Timeline of quantum computing

This is a timeline of quantum computing.



  • 1973
  • 1975
    • R. P. Poplavskii publishes "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian)[1] which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle.
  • 1976
    • Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976. (The paper was submitted in 1975.) It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables).


  • 1980
    • Paul Benioff describes quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of computers[2]
    • Yuri Manin briefly motivates the idea of quantum computing[3]
  • 1981
    • Richard Feynman observes in his talk at the First Conference on the Physics of Computation, held at MIT in May, that it appeared to be impossible in general to simulate an evolution of a quantum system on a classical computer in an efficient way. He proposes a basic model for a quantum computer that would be capable of such simulations[4]
    • Paul Benioff gives talk at the same conference with the title "Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes that erase their own histories: application to Turing machines".
    • Tommaso Toffoli introduces the reversible Toffoli gate, which, together with the NOT and XOR gates provides a universal set for reversible classical computation.
  • 1982
  • 1984
  • 1985
  • 1989
    • Bikas K. Chakrabarti & collaborators from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, proposes the idea that quantum fluctuations could help explore rough energy landscapes by escaping from local minima of glassy stems having tall but thin barriers by tunneling (instead of climbing over using thermal excitations), suggesting the effectiveness of quantum annealing over classical simulated annealing.




  • University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign scientists demonstrate quantum entanglement of multiple characteristics, potentially allowing multiple qubits per particle.
  • Two teams of physicists measured the capacitance of a Josephson junction for the first time. The methods could be used to measure the state of quantum bits in a quantum computer without disturbing the state.[23]
  • In December, the first quantum byte, or qubyte, is announced to have been created by scientists at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the University of Innsbruck in Austria.[24]
  • Harvard University and Georgia Institute of Technology researchers succeeded in transferring quantum information between "quantum memories" – from atoms to photons and back again.


  • Materials Science Department of Oxford University, cage a qubit in a "buckyball" (a molecule of buckminsterfullerene), and demonstrated quantum "bang-bang" error correction.[25]
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign use the Zeno Effect, repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually "running" the quantum computer.[26]
  • Vlatko Vedral of the University of Leeds and colleagues at the universities of Porto and Vienna found that the photons in ordinary laser light can be quantum mechanically entangled with the vibrations of a macroscopic mirror.[27]
  • Samuel L. Braunstein at the University of York along with the University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency gave the first experimental demonstration of quantum telecloning.[28]
  • Professors at the University of Sheffield develop a means to efficiently produce and manipulate individual photons at high efficiency at room temperature.[29]
  • New error checking method theorized for Josephson junction computers.[30]
  • First 12 qubit quantum computer benchmarked by researchers at the Institute for Quantum Computing and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, as well as MIT, Cambridge.[31]
  • Two dimensional ion trap developed for quantum computing.[32]
  • Seven atoms placed in stable line, a step on the way to constructing a quantum gate, at the University of Bonn.[33]
  • A team at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands created a device that can manipulate the "up" or "down" spin-states of electrons on quantum dots.[34]
  • University of Arkansas develops quantum dot molecules.[35]
  • Spinning new theory on particle spin brings science closer to quantum computing.[36]
  • University of Copenhagen develops quantum teleportation between photons and atoms.[37]
  • University of Camerino scientists develop theory of macroscopic object entanglement, which has implications for the development of quantum repeaters.[38]
  • Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, finds that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[39]
  • Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrates the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer.[40]


  • Subwavelength waveguide developed for light.[41]
  • Single photon emitter for optical fibers developed.[42]
  • Six-photon one-way quantum computer is created in lab.[43]
  • New material proposed for quantum computing.[44]
  • Single atom single photon server devised.[45]
  • First use of Deutsch's Algorithm in a cluster state quantum computer.[46]
  • University of Cambridge develops electron quantum pump.[47]
  • Superior method of qubit coupling developed.[48]
  • Successful demonstration of controllably coupled qubits.[49]
  • Breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon.[50]
  • Scientists demonstrate quantum state exchange between light and matter.[51]
  • Diamond quantum register developed.[52]
  • Controlled-NOT quantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits realized.[53]
  • Scientists contain, study hundreds of individual atoms in 3D array.[54]
  • Nitrogen in buckyball molecule used in quantum computing.[55]
  • Large number of electrons quantum coupled.[56]
  • Spin-orbit interaction of electrons measured.[57]
  • Atoms quantum manipulated in laser light.[58]
  • Light pulses used to control electron spins.[59]
  • Quantum effects demonstrated across tens of nanometers.[60]
  • Light pulses used to accelerate quantum computing development.[61]
  • Quantum RAM blueprint unveiled.[62]
  • Model of quantum transistor developed.[63]
  • Long distance entanglement demonstrated.[64]
  • Photonic quantum computing used to factor number by two independent labs.[65]
  • Quantum bus developed by two independent labs.[66]
  • Superconducting quantum cable developed.[67]
  • Transmission of qubits demonstrated.[68]
  • Superior qubit material devised.[69]
  • Single electron qubit memory.[70]
  • Bose-Einstein condensate quantum memory developed.[71]
  • D-Wave Systems demonstrates use of a 28-qubit quantum annealing computer.[72]
  • New cryonic method reduces decoherence and increases interaction distance, and thus quantum computing speed.[73]
  • Photonic quantum computer demonstrated.[74]
  • Graphene quantum dot spin qubits proposed.[75]


  • Graphene quantum dot qubits[76]
  • Quantum bit stored[77]
  • 3D qubit-qutrit entanglement demonstrated[78]
  • Analog quantum computing devised[79]
  • Control of quantum tunneling[80]
  • Entangled memory developed[81]
  • Superior NOT gate developed[82]
  • Qutrits developed[83]
  • Quantum logic gate in optical fiber[84]
  • Superior quantum Hall Effect discovered[85]
  • Enduring spin states in quantum dots[86]
  • Molecular magnets proposed for quantum RAM[87]
  • Quasiparticles offer hope of stable quantum computer[88]
  • Image storage may have better storage of qubits[89]
  • Quantum entangled images[90]
  • Quantum state intentionally altered in molecule[91]
  • Electron position controlled in silicon circuit[92]
  • Superconducting electronic circuit pumps microwave photons[93]
  • Amplitude spectroscopy developed[94]
  • Superior quantum computer test developed[95]
  • Optical frequency comb devised[96]
  • Quantum Darwinism supported[97]
  • Hybrid qubit memory developed[98]
  • Qubit stored for over 1 second in atomic nucleus[99]
  • Faster electron spin qubit switching and reading developed[100]
  • Possible non-entanglement quantum computing[101]
  • D-Wave Systems claims to have produced a 128 qubit computer chip, though this claim has yet to be verified.[102]


  • Carbon 12 purified for longer coherence times[103]
  • Lifetime of qubits extended to hundreds of milliseconds[104]
  • Quantum control of photons[105]
  • Quantum entanglement demonstrated over 240 micrometres[106]
  • Qubit lifetime extended by factor of 1000[107]
  • First electronic quantum processor created[108]
  • Six-photon graph state entanglement used to simulate the fractional statistics of anyons living in artificial spin-lattice models[109]
  • Single molecule optical transistor[110]
  • NIST reads, writes individual qubits[111]
  • NIST demonstrates multiple computing operations on qubits[112]
  • A combination of all of the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing through the use of qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions shown[113]
  • Researchers at University of Bristol demonstrate Shor's algorithm on a silicon photonic chip[114]
  • Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble[115]
  • Scalable flux qubit demonstrated[116]
  • Photon machine gun developed for quantum computing[117]
  • Quantum algorithm developed for differential equation systems[118]
  • First universal programmable quantum computer unveiled[119]
  • Scientists electrically control quantum states of electrons[120]
  • Google collaborates with D-Wave Systems on image search technology using quantum computing[121]
  • A method for synchronizing the properties of multiple coupled CJJ rf-SQUID flux qubits with a small spread of device parameters due to fabrication variations was demonstrated[122]



  • Ion trapped in optical trap[123]
  • Optical quantum computer with three qubits calculated the energy spectrum of molecular hydrogen to high precision[124]
  • First germanium laser brings us closer to 'optical computers'[125]
  • Single electron qubit developed[126]
  • Quantum state in macroscopic object[127]
  • New quantum computer cooling method developed[128]
  • Racetrack ion trap developed[129]
  • Evidence for a Moore-Read state in the quantum Hall plateau [130], which would be suitable for topological quantum computation
  • Quantum interface between a single photon and a single atom demonstrated[131]
  • LED quantum entanglement demonstrated[132]
  • Two photon optical chip[133]
  • Microfabricated planar ion traps[134][135]
  • Qubits manipulated electrically, not magnetically[136]


  • Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble[137]
  • NOON photons in superconducting quantum integrated circuit[138]
  • Quantum antenna[139]
  • Multimode quantum interference[140]
  • Magnetic Resonance applied to quantum computing[141]
  • Quantum pen[142]
  • Atomic "Racing Dual"[143]
  • 14 qubit register[144]
  • D-Wave claims to have developed quantum annealing and introduces their product called D-Wave One. The company claims this is the first commercially available quantum computer[145]
  • Repetitive error correction demonstrated in a quantum processor[146]
  • Diamond quantum computer memory demonstrated[147]
  • Qmodes developed[148]
  • Decoherence suppressed[149]
  • Simplification of controlled operations[150]
  • Ions entangled using microwaves[151]
  • Practical error rates achieved[152]
  • Quantum computer employing Von Neumann architecture[153]
  • Quantum spin Hall topological insulator[154]
  • Two Diamonds Linked by Quantum Entanglement could help develop photonic processors[155]


  • D-Wave claims a quantum computation using 84 qubits.[156]
  • Physicists create a working transistor from a single atom[157][158]
  • A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond[159]
  • Reported creation of a 300 qubit/particle quantum simulator.[160][161]
  • Demonstration of topologically protected qubits with an eight-photon entanglement, a robust approach to practical quantum computing[162]
  • 1QB Information Technologies (1QBit) founded. World's first dedicated quantum computing software company.[163]
  • Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers.[164][165]
  • Theory of Bell-based randomness expansion with reduced assumption of measurement independence.[166]


  • Coherence time of 39 minutes at room temperature (and 3 hours at cryogenic temperatures) demonstrated for an ensemble of impurity-spin qubits in isotopically purified silicon.[167]
  • Extension of time for qubit maintained in superimposed state for ten times longer than what has ever been achieved before[168]



  • Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time.[177]
  • Quantum information encoded by simple electrical pulses.[178]
  • Quantum error detection code using a square lattice of four superconducting qubits.[179]
  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announced on 22 June that it had broken the 1000 qubit barrier.[180]
  • Two qubit silicon logic gate successfully developed.[181]
  • Quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, emulated by a classical analog computer, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer. [182]


  • Google, using an array of 9 superconducting qubits developed by the Martinis group and UCSB, simulates a hydrogen molecule.[183]


  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announces general commercial availability of the D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, which it claims has 2000 qubits.[184]
  • Atos sells first Quantum Learning Machine to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, supporting US Department of Energy research[185]
  • Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer published.[186]
  • IBM unveils 17-qubit quantum computer—and a better way of benchmarking it.[187]
  • Scientists build a microchip that generates two entangled qudits each with 10 states, for 100 dimensions total.[188]
  • Microsoft reveals an unnamed quantum programming language, integrated with Visual Studio. Programs can be executed locally on a 32-qubit simulator, or a 40-qubit simulator on Azure.[189]
  • Intel confirms development of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip.[190]
  • IBM reveals a working 50-qubit quantum computer that can maintain its quantum state for 90 microseconds.[191]


  • MIT scientists report the discovery of a new triple-photon form of light.[192][193]
  • Oxford researchers successfully used a trapped-ion technique where they place two charged atoms in a state of quantum entanglement, to speed up logic gates by a factor of 20 to 60 times as compared with the previous best gates, translated to 1.6 microseconds long, with 99.8% precision.[194]
  • QuTech successfully tests silicon-based 2-spin-qubit processor.[195]
  • Google announces the creation of a 72-qubit quantum chip, called "Bristlecone",[196] achieving a new record.
  • Intel begins testing silicon-based spin-qubit processor, manufactured in the company's D1D Fab in Oregon.[197]
  • Intel confirms development of a 49-qubit superconducting test chip, called "Tangle Lake".[198]
  • Japanese researchers demonstrate universal holonomic quantum gates.[199]

See also


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