors:

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Governors

The Board of Governors regulated the group from incorporation in 1927 until 31 December 2006, when the Board was replaced by the BBC Trust. The governors as of the dissolution of the Board were:

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Finance

The BBC has the largest budget of any UK broadcaster with an operating expenditure of £4 billion in 2005[12] compared to £3.2 billion for British Sky Broadcasting,[13] £1.7 billion for ITV[14] and £79 million (in 2006) for GCap Media (the largest commercial radio broadcaster).[15]

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Revenue

See also: Television licence and Television licensing in the United Kingdom

The principal means of funding the BBC is through the television licence, costing around £11 a month if paid by direct debit (as of July 2006). Such a licence is required to operate a broadcast television receiver within the UK. The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law. The revenue is collected privately and is paid into the central government Consolidated fund, a process defined in the Communications Act 2003. Funds are then allocated by the DCMS and Treasury and approved by Parliament via the Appropriation Act(s). Additional revenues are paid by the Department for Work and Pensions to compensate for subsidised licences for over-75's. As the state controls BBC's funding, it is sometimes referred as a "state" broadcaster.

Income from commercial enterprises and from overseas sales of its catalogue of programmes has substantially increased over recent years.[16] with BBC Worldwide contributing some £145million in cash to the BBC's core public service business.

According to the BBC's 2005-2006 Annual Report,[17] its income can be broken down as follows:

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Expenditure

The BBC gives two forms of expenditure statement for the financial year 2005-2006.

The amount of each licence fee spent monthly[18] breaks down as follows:

Department Monthly cost (GBP)
BBC ONE £3.52
BBC TWO £1.52
Transmission and collection costs £1.08
Nations and English Regions television £1.04
BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, 4 and Five Live £1.02
Digital television channels £1.00
Local and Nations' radio 68p
bbc.co.uk 36p
BBC jam 14p
Digital radio stations 10p
Interactive TV (BBCi) 8p
Total £10.54

The total broadcasting spend for 2005-2006[19] is given as:

Department Total cost (£million)
Television 1443
Radio 218
bbc.co.uk 72
BBC jam 36
Interactive TV (BBCi) 18
Local radio and regional television 370
Programme related spend 338
Overheads and Digital UK 315
Restructuring 107
Transmission and collection costs 320
Total 3237
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Headquarters and regional offices

BBCNI HQ on Bedford Street, Belfast.
BBCNI HQ on Bedford Street, Belfast.

Broadcasting House in Portland Place, London is the official headquarters of the BBC. It is home to the national radio networks BBC Radio 2, 3, 4, 6 Music, and BBC 7. On the front of the building are statues of Prospero and Ariel (from Shakespeare's The Tempest) sculpted by Eric Gill.

Renovation of Broadcasting House began in 2002 and is scheduled for completion in 2010. As part of a major reorganisation of BBC property, Broadcasting House is to become home to BBC News (both television and radio), national radio, and the BBC World Service. The major part of this plan involves the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the building and construction of a new building[20] beside the existing structure. During the rebuilding process many of the BBC Radio networks have been relocated to other buildings in the vicinity of Portland Place.

In 2007/2008 BBC News is expected to relocate from the News Centre at BBC Television Centre to the refurbished Broadcasting House in what is being described as "one of the world's largest live broadcast centres".[21]

By far the largest concentration of BBC staff in the UK exists in White City. Well known buildings in this area include the BBC Television Centre, White City, Media Centre, Broadcast Centre and Centre House.

As well as the various BBC buildings in London, there are major BBC production centres located in Cardiff, Belfast, Glasgow, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, Southampton and Newcastle upon Tyne. Some of these local centres (for example Belfast) are also known as "Broadcasting House" (see Broadcasting House (disambiguation)). There are also many smaller local and regional studios scattered throughout the UK.

In 2011 the BBC is planning to move several departments of the BBC North. The leading candidate is Salford Quays in Greater Manchester. [22] This will mark a major decentralisation of the corporation's operations from London.

[edit]

Services

Weekly reach of all the BBC's services in the UK
Weekly reach of all the BBC's services in the UK[23]
Weekly reach of the BBC's five national analogue radio stations
Weekly reach of the BBC's five national analogue radio stations[23]
Weekly reach of the BBC's domestic television services
Weekly reach of the BBC's domestic television services[23]
BBC Television Centre in West London (White City).
BBC Television Centre in West London (White City).
[edit]

News

BBC News is the largest broadcast news gathering operation in the world,[24] providing services to BBC domestic radio as well as television networks such as BBC News 24, BBC Parliament and BBC World, as well as BBCi, Ceefax and BBC News Online. New BBC News services that are also proving popular are mobile services to mobile phones and PDAs. Desktop news alerts, e-mail alerts, and digital TV alerts are also available.

Ratings figures suggest that during major crises such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States, the 7 July 2005 London bombings or a Royal Funeral, the UK audience overwhelmingly turns to the BBC's coverage as opposed to its commercial rivals [25].

On 7 July 2005, the day that there were a series of coordinated bomb blasts on London's public transport system, the bbc.co.uk website recorded an all time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at 12:00 on 7 July. BBC News received some 1 billion total hits on the day of the event (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000 page requests per second for the BBC News website. The previous day's announcement of the 2012 Olympics being awarded to London caused a peak of around 5 Gb/s. The previous all time high at bbc.co.uk was caused by the announcement of the Michael Jackson verdict, which used 7.2 Gb/s. [26]

[edit]

Radio

Further information: BBC Radio, BBC Local Radio

The BBC has five major national stations, Radio 1 ("the best in new music"), Radio 2 (the UK's most listened to radio station, with 12.9 million weekly listeners[27]), Radio 3 (specialist-interest music such as classical, world, arts, drama and jazz), Radio 4 (current affairs, drama and comedy), and Radio 5 Live (24 hour news, sports and talk).

In recent years some further national stations have been introduced on Digital audio broadcasting including Five Live Sports Extra (a companion to Five Live for additional events coverage), 1Xtra (for black, urban and gospel music), 6 Music (less mainstream genres of music), BBC 7 (Comedy, Drama & Kids shows) and BBC Asian Network (British South Asian talk, music and news in English and in many South Asian languages), a station which had evolved from BBC Local Radio origins in the 1970s and still is broadcast on Medium Wave frequencies in some parts of England. In addition the BBC World Service is now also broadcast nationally in the UK on DAB.

There is also a network of local stations with a mixture of talk, news and music in England and the Channel Islands as well as national stations of BBC Radio Wales, BBC Radio Cymru (in Welsh), BBC Radio Scotland, BBC Radio nan Gaidheal (in Scots Gaelic), BBC Radio Ulster, and BBC Radio Foyle.

For a world-wide audience, the BBC produces the Foreign Office funded BBC World Service, which is broadcast worldwide on shortwave radio, and on DAB Digital Radio in the UK. The World Service is a major source of news and information programming and can be received in 150 capital cities worldwide, with a weekly audience estimate of 163 million listeners worldwide. The Service currently broadcasts in 33 languages and dialects (including English), though not all languages are broadcast in all areas. [28]

In 2005, the BBC announced that it would substantially reduce its radio broadcasting in Eastern European languages and divert resources instead to a new Arabic language satellite TV broadcasting station (including radio and online content) in the Middle East to be launched in 2007.[29]

Since 1943, the BBC has also provided radio programming to the British Forces Broadcasting Service, which broadcasts in countries where British troops are stationed.

All of the national BBC radio stations, as well as the BBC World Service, are available over the Internet in the RealAudio streaming format. In April 2005 the BBC began trials offering a limited number of radio programmes as podcasts.[30]

Historically, the BBC was the only radio broadcaster in the UK until 1967 when University Radio York (URY), then under the name Radio York, was launched as the first (and now oldest) legal independent radio station in the country.

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Television

BBC One and BBC Two are the BBC's flagship television channels. The BBC is also promoting the new channels BBC Three and BBC Four, which are only available via digital television equipment (now in widespread use in the UK, with analogue transmission expected to be phased out from 2008). The BBC also runs BBC News 24, BBC Parliament, and two children's channels, CBBC and CBeebies, on digital.

BBC One is a regionalised TV service which provides opt-outs throughout the day for local news and other local programming. In the Republic of Ireland the Northern Ireland regionalised BBC One & BBC Two are available via analogue transmissions deflecting signals from the North and also carried out on Sky Digital, NTL Ireland and Chorus.

From June 9, 2006 the BBC began a 6-12 month trial of High-definition television broadcasts under the name BBC HD. The corporation has been producing programmes in the format for many years, and states that it hopes to produce 100% of new programmes in HDTV by 2010.[31]

Since 1975, the BBC has also provided its TV programmes to the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS), allowing members of HM Forces serving all over the world to watch and listen to their favourite programmes from home on two dedicated TV channels.

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Internet

The bbc.co.uk [1] website, formerly known as BBCi and before that BBC Online, includes a comprehensive, advertisement-free news website and archive. The BBC claims the site to be "Europe's most popular content-based site" [32] and boasts that 13.2 million people in the UK visit the site's more than 2 million pages.[33] According to Alexa's TrafficRank system, in January 2007 bbc.co.uk was the 15th most popular English Language website in the world,[34] and the 29th most popular overall. [35]

The website allows the BBC to produce sections which complement the various programmes on television and radio, and it is common for viewers and listeners to be told website addresses for the bbc.co.uk sections relating to that programme. The site also allows users to listen to most Radio output live and for seven days after broadcast using its RealPlayer-based "Radio Player"; some TV content is also distributed in RealVideo format. A new system known as IPlayer is under development, which uses peer-to-peer and DRM technology to deliver both radio and TV content for offline use for up to 7 days. Also, through participation in the Creative Archive Licence group, bbc.co.uk allowed legal downloads of selected archive material via the internet.[36]

In recent years some major on-line companies and politicians have complained that the bbc.co.uk website receives too much funding from the television licence, meaning that other websites are unable to compete with the vast amount of advertising-free on-line content available on bbc.co.uk.[37] Some have proposed that the amount of licence fee money spent on bbc.co.uk should be reduced — either being replaced with funding from advertisements or subscriptions, or a reduction in the amount of content available on the site.[38] In response to this the BBC carried out an investigation, and has now set in motion a plan to change the way it provides its online services. bbc.co.uk will now attempt to fill in gaps in the market, but will guide users to other websites for currently existing market provision. (For example, instead of providing local events information and timetables, users will be guided to outside websites already providing that information.) Part of this plan included the BBC closing some of its websites, and rediverting money to redevelop other parts.[39] More recent information on web plans at [2]

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Interactive television

BBCi is the brand name for the BBC's interactive digital television services, which are available through Freeview (digital terrestrial), as well as Sky Digital (satellite), NTL and Telewest (cable). Unlike Ceefax, BBCi is able to display full-colour graphics, photographs, and video, as well as programmes. Recent examples include the interactive sports coverage for football and rugby football matches, BBC Soundbites which starred young actress Jennifer Lynn and an interactive national IQ test, Test the Nation. All of the BBC's digital television stations, (and radio stations on Freeview), allow access to the BBCi service.

BBCi provides viewers with over 100 interactive TV programmes every year, as well as the 24/7 service.[40] It also offers video news and weather.

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Commercial services

BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the BBC responsible for the commercial exploitation of BBC programmes and other properties, including a number of television stations throughout the world. The cable and satellite stations BBC Prime (in Europe, Africa the Middle East, and Asia), BBC America, BBC Canada (alongside BBC Kids), broadcast popular BBC programmes to people outside the UK, as does UK.TV (co-run with Foxtel and Fremantle Media) in Australasia. A similar service, BBC Japan, ceased broadcasts in April 2006 after its Japanese distributor folded.[41] BBC Worldwide also runs a 24-hour news channel, BBC World and co-runs, with Flextech, the UKTV network of stations in the UK, producers of amongst others UKTV Gold. In addition, BBC television news appears nightly on many Public Broadcasting Service stations in the United States, as do reruns of BBC programmes such as EastEnders, and in New Zealand on TV One.

Many BBC programmes (especially documentaries) are sold via BBC Worldwide to foreign television stations, and comedy, documentaries and historical drama productions are popular on the international DVD market.[42]

BBC Worldwide also maintains the publishing arm of the BBC and it is the third-largest publisher of consumer magazines in the United Kingdom.[43] BBC Magazines, formerly known as BBC Publications, publishes the Radio Times and a number of magazines that support BBC programming such as BBC Top Gear, BBC Good Food, BBC Sky at Night, BBC History, BBC Wildlife and BBC Music. In addition, between 2004 and 2006 BBC Worldwide owned the independent magazine publisher Origin Publishing.[44]

BBC Worldwide also licences and directly sells DVD and audio recordings of popular programmes to the public.

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Miscellaneous

The BBC and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office jointly run BBC Monitoring, which monitors radio, television, the press and the internet worldwide.

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Unions

Union membership is a private matter between staff and their chosen union: staff are not automatically covered by a union, but since the BBC is a large employer (in the media sector), membership numbers are considerable.[citation needed]

Staff at the BBC are normally represented by BECTU, along with journalistic staff by the NUJ and electrical staff by Amicus. Union membership is optional, and paid for by staff members and not by the BBC.

[edit]

Criticism

Historically, the BBC has been subject to continuing criticism for various policies or perceived biases since its inception[45] and more recently over its coverage of events in the Middle East[46] and the controversy over what it described as the "sexing up" of the case for war in Iraq by the government, for which the BBC was heavily criticised by the Hutton Inquiry[47], although the latter charge was much disputed by the British press.[48]

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See also

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References

  1. Pharr, Susan, Krauss, Ellis (eds.) (1996). Media and Politics in Japan. University of Hawaii Press, p.5. ISBN 0824817613.
  2. BBC website: About the BBC - Purpose and values. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 BBC Royal Charter and Agreement. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  4. BBC Press Release: Mark Thompson celebrates the official opening of a new state-of-the art BBC building in Hull (21 October 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  5. BBC Press Office: Key BBC Dates. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
  6. Graham, Russ J. (31 October 2005). Baird: The edit that rewrote history. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  7. Committees of Enquiry: Pilkington Committee (PDF) pp. p. 4 (1 June 1962). Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  8. BBC Trust. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  9. BBC Press Release: New BBC Trust to represent the public interest (12 October 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  10. 10.0 10.1 BBC Press Release: Michael Grade resigns as BBC Chairman (28 November 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-05.
  11. BBC Press Release: BBC appoints Executive Board (14 December 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  12. BBC. Annual Report and Accounts 2004-05: Financial review (PDF) pp. p. 96. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  13. BSkyB. Annual Report and Accounts 2005 (PDF) pp. p. 40. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  14. ITV. Annual Report 2005 (PDF) pp. p. 39. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  15. GCap Media. Annual Report 2005-06 (PDF) pp. p. 63. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  16. BBC. Annual Report and Accounts 2004-2005 (PDF) pp. p. 94. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  17. BBC. Annual Report and Accounts 2005-2006 (PDF) pp. pp. 103-104. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  18. BBC. Annual Report and Accounts 2005-2006 (PDF) pp. p. 61. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  19. BBC. Annual Report and Accounts 2005-2006 (PDF) pp. pp. 106-107. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  20. BBC. New Broadcasting House. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  21. BBC. New Broadcasting House - The future. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  22. MediaCity:UK (15 June 2006). MediaCity:UK Chosen as Preferred Site for BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 BBC Press Release: Governors report progress in delivery - Notes to Editors (7 July 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  24. BBC Press Office (October 2006). Key Facts - BBC News and Current Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  25. Cozens, Claire. "BBC news ratings double", The Guardian, 8 July 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  26. BBC. Statistics on BBC Webservers 7th July 2005. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  27. RAJAR (11 May 2006). Quarterly Summary of Radio Listening - Quarter 1 2006 - National Stations (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  28. BBC World Service. Annual Review 2005-2006: A year in brief (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  29. Middle East Times (15 March 2006). BBC Arabic TV appoints former Al Jazeera employee as news editor. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  30. BBC press release: BBC to podcast up to 20 more programmes including Today and Radio 1 speech highlights (14 April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
  31. BBC Press Release: BBC to trial High Definition broadcasts in 2006 (8 November 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  32. bbc.co.uk Commissioning. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  33. bbc.co.uk Key Facts. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  34. Alexa. Top English-language Sites. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  35. Alexa. Global Top 500 Sites. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  36. BBC press release: BBC News opens its archives for the first time (3 January 2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  37. Graf, Philip. Department of Culture, Media and Sport: Independent Review of BBC Online, pp41-58 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  38. British Internet Publishers Alliance (31 May 2005). BIPA Response to Review of the BBC’s Royal Charter. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  39. "Public value key to BBC websites", BBC News Online, 8 November 2004. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  40. BBC Press Office: BBCi Key Facts. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  41. BBC Japan website. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  42. BBC Worldwide. Annual Review 2006 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  43. BBC Worldwide. Annual Review 2001. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  44. Origin Publishing. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  45. Burns, Tom; quoted in BBC Handbooks, Accounts and Annual Reports, 2+38-2001/2 Chignell, Hugh; Bournemouth University, undated. Accessed 11 November 2006.
  46. BBC NewsWatch (22 December 2006). Viewers most common complaints of 2006 (Video). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  47. Lord Hutton. Investigation into the circumstances surrounding the death of Dr. David Kelly. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
  48. "UK press mauls Hutton 'whitewash'", CNN, 29 January 2004. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
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Bibliography

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External links

BBC Television

Television Assets: BBC One | BBC Two | BBC Three | BBC Four | BBC News 24 | BBC Parliament | CBBC Channel | CBeebies | BBC One Scotland | BBC Two NI | BBC 2W | BBCi | BBC HD

International Channels: BBC America | BBC Canada | BBC Food | BBC Kids | BBC Prime | BBC Entertainment | BBC World | BBC Knowledge

Joint Ventures: Animal Planet | People+Arts | UKTV (UK and Ireland) | UK.TV (Australia and New Zealand)

Defunct channels: BBC Knowledge | BBC Choice | BBC World Service Television | BBC TV Europe | BBC Japan

Other: BBC Worldwide | BBC Scotland | BBC Wales | BBC Northern Ireland

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