Parasakthi (transl. The Goddess; pronounced [paɾ̪aːsakt̪i]) is a 1952 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed by Krishnan–Panju. The film stars Sivaji Ganesan, S. V. Sahasranamam, S. S. Rajendran, Sriranjani Jr., and Pandari Bai. It is the cinematic acting debut of Ganesan and Rajendran. The film was jointly produced by National Pictures and AVM Productions and is based on the stage play of the same name, written by Pavalar Balasundaram. Parasakthi narrates the misfortunes that befall the members of a Tamil family during World War II, and how the members face their individual fate and reunite at the end.
The screenplay for Parasakthi was written by M. Karunanidhi, who would later become the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. The film's soundtrack was composed by R. Sudarsanam. Parasakthi was released on 17 October 1952, during the festive occasion of Diwali, and faced controversies because of its portrayal of Brahmins and Hindu customs and practices in a negative light. The elitarian society including the then ruling State government even demanded the film to be banned.
Despite these protests, the film was critically acclaimed, with praise directed towards its dialogues and the actors' performances in particular. The film also become a commercial success, and had a theatrical run of over 175 days. Parasakthi acquired cult status in Tamil cinema and became a trendsetter for dialogues and acting for later Tamil films.
Chandrasekaran, Gnanasekaran and Gunasekaran are three Indian immigrant brothers from Madurai, Tamil Nadu living in Rangoon, Burma with Chandrasekaran's wife Saraswati. Their younger sister Kalyani was raised in their home town by their father Manickampillai. In 1942, during World War II, the three brothers and Saraswati plan to visit Madurai to attend the impending wedding of Kalyani to a writer named Thangappan. Due to war conditions and bombardment of Burmese ports by Japan, the shipping company offers only one ticket; Gunasekaran, the youngest brother, takes it and leaves for Tamil Nadu. The ship fails to reach on time due to the dangers of the war, and Kalyani's marriage takes place without any of her brothers present.
Kalyani becomes pregnant. But on the day she delivers her child, Thangappan dies in an accident and Manickampillai dies of shock, leaving Kalyani and her child destitute. Her house gets auctioned off, and she makes her living by selling food on the streets. Gunasekaran, after being stranded at sea for several months, finally arrives in Tamil Nadu at Madras. However, while watching a dance performance, he is robbed of all his belongings after being intoxicated. Impoverished, he becomes enraged at the status of the once glorious Tamil Nadu, and fakes insanity by indulging in numerous tricks to make a living. Gunasekaran finally comes across his destitute sister at Madurai, having learned of their father's death and her poverty. He continues to play insane and does not reveal his true identity to her due to his poverty, but hovers around her. Kalyani is irritated by the stranger's behaviour, unaware that he is her brother.
Kalyani is nearly molested by a vagabond named Venu, but is saved by Gunasekaran. She later leaves Madurai and arrives at Tiruchi, where she obtains work as a maid of blackmarketeer Narayana Pillai, who also tries to molest her. She is saved by his wife, and leaves the job. While searching for his sister, Gunasekaran reaches Tiruchi and comes across Vimala, a wealthy woman, to whom he explains the miserable status of him and his sister in the society. After resting in her house for a while, he silently leaves to continue searching for Kalyani.
As Japanese shelling intensifies in Burma, Chandrasekaran and Gnanasekaran decide to return to India. Chandrasekaran, accompanied by Saraswati, reaches Tiruchi safely and becomes a judge, but Gnanasekaran is lost in the journey and loses a leg in the shelling before arriving in India. He begs for a living, forms an association for beggars and tries to reform them. Kalyani reaches Chandrasekaran's palatial house seeking food, but Chandrasekaran throws her out without recognising her. She later arrives at a temple seeking help, but the pujari (priest) also tries to molest her. Frustrated with life and unable to feed her child, Kalyani throws it into a river and attempts suicide, but is soon arrested for killing the child and brought for trial.
At the court, Kalyani defends her act of infanticide with the judge being Chandrasekaran, who after hearing her tragic story realises she is his sister, and faints. Gunasekaran is also brought to the court for having attacked the pujari who tried to molest his sister. During his trial, Gunasekaran explains the misfortunes which have befallen him and his family, and justifies his actions. Gunasekaran's valiant defence in the court awakens everyone on the ills of the society. As the trial proceeds, Vimala arrives and produces Kalyani's child, which was revealed to have safely fallen in her boat instead of the river. Kalyani and Gunasekaran are pardoned and acquitted by the court, and are finally reunited with Chandrasekaran. Gnanasekaran, while collecting donations for his association of beggars, also joins them unexpectedly. With Vimala and Gunasekaran deciding to get married, the family subsequently inaugurates a welfare home for orphans.
Parasakthi was a popular 1950s Tamil play written by Pavalar Balasundaram, a Tamil scholar. Around the same time, En Thangai (My Sister), written by T. S. Natarajan, became popular. Sivaji Ganesan, at that time a struggling stage actor, acted in En Thangai as "a brother sacrificing his love for the sake of his sightless kid sister." The pre-production crew at Central Studio, Coimbatore, initially planned to merge these two plays to make a film. However, Natarajan, the author of En Thangai disagreed to the idea, and indeed sold the rights of the play to another producer.
En Thangai was made into a film with the same name. Meanwhile, film distributor P. A. Perumal of National Pictures, with the patronage of A. V. Meiyappan of AVM Productions, bought the film rights of Parasakthi. M. Karunanidhi, who would later become the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, was signed to write the script. The duo Krishnan–Panju were signed on to direct at Meiyappan's suggestion, and Ganesan, the stage actor of En Thangai was chosen to play the male lead, making his cinematic acting debut. Perumal cast Ganesan after being impressed with his performance as Nur Jahan in the Sakthi Nadaga Sabha play of the same name. It was he who, in 1950, gave Ganesan a flight ticket to Madras for the screen test for Parasakthi. Ganesan had simultaneously shot for the Telugu-Tamil bilingual film Paradesi / Poongothai, which was supposed to be his actual film to release first, but released much later after Perumal requested its co-producer Anjali Devi to let Parasakthi release first, and she agreed. Ganesan had earlier dubbed for actor Mukkamala in the 1951 Tamil film Niraparadhi.
Parasakthi, which was jointly produced by National Pictures and AVM Productions, did not begin well for Ganesan. When shooting began and 2000 feet of the film was shot, Meiyappan was dissatisfied with Ganesan's "thin" physique, and wanted him replaced with K. R. Ramaswamy. Perumal refused, and Ganesan was retained. Meiyappan was also satisfied with the final results of the film. The initial scenes of Ganesan which he earlier disliked were reshot. Karunanidhi later recalled that Ramaswamy was unable to accept the film due to other commitments. Ganesan was paid a monthly salary of ₹250 (valued at about US$52.5 in 1952) for acting in the film. S. S. Rajendran, who was another successful stage artist, also debuted in Parasakthi after the advice of politician C. N. Annadurai. According to film historian Film News Anandan, Parasakthi was one of the few films at that time to be "completely driven" by stage artists.
Rajasulochana was initially cast as the female lead, but opted out due to her pregnancy, and was eventually replaced by Sriranjani Jr. Pandari Bai was added to the film, after Meiyappan was impressed with her performance in Raja Vikrama (1950). Poet Kannadasan declined to work as one of the film's lyricists, and instead acted in a minor role as a court judge, as he was "determined to take part in the Parasakthi movie". A portrait of lawyer P. Theagaraya Chetty was used to portray the father-in-law of S. V. Sahasranamam's character Chandrasekaran. The cinematography was handled by S. Maruti Rao, while the songs were choreographed by Heeralal. Panju edited the film under the alias "Panjabi". The film's climax song "Ellorum Vazha Vendum" featured stock footage of the politicians C. Rajagopalachari, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Bhakthavatchalam, Annadurai, and Karunanidhi. Although Ganesan began working on the film in mid-1950, it took over two years to complete.
Panju stated that Parasakthi was designed to "create havoc. Of course, it did. We were challenging the social law itself, the basic Constitution itself". The title song of the film was composed by Bharathidasan, keeping with the demand of the DMK party seeking a sovereign Dravidian nation. The poem glorifies the utopian nature of the Dravidian nation and ends with a long monologue that grieves the present India's reality. When the female lead Kalyani becomes pregnant, she and her husband Thangappan decide to name the child "Pannirselvam" if it is a boy, and "Nagammai" if it is a girl. The names are references to A. T. Pannirselvam, a prominent and respected leader of the Justice Party and Nagammai, a leading activist in the Self-Respect Movement and the wife of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy. According to film historian Selvaraj Velayutham, Parasakthi was basically oriented to social reform. United News of India (UNI), Malini Nair of The Times of India and K. S. Sivakumaran of the Sri Lankan newspaper Daily News have referred to the film as a satire, with UNI describing it as a "sociological satire".
The film deploys Kalyani's vulnerability as a widow in a hostile society, with consequent threats to her chastity, especially during the court trial scenes. The name Kalyani was chosen by the script writer to emphasise the contradiction between the meaning of her name indicating auspiciousness and her contrasting penury. The theme is expressed through Gunasekaran's arguments in the court : "[My] sister's name is Kalyani. An auspicious name [indeed]. But there is no 'mangalyam' around [her] neck". Also, Vimala, who becomes Gunasekaran's bride, compares herself to Kannagi, a popular symbol of chastity in Tamil culture. Ganesan, who enacted the role of Gunasekaran in Parasakthi, was a DMK activist in real life in 1952 and helped in propagating the theme of Dravida Nadu. The film attempted to bring to light the alleged fraud in the name of religion and presented agnostic views, displaying a powerful critique of the Congress rule in the Madras Presidency. Film historian Mohan Raman compared Parasakthi to Velaikaari (1949), as both films featured a "court scene where the hero rids society of irrational beliefs and practices".
The music of Parasakthi was composed by R. Sudarsanam. The lyrics were written by Bharathidasan, Subramania Bharati, M. Karunanidhi, Annal Thango, Udumalai Narayana Kavi and K. P. Kamatchisundaram. The background score was composed by the Chennai-based Saraswathi Stores Orchestra. Relatively higher importance was given to the film's dialogues over its music, so the dialogues were sold separately on audio cassettes. Some of the numbers from Parasakthi were based on songs from Hindi films; one was a rehash from the Urdu film Akeli (1952). The number "O Rasikkum Seemane" inspired "Itai Tazhukikkolla" from Periyar (2007). The 2010 film Rasikkum Seemane borrows its title from the song of the same name. Annadurai is referenced in the number "Kaa Kaa Kaa", in the line "Kaakai Annave neengal azhagaana vaayaal pannaga paadureenga", which translates to "Crow elder, you are singing so melodiously with your beautiful mouth". It was written by Narayana Kavi. "Poomalai" is based on the Urdu song "Sanwariya, Tohe Koi Pukare" from the Pakistani film Dupatta (1952). An album containing remixed versions of the songs of Parasakthi was released in on 3 June 2009, to commemorate Karunanidhi's 86th birthday.
Parasakthi was released on 17 October 1952, on Diwali day. It was regarded as a "propaganda vehicle for a new political party" and marked the start of cinema's "starring role in Tamil politics". Ganesan's performance in the film's court scene was also very well received by audience, and was considered to have propelled him to stardom. The film became an instant commercial success, running for over 175 days in several theatres, and was one of the first films to be screened at the Madurai-based Thangam theatre, which was noted as Asia's largest theatre at the time. It ran for over 50 days in all the 62 centres it was released, and at the Sri Lanka-based Mailan Theatre, it ran for nearly 40 weeks. Parasakthi's Telugu-dubbed version of the same name was released on 11 January 1957.
Parasakthi received critical acclaim. P. Balasubramania Mudaliar of Sunday Observer wrote, "The story is simple but it has been made powerful by Mr. Karunanidhi by his beautiful dialogues. Mr. Shivaji Ganesan, who plays the main role dominates from the beginning to the end" and concluded, "If an Academy award were to be given to any picture, I have little doubt that this picture would be entitled on its merits to such an award." Dinamani Kadir, a Tamil weekly owned by Indian Express Limited (then known as The Indian Express Group), carried an unusually long review of Parasakthi running into three closely printed pages. The review was given a cynical title, "Kandarva Mandalam" ("The Abode of Kandarvas") and it began with a small box-item which read, "Parasakthi: This goddess is abused in a Tamil film with her name". The reviewer opined, "The main aim of the film is to attach gods. Along with that, the government and society are overtly and covertly attacked. The embittered and agitated reviewer further claimed, "He [the hero of the film], acting as a mad man, threatens and beats the people on the street and grabs whatever they have and eats it. Then he goes to give repeatedly all those economics lectures, rationalist lectures and anti-god lectures. When we see the hero doing all that, it seems as if he is portraying the lives of those who are trying to force such ideas in the ...film." For the reviewer, thus, the DMK men were living on others' sweat and preaching unacceptable subsersive ideas. The magazine Sivaji praised the dialogues written by Karunanidhi, and the performances of Ganesan and Sahasranamam.
Film historian Randor Guy said, "1952 ... an eventful year for Tamil cinema, the beginning of a new period" and added that "The film that ushered in that new era was Parasakthi written for the screen by another fast-rising star Mu. Karunanidhi", while concluding that the film would be "Remembered for the dialogue and the stunning performance of the new hero." In an interview with Shobha Warrier of Rediff.com, Tamil film historian S. Theodore Baskaran said, "Sivaji's best and most memorable films are his early ones" and mentioned that Ganesan was "very lucky to get a role in Parasakthi", which he praised for the "flowery dialogues". Film historian S. Muthiah said that Parasakthi "showed Karunanidhi as the master of meaningful screen dialogue that carried forceful messages to the masses". Film News Anandan called it "one of the most elaborately plotted melodramas in the Indian cinema".
Post release, Parasakthi was marred by numerous controversies, and was defined as "one of the most controversial films in the history of Tamil cinema" by Theodore Baskaran. It was accused of trying to portray Brahmins in poor light. Abuse of Hindu customs and religious practices evoked strong protests from the Hindu orthodoxy. Scenes like a priest attempting to rape a woman in a temple were found to be very provocative. The social elite and members of the then ruling Congress party demanded the film to be banned. The-then Chief Minister of Madras, C. Rajagopalachari was unhappy with the extremely provocative nature of the film, but allowed it to be screened. One of the reasons stated by them was the dialogue spoken by Ganesan's character, "Just because you came around chanting names and offered flowers to the stone, would it become a god?", which was accused of "mocking the audiences." His reference to Goddess Parasakthi as a stone created a stir, and the word "stone" was eventually censored from the soundtrack. However, the given message was still "clear and the impact viral." The State Government requested the Union Government to reconsider the film certification, but they declined, due to a previous examination by a Madras intelligence officer, who stated:
The dialogues for the film have been specially written in a forceful manner by Sri M Karunanidhi, the well known leader of the Dravidian Progression Federation ... The film graphically describes the sufferings and hardships that a young widow with her babe in arms has to face due to poverty and how cruelly society treats her, or illtreats her. The substance of the story by itself is not objectionable. The plot is interesting and the story has a powerful moral appeal, namely that there will be ups and downs in a man's life and that chastity is the most precious jewel of womanhood.— A Madras intelligence officer, who reviewed the film
Parasakthi acquired cult status and changed the character of Tamil cinema. Dialogue writing was given more importance than ever before. Speeches of the film replaced traditional music of artists like M. S. Subbulakshmi, K. B. Sundarambal and others at festivities. The film also had its share in giving the DMK the necessary stimulus to overthrow the Congress party in Tamil Nadu. The dialogues became so popular that "roadside entertainers used to recite long passages from the film in market area of Madras and collect money from bystanders", and memorising the film's dialogues became a "must for aspirant political orators". They were even released separately on gramophone records. K. Hariharan, the director of L. V. Prasad Film Academy in Chennai, included the film in his 2013 list, "Movies that stirred, moved & shook us".
In celebration of the film's 50th year, Ganesan's autobiography, entitled Enathu Suya Sarithai ("My Autobiography") was released on 1 October 2002 in Tamil, exactly a year after the actor's death in 2001. The English version, titled Autobiography of an Actor: Sivaji Ganesan, October 1928-July 2001, was released exactly five years later in 2007. To commemorate 50 years since the release of Parasakthi, a memorial was inaugurated in AVM Studios on 17 October 2002 by Kamal Haasan in the presence of Ganesan's sons Prabhu and Ramkumar. The memorial stands at the same place where Ganesan first faced the camera. A slab of black granite, the memorial has on its top a brass medallion that bears a close-up of Ganesan uttering his popular opening line "Success". At its bottom is a rectangular plaque that gives details about the memorial's inauguration. At the base of the rectangular plaque are two other plaques resembling the pages of an open book and contains the names of the technical crew and all those involved in the making of the film. The visage of Ganesan wearing a hat was designed by Thotta Tharani. The 2003 film Success, starring Ganesan's grandson Dushyanth Ramkumar, was named after Ganesan's popular line.
Parasakthi is included with other Ganesan films in Yettavathu Ulaga Athisayam Sivaji (Sivaji, the Eighth Wonder of the World), a compilation DVD featuring Ganesan's "iconic performances in the form of scenes, songs and stunts" which was released in May 2012. During the film's diamond jubilee year celebrations in January 2013, K. Chandrasekaran, then the president of Nadigar Thilagam Sivaji Social Welfare Association said, "Six decades down the line Parasakthi is remembered because it is not just a film, but an epic". On the centenary of Indian cinema in April 2013, Forbes India included Ganesan's performance in the film in its list, "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema". Actor Sivakumar stated, "You can’t reproduce movies like Parasakthi, Pasamalar, Devadas, Veerapandiya Kattabomman or Ratha Kanneer [...] By remaking such films, you are lowering yourself, while it enhances the original artists’ image."
Vivek parodied the film's climax in Palayathu Amman (2000). Karthi's performance in his debut film Paruthi Veeran (2007) was compared by critics with Parasakthi. Malathi Rangarajan, in her review of Citizen (2001) at The Hindu, mentioned that the court scene during the climax was reminiscent of Parasakthi's climax. In Sivaji (2007), the eponymous character (Rajinikanth) who shares his first name with Sivaji Ganesan, utters the dialogue, "Parasakthi hero da" ("The hero of Parasakthi, man") when referring to himself.
Film Heritage Foundation announced in March 2015 that they would be restoring Parasakthi along with a few other Indian films from 1931 to 1965 as a part of their restoration projects carried out in India and abroad in accordance to international parameters. The foundation, however, stated that they would not colourise any of the films as they "believe in the original repair as the way the master or the creator had seen it." In July 2016, Ganesan's other grandson Vikram Prabhu launched a production house named "First Artist" with a still of Ganesan from Parasakthi as part of its logo.
- Portrayal of Tamil Brahmins in popular media
- Tamil cinema and Dravidian politics
- Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 327.
- Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 97.
- Pandian 1991, p. 759.
- Pandian 1991, p. 760.
- Parasakthi (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: AVM Productions; National Pictures. 1952. Event occurs at 1:40.
- Pillai 2015, p. 256.
- Rangarajan, Malathi (9 October 2009). "Film-maker, writer and a diehard book lover". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Kantha, Sachi Sri (11 October 2011). "Remembering Poet Kannadasan (1927–1981); on his 30th death anniversary". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Parasakthi (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: AVM Productions; National Pictures. 1952. Event occurs at 1:37.
- Guy, Randor (24 April 2011). "Parasakthi 1952". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Guy 2016, pp. 328-329.
- Guy, Randor (28 November 2008). "En Thangai 1952". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Curtains come down on Thangam theatre, once considered Asia's largest". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Guy 2016, p. 331.
- Raman, Mohan V. (8 April 2013). "The power of the pen". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
- Menon, Nitya (23 July 2014). "Bearing a legend's name". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Gopalakrishnan, Anu (24 August 2012). "Glamour or Grammar, he has it right!". Miindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Rangarajan, Malathi (17 February 2011). "Saga of success". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Narasimhan, M. L. (16 November 2013). "Paradesi (1953)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Guy, Randor (14 November 2011). "Niraparadhi 1951". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Guy, Randor (27 July 2001). "Talent, charisma and much more". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Karunanidhi, M (2 October 2013). "Cinema for a cause". Frontline. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Pillai 2015, p. 136.
- Kannan 2010, p. 195.
- Velayutham 2008, p. 67.
- Damodaran, Pradeep (27 October 2014). "Tamil cinema still entwined with politics". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Guy, Randor (5 March 2013). "The queen of the screen". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Guy, Randor (14 February 2003). "Actress who glowed with inner beauty". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Kannan 2010, p. 196.
- Pillai 2015, p. 133.
- "filmography p1". Nadigarthilagam.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Guy, Randor (1 March 2015). "Remembering Panju". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Pillai 2015, p. 148.
- Raman, Mohan V. (20 June 2009). "PARASAKTHI — Special day Cover". Mohan's Musings. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Ramachandran 2012, p. 13.
- Velayutham 2008, p. 63.
- Velayutham 2008, p. 69.
- "MGR film drawing audience down south". CNN-News18. United News of India. 10 August 2006. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Nair, Malini (3 February 2013). "When satire wasn't off-limits ..." The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Sivakumaran, K.S. (13 July 2011). "Film Appreciation with K S Sivakumaran: Early Tamil films". Daily News. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Pandian 1991, p. 761.
- Raman, Mohan V. (20 September 2014). "The man who started the trend". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- பராசக்தி (songbook) (in Tamil). National Pictures. 1952.
- "Parasakthi (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)". iTunes. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Neelamegam, G. (2014). Thiraikalanjiyam — Part 1 (in Tamil). Chennai: Manivasagar Publishers. p. 38.
- Jeshi, K. (10 September 2012). "Blockbusters of Coimbatore". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Parasakthi (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: AVM Productions; National Pictures. 1952. Event occurs at 1:24.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore; Warrier, Shobha (23 July 2001). "He was the ultimate star". Rediff. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore; Warrier, Shobha. "The Millennium Special: Theodore Baskaran on ten South Indian films that made history". Rediff. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Baskaran 1996, p. 112.
- Srinivas, Saraswathy (8 January 2007). "Music Review: Periyar is impressive". Rediff. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Srinivasan, Pavithra (15 February 2010). "Rasikkum Seemane lacks substance". Rediff. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Kantha, Sachi Sri (1 September 2013). "Anna, Annachi, Annathe". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Vamanan (5 May 2014). "Move over Kolaveri: Tender Poetry is Back in Film Songs". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Guy 2016, p. 333.
- Bali, Karan (20 September 2015). "India's loss, Pakistan's gain: The journey of singing great Noor Jehan after 1947". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Songs written by MK for 1952 movie remixed". The New Indian Express. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Album released". The Hindu. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Parasakthi (1952)". Raaga.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Released on Deepavali". The Hindu. 1 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Lights, camera, election". The Economist. 8 June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Ramachandran, K. (14 March 2001). "Talk of the town". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Warrier, Shobha (14 October 2002). "How V C Ganesan became Sivaji Ganesan". Rediff. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Karthikeyan, D. (15 August 2011). "Climax to Thangam Theatre – it's razed down". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Lights, camera, politics". Business Line. 5 April 2015. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Saravanan 2013, p. 418.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore (2008). Sivaji Ganesan: Profile of an Icon. Wisdom Tree. p. 87.
- Pillai 2015, p. 99.
- Mudaliar, P. Balasubramania (1952). "Parasakthi". Sunday Observer. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Pandian 1991, p. 764.
- "நகர சினிமாக்கள்: பராசக்தி" [City Cinemas: Parasakthi]. Sivaji (in Tamil). 2 November 1952. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016.
- Muthiah, S. (14 August 2006). "The medium is the message". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Film News Anandan. "Tamil Cinema History – The Early Days 1945 to 1953". Indolink. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Baskaran 1996, p. 111.
- Srivathsan, A. (12 June 2006). "Films and the politics of convenience". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- Srivathsan, A. (2 February 2013). "A revolution betrayed". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- Pandian 1991, p. 765.
- Muralidharan, Kavitha (21 July 2015). "Fourteen years on, Sivaji Ganesan's legacy lives on". DailyO. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Kannan 2010, p. 198.
- Chandrasekar, Gokul (7 February 2013). "'Vishwaroopam' and Tamil Nadu's cinema of politics". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Pillai 2015, p. 126.
- Hariharan, K. (3 May 2013). "Movies that stirred, moved & shook us". Bangalore Mirror. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Muthiah, S. (4 November 2002). "He played 300 different roles". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Sri Kantha, Sachi (9 November 2008). "Book Review : Autobiography of Actor – Politician Sivaji Ganesan". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Honouring a titan". The Hindu. 18 October 2002. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Sivaji remembered". Rediff. 17 October 2002. Archived from the original on 22 December 2002. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Sriram, V. (1 October 2013). "A simple memorial to a legendary thespian". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Monument for Sivaji". The Hindu. 19 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Warrier, Shobha (4 September 2003). "You can't fool the audience!". Rediff. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "DVD on Sivaji Ganesan to be released on May 6". The Hindu. 5 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- Iyer, Aruna V. (12 May 2012). "For the love of Sivaji". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- Vandhana, M. (7 January 2013). "'Parasakthi' completes 60 years". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- Prasad, Shishir; Ramnath, N. S.; Mitter, Sohini (27 April 2013). "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Anand, N. (3 January 2008). "Sivakumar not for old wine in new bottle". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Narayanan, Rama (director) (2000). Palayathu Amman (motion picture). India: Sri Thenandal Films. Event occurs at 1:35:24. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016.
- Srinivasan, Meera (23 September 2007). "Karthi Sivakumar, casual and down to earth". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Rangarajan, Malathi (15 June 2001). "Film Review: Citizen". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Nakassis 2016, p. 206.
- Rao, Shivaji (13 December 2012). "Rajini still entertains, and how!". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- Behrawala, Krutika (2 March 2015). "Quest to save India's cine history". Mid Day. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Janani, K (7 July 2016). "I am proud to see Vikram producing on his own: Prabhu". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Rupee's journey since Independence: Down by 65 times against dollar". The Economic Times. 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore (1996). The eye of the serpent: an introduction to Tamil cinema. East West Books.
- Guy, Randor (2016). Memories of Madras: Its Movies, Musicians & Men of Letters. Creative Workshop. ISBN 978-81-928961-7-5.
- Kannan, R. (2010). Anna: The Life and Times of C.N. Annadurai. India: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-08328-2.
- Nakassis, Constantine V. (2016). Doing Style: Youth and Mass Mediation in South India. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-32785-3.
- Pandian, M. S. S. (March 1991). "Parasakthi: Life and Times of a DMK Film". Economic and Political Weekly.
- Pillai, Swarnavel Eswaran (2015). Madras Studios: Narrative, Genre, and Ideology in Tamil Cinema. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-93-5150-212-8.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1998) . Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema (PDF). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563579-5.
- Ramachandran, Naman (2012). Rajinikanth: The Definitive Biography. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-81-8475-796-5.
- Saravanan, M. (2013) . AVM 60 cinema (in Tamil) (3rd ed.). Rajarajan Pathippagam.
- Tamizhnila (28 October 2013). "பராசக்தி கொண்டாடிய திராவிட தீபாவளி". Dinakaran (in Tamil). Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-203-93037-3.