|Sir Tim Hunt|
FRS FRSE FMedSci MAE
Tim Hunt at UCSF in May 2009
Richard Timothy Hunt|
19 February 1943
Neston, Cheshire, England
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge (BA, PhD)|
|Known for||Cell cycle regulation|
Mary Collins (m. 1995)
|Thesis||The synthesis of haemoglobin (1969)|
|Doctoral advisor||Asher Korner|
Sir Richard Timothy Hunt, FRS FMedSci FRSE MAE (born 19 February 1943) is a British biochemist and molecular physiologist. He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Nurse and Leland H. Hartwell for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division of cells. In particular, Hunt discovered cyclin, a protein in fertilised sea urchin eggs which cyclically aggregates and is depleted during cell division cycles.
Early life and education
Hunt was born on 19 February 1943 in Neston, Cheshire, to Richard William Hunt, a lecturer in palaeography in Liverpool, and Kit Rowland, daughter of a timber merchant. After the death of both his parents, Hunt found his father had worked at Bush House, then the headquarters of BBC World Service radio, most likely in intelligence, although it is not known what he actually did. In 1945, Richard became Keeper of the Western Manuscripts at the Bodleian Library, and the family relocated to Oxford. At the age of eight, Hunt was accepted into the Dragon School, where he first developed an interest in biology thanks to his German teacher, Gerd Sommerhoff. When he was fourteen, he moved to Magdalen College School, Oxford, where the science prizes now bear his name, becoming even more interested in science and studying subjects such as chemistry and zoology.
In 1961, he was accepted into Clare College, Cambridge to study Natural Sciences, graduating in 1964 and immediately beginning work in the university Department of Biochemistry under Asher Korner. There, he worked with scientists such as Louis Reichardt and Tony Hunter. A 1965 talk by Vernon Ingram interested him in haemoglobin synthesis, and at a Greek conference in 1966 on the subject, he persuaded the hematologist and geneticist Irving London to allow him to work in his laboratory at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, staying from July to October 1966. His PhD was supervised by Asher Korner and focused on haemoglobin synthesis in intact rabbit reticulocytes (immature red blood cells), and was awarded in 1968.
Career and research
Following his PhD, Hunt returned to New York to work with London, in collaboration with Nechama Kosower, her husband Edward Kosower, and Ellie Ehrenfeld. While there, they discovered that tiny amounts of glutathione inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocytes and that tiny amounts of RNA killed the synthesis altogether. After returning to Cambridge, he again began work with Tony Hunter and Richard Jackson, who had discovered the RNA strand used to start haemoglobin synthesis. After 3–4 years, the team discovered at least two other chemicals acting as inhibitors.
Hunt regularly spent summers working at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, which was popular with scientists for its advanced summer courses, and in particular, with those interested in the study of mitosis. The location provided a ready supply of surf clams and sea urchins amongst the reefs and fishing docks, and it was these invertebrates that were particularly useful for the study of the synthesis of proteins in embryogenesis, as the embryos were simply generated with the application of filtered sea water, and the transparency of the embryo cells was well suited to microscopic study.
It was there at Woods Hole in the Summer of 1982 using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) egg as his model organism, he discovered the cyclin molecule. Hunt was a keen cyclist and named the protein based on his observation of the cyclical changes in its levels.
Cyclins are proteins that play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle. Hunt found that cyclins begin to be synthesised after the eggs are fertilised and increase in levels during interphase, until they drop very quickly in the middle of mitosis in each cell division. He also found that cyclins are present in vertebrate cells, where they also regulate the cell cycle. He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent kinases, one of which had been identified as a crucial cell cycle regulator by Paul Nurse. The cyclin mechanism of cell division is fundamental to all living organisms (excluding bacteria) and thus the study of the process in simple organisms helps shed light on the growth of tumours in humans.
In 1990, he began work at Imperial Cancer Research Fund, later known as the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, in the United Kingdom, where his work focused on understanding on what makes cell go cancerous, that is: proliferate uncontrollably, with the ordinary inhibitory signals switched off. Hunt had his own laboratory at the Clare Hall Laboratories until the end of 2010, and remains an Emeritus Group Leader at the Francis Crick Institute. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering. He also sits on the Selection Committee for Life Science and Medicine, which chooses winners of the Shaw Prize.
Awards and honours
Hunt was elected a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in 1978, serving as a member of the organisation's Fellowship Committee 1990–1993, its Meeting Committee 2008–2009, and its governing body, the Council, 2004–2009. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1991, his certificate of election reads:
Distinguished for his studies of the control of protein synthesis in animal cells and for the discovery of cyclin, a protein which regulates the eukaryotic cell cycle. Together with Jackson and their students, he defined steps in formation of the initiation complex in protein synthesis, showing that the 40S ribosomal subunit binds initiator tRNA before it binds mRNA, and that this step was the target of inhibitors such as double-stranded RNA or haem deficiency. They showed that inhibition of protein synthesis is mediated by reversible phosphorylation of initiation factor eIF-2 by two distinct protein kinases and they elucidated the unexpected roles of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in protein synthesis. With Ruderman and Rosenthal, he demonstrated selective translational control of mRNA in early clam embryos. This led to Hunt's discovery of cyclin as a protein which is selectively destroyed in mitosis. He subsequently cloned and sequenced cyclin cDNA from sea urchins and frogs and showed by elegant mRNA ablation experiments that cyclin translation is necessary for mitosis in frog embryos. He has also shown that cyclin is a subunit of the mitosis-promoting factor which regulates entry into mitosis. His discovery and characterization of cyclin are major contributions to our knowledge of cell cycle regulation in eukaryotic cells.
In 2001, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Leland Hartwell and Paul Nurse for their discoveries regarding cell cycle regulation by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The three laureates are cited "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle," while Hunt in particular
is awarded for his discovery of cyclins, proteins that regulate the CDK function. He showed that cyclins are degraded periodically at each cell division, a mechanism proved to be of general importance for cell cycle control.
In 2003, Hunt was made an honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (HonFRSE). In 2006, he was awarded the Royal Society's Royal Medal, two of which are presented annually for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge", in his case for "discovering a key aspect of cell cycle control, the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the result outside his immediate sphere of interest".
Hunt is married to Mary Collins, who was also educated at the University of Cambridge. The couple have two daughters.
Collins is a professor of immunology. In the summer 2016, she was appointed director of research at the newly founded Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, and the couple moved to Japan for an extended stay expected to last five years.
Controversy at WCSJ
In 2015, Hunt was involved in a highly publicised controversy at the World Conference of Science Journalists (WCSJ) in Seoul.
On 8 June 2015, during the 2015 WCSJ, at a lunch for female journalists and scientists, Hunt was asked on short notice to give a toast. Hunt's impromptu speech was later recounted by an unnamed EU official:
It's strange that such a chauvinist monster like me has been asked to speak to women scientists. Let me tell you about my trouble with girls. Three things happen when they are in the lab: you fall in love with them, they fall in love with you, and when you criticise them they cry. Perhaps we should make separate labs for boys and girls? Now, seriously, I'm impressed by the economic development of Korea. And women scientists played, without doubt an important role in it. Science needs women, and you should do science, despite all the obstacles, and despite monsters like me.
So, congratulations, everybody, and I hope – I hope – I hope – I really do hope there is nothing holding you back, especially not monsters like me.
A member of the audience, Connie St Louis, tweeted her recollection of parts of this speech on 8 June. These comments without context were widely re-tweeted, but not until a day later, on 9 June; they were then condemned in a reaction that The Observer described as a "particularly vicious social media campaign", Hunt being subject to "intense, vitriolic online abuse". A number of women scientists responded by posting photographs of themselves at work using the hashtag #distractinglysexy.
That same day the Royal Society formally distanced itself from Hunt's comments as reported and emphasised its commitment to equality in the sciences.
Two days later, 10 June, Hunt gave an interview to BBC Radio 4's Today programme, in which he said "I did mean the part about having trouble with girls. It is true that I have fallen in love with people in the lab, and that people in the lab have fallen in love with me, and it’s very disruptive to the science. It’s terribly important that, in the lab, people are on a level playing field. And I found these emotional entanglements made life very difficult. I mean, I’m really, really sorry that I caused any offence – that’s awful. I certainly didn’t mean – I just meant to be honest, actually." Hunt went on to say "I'm very sorry if people took offence. I certainly did not mean to demean women, but rather be honest about my own shortcomings."
Numerous media outlets reported on the incident and the BBC interview, citing portions of Hunt's original remarks and criticising them as sexist. Science journalist Connie St Louis gave 37 words of the remark (from "Let me tell you about my trouble with girls" to "when you criticise them they cry") but said "he just ploughed on for about five to seven minutes."
Hunt felt he had made it clear he was joking because he had included the phrase "now seriously" in his statement. The reconstruction of his words by an unnamed EU official corroborated the inclusion of these words. On 27 June, The Times reported that St Louis had, contrary to some of the previous statements, accepted that Hunt's comments were made "in jest". It was only on 18 July, 39 days after Hunt's comments, that the recording of part of them (and the laughter and applause) became public.
Resignations and reappointments
On 10 June Hunt resigned from his position as an honorary professor with the University College London's Faculty of Life Sciences and from the Royal Society's Biological Sciences Awards Committee. Hunt's wife, immunologist Mary Collins, had been told by a senior [at UCL] that Hunt "had to resign immediately or be sacked". A European Commission politician called Sir Tim and demanded he resign his European Research Council post. Internal ERC documents show deep unhappiness within the scientific council at this interference. Hunt was invited to the ERC's farewell dinner for all its retiring members in November, where Prof. Dame Athene Donald stated he received a "warm welcome". Several female scientists and commentators defended Hunt. Dame Athene Donald, ERC, a physicist who is President of the British Science Association, Master of Churchill College, Cambridge and a fellow of the Royal Society, said Hunt "was always immensely supportive of the ERC’s work around gender equality".
The decision to ask Hunt to resign from his honorary position at UCL was taken without consultation with the council, the university's governing body. The UCL president, Michael Arthur, released a statement, reported on the BBC on 26 June, stating that there would be no reinstatement of Hunt, as it would send "entirely the wrong signal". The university's council later confirmed this decision. However, in July, Hunt was reappointed by the Royal Society to represent them on a working group on European funding. The report was released in December, and a Royal Society spokesman said that Hunt was "a leading expert" and "a natural choice".
On 30 June, The Guardian reported that broadcaster Jonathan Dimbleby had resigned from an honorary fellowship at UCL in protest at its treatment of Hunt. Also, author and journalist Jeremy Hornsby wrote University College London out of his will in protest, leaving it "about £100,000 worse off".
At least 8 Nobel prizewinning scientists and 21 honorary fellows had criticised the treatment of Hunt following his resignation, while a few scientists, such as Hunt's co-Nobelist were critical of Hunt's conduct and agreed his resignation was warranted. Boris Johnson, the mayor of London, and Richard Dawkins also expressed their indignation at the treatment of Hunt.
Imran Khan, Chief Executive of the British Science Association, speaking to the BBC, described Hunt's comments as "careless", adding that it is "hard to find Sir Tim's comments funny if you've been held back by systemic bias for years – whether those remarks were intended as a joke or not". British neuropsychologist Dorothy Bishop, while noting Hunt's being described as a "decent human being" by most of the women who knew him, noted that he had still "set back the cause of women in science" and should not sit on any Royal Society committee involved in making decisions about fellowships, prizes or policy.
Physicist and broadcaster Brian Cox, speaking on BBC Radio 4's The World at One, described Hunt's comments as "very ill-advised", but criticised what he saw as the hounding out of Hunt as a disproportionate response to concerns over his comments and part of a "wider problem of trial by social media".
In a letter to The Times a group of 29 staff scientists, students and postdoctoral fellows, both male and female, who had worked with Hunt, wrote in support of his character. They described how his help had been "instrumental in the advancement of many other women and men in science beyond those in his own lab" and how he had "actively encouraged an interest in science in schoolchildren and young scientists, arranging for work experience and summer students of both genders to get their first taste of research in his lab". They urged the ERC and UCL to "reconsider their rush to judgment".
Paul Nurse, head of the Royal Society, who shared the 2001 Nobel prize in medicine with Hunt, while stressing his esteem for Hunt as a person, originally stated that Hunt had said "some stupid things which cannot be supported and they had to be condemned" and that the affair had been bad for science and for the Royal Society in particular, adding that the discussion had "become totally polarised with extreme views on both sides". In a later statement, Nurse described the response to Hunt's comments as "a twitter and media storm, completely out of proportion", adding that "he should never have been sacked by University College London".
In October 2015, Sir Colin Blakemore resigned as honorary president of the Association of British Science Writers (ABSW) in protest over its decision to support the claims made by Connie St Louis. He maintains that her account was "unbalanced, exaggerated, and selective" and criticises the ABSW's decision not to investigate the issue. Blakemore's position was backed by Athene Donald, who had written to the ABSW, asking them to investigate the way the story was reported, writing that "Tim Hunt's reputation has been destroyed because careful journalistic due diligence was not followed by many who wrote about the event, and the ABSW decision not to take any further action appears to endorse such behaviour." ABSW president Martin Ince replied that the association's statement had simply supported St Louis's "right to report a story without fear of personal attack", stating that Hunt had "acknowledged the accuracy of St Louis’s reporting". However, it later emerged that Hunt had said her reporting of his toast was "quite inaccurate, and very selective".
One unnamed female scientist who had been critical of Hunt said that she had been subjected to "a torrent of abuse" on social media and that it was "not worth the aggro of waking up to calls for me to be sacked". For his part, Hunt has distanced himself from the controversy, commenting that he had been "turned into a straw man that one lot loves to love and the other lot loves to hate and then they just take up sides and hurled utterly vile abuse at everyone".
- Mochida, Satoru; Maslen, Sarah L; Skehel, Mark; Hunt, Tim (2010). "Greatwall phosphorylates an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2Α that is essential for mitosis". Science. 330 (6011): 1670–1673. doi:10.1126/science.1195689. PMID 21164013.
- Mochida, Satoru; Hunt, Tim (2007). "Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase". Nature. 449: 336–340. doi:10.1038/nature06121. PMID 17882219.
- Rouse, John; Cohen, Philip; Trigon, Sylviane; Morange, Michel; Alonso-Llamazares, Ana; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hunt, Tim; Nebreda, Angel R. (1994). "A novel kinase cascade triggered by stress and heat shock that stimulates MAPKAP kinase-2 and phosphorylation of the small heat shock proteins". Cell. 78 (6): 1027–1037. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90277-1. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 7923353.
- Evans, Tom; Rosenthal, Eric T.; Youngblom, Jim; Distel, Dan; Hunt, Tim (1983). "Cyclin: A protein specified by maternal mRNA in sea urchin eggs that is destroyed at each cleavage division". Cell. 33 (2): 389–396. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90420-8. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 6134587.
- Farrell, Paul J.; Balkow, Ken; Hunt, Tim; Jackson, Richard J.; Trachsel, Hans (1977). "Phosphorylation of initiation factor eIF-2 and the control of reticulocyte protein synthesis". Cell. 11 (1): 187–200. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90330-0. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 559547.
- Poon, R. Y.; Yamashita, K.; Adamczewski, J. P.; Hunt, T.; Shuttleworth, J. (1993). "The cdc2-related protein p40MO15 is the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase that can activate p33cdk2 and p34cdc2". EMBO Journal. 12: 3123–3132. PMC 413578. PMID 8393783.
- Nebreda, A.R.; Hunt, T. (1993). "The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs". EMBO J. 12: 1979–1986. PMC 413419. PMID 8387916.
- Craig, D.; Howell, M.T.; Gibbs, C.L.; Hunt, T.; Jackson, R.J. (1992). "Plasmid cDNA-directed protein synthesis in a couple eukaryotic in vitro transcription-translation system". Nucleic Acids Res. 20: 4987–4995. doi:10.1093/nar/20.19.4987. PMC 334274. PMID 1383935.
- Standart, N.; Dale, M.; Stewart, E.; Hunt, T. (1990). "Maternal mRNA from clam oocytes can be specifically unmasked in vitro by antisense RNA complementary to the 3' untranslated region". Genes Dev. 4: 2157–2168. doi:10.1101/gad.4.12a.2157. PMID 2148535.
- Gautier, J.; Minshull, J.; Lohka, M.; Glotzer, M.; Hunt, T.; Maller, J.L. (1990). "Cyclin is a component of MPF from Xenopus". Cell. 60: 487–494. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90599-a. PMID 1967981.
- Standart, N.; Minshull, J.; Pines, J.; Hunt, T. (1987). "Cyclin synthesis, modification and destruction during meiotic maturation of the starfish oocyte". Dev. Biol. 124: 248–258. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(87)90476-3. PMID 15669148.
- Minshull, J.; Hunt, T. (1986). "The use of single-stranded DNA and RNase H to promote quantitative 'hybrid arrest of translation' of mRNA/DNA hybrids in reticulocyte lysate cell-free translations". Nucleic Acids Res. 14: 6433–6451. doi:10.1093/nar/14.16.6433. PMC 311656. PMID 3018671.
- Hunt, T.; Herbert, P.; Campbell, E.A.; Delidakis, C.; Jackson, R.J. (1983). "The use of affinity chromatography on 2'-5'ADP- Sepharose reveals a requirement for NADPH, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase for the maintenance of high protein synthesis activity in rabbit reticulocyte lysates". Eur. J. Biochem. 131: 303–311. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1983.tb07263.x. PMID 6299735.
- Rosenthal, E.T.; Hunt, T.; Ruderman, J.V. (1980). "Selective translation of mRNA controls the pattern of protein synthesis during early development of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima". Cell. 20: 487–494. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(80)90635-2. PMID 7190072.
- Hunter, A.R.; Hunt, T.; Knowland, J.S.; Zimmern, D. (1976). "Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus". Nature. 260: 759–764. doi:10.1038/260759a0. PMID 1264250.
- Darnbrough, C.H.; Legon, S.; Hunt, T.; Jackson, R.J. (1973). "Initiation of protein synthesis: evidence for messenger RNA- independent binding of methionyl transfer RNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit". J. Mol. Biol. 76: 379–403. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(73)90511-1. PMID 4732074.
- Kosower, N.S.; Vanderhoff, G.A.; Benerofe, B.; Hunt, T.; Kosower, E.M. (1971). "Inhibition of protein synthesis by glutathione disulfide in the presence of glutathione". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 45: 816–821. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(71)90490-6. PMID 5128185.
- Ehrenfeld, E.; Hunt, T. (1971). "Double-stranded poliovirus RNA inhibits initiation of protein synthesis by reticulocyte lysates". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 68: 1075–1078. doi:10.1073/pnas.68.5.1075. PMC 389116. PMID 4325000.
- Hunt, T.; Hunter, A.R.; Munro, A.J. (1968). "Control of haemoglobin synthesis: distribution of ribosomes on the messenger RNA for a and b chains". J. Mol. Biol. 36: 31–45. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90217-9. PMID 5760537.
- Murray, Andrew; Hunt, Tim (1993). The Cell Cycle: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195095296.
- Wilson, John; Hunt, Tim (2014). Molecular Biology of the Cell: The Problems Book (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis Ltd. ISBN 978-0815344537.
- HUNT, Sir Tim. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.
- "Tim Hunt". Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.
- Anon (1991). "Sir Tim Hunt FMedSci FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.
One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:
“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "PDF List of Fellows on the webpages of the RSE" (PDF). 24 November 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- Tim Hunt publications indexed by Google Scholar
- Hunt, Richard Timothy (1969). The synthesis of haemoglobin (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 885437139.
- Pelham, Hugh R. B. (1978). Transcription and Translation in Reticulocyte Lysates. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500538683. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.468626.
- "Sir Hugh Pelham FMedSci FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
- Pines, Jonathon Noe Joseph (1987). Cyclin : a major maternal message in sea urchin eggs. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 499166627. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.233321.
- Pines, Jonathon; Hunt, Tim (1987). "Molecular cloning and characterization of the mRNA for cyclin from sea urchin eggs". The EMBO Journal. 6 (10): 2987–2995. PMC 553735. PMID 2826125.
- "Dr Jonathon Pines: Department of Zoology". Cambridge: cam.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-05-15.
- Anon (2016). "Meet the Professors: Anne Ridley". kcl.ac.uk.
- Anon (2006). "Anne Ridley Profile" (PDF). ascb.org. American Society for Cell Biology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-13.
- "Tim Hunt – Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. 2002. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- Hunt, Tim (8 August 2015). "Pursuing the impossible: an interview with Tim Hunt". BMC Biology. 13: 64. doi:10.1186/s12915-015-0164-y. PMC 4528683. PMID 26253553.
- Creative Breakthroughs | Tim Hunt | TEDxLancasterU
- BBC Radio 4 interview with Jim Al-Khalili on The Life Scientific
- Hunt, Tim; Hunter, Tony; Munro, Alan (1968). "Control of haemoglobin synthesis: Distribution of ribosomes on the messenger RNA for α and β chains". Journal of Molecular Biology. 36 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90217-9. PMID 5760537.
- Hunt, Tim; Hunter, Tony; Munro, Alan (1968). "Control of haemoglobin synthesis: a difference in the size of the polysomes making alpha and beta chains". Nature. 220: 481–483. doi:10.1038/220481a0. PMID 5686164.
- Jackson, Peter K. (July 2008). "The Hunt for Cyclin". Cell. 134 (2): 199–202. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.011.
- "Understanding how cells divide – the story of a Nobel prize". Cancer Research UK - Science blog. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001 Illustrated Lecture
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- Cockerill, Matthew James (1996). D-type cyclins in Xenopus laevis. ucl.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University College London. OCLC 557383637.
- "Certificate of election EC/1991/14: Hunt, Richard Timothy". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015.
- "Fellow list entry for Tim Hunt on the Academy web pages". Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Tim Hunt entry in the online member directory of the US National Academy of Science". Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001". nobelprize.org.
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- "Interview about knighthoods on BBCR4 PM Show". 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Academia Superior - Academic Advisory Board. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
- "Collins' profile in the UCL IRIS database". Retrieved 21 June 2015.
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On July 18, The Times published a new bombshell: a 12-second recording of the final moments of Hunt’s remarks that Demina had discovered among her materials from the conference and turned over to the newspaper with Mensch’s help.Missing or empty
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he just ploughed on for about five to seven minutes.
As quoted by:
Sarah Harris/Guy Adams (28 June 2015). "University won't take back 'sexist' scientist: More Nobel winners back Sir Tim Hunt but ex-boss say gender equality comes first". Daily Mail. London.
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UCL was the first university in England to admit women students on equal terms to men, and the university believes that this outcome is compatible with our commitment to gender equality.
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- Hannah Devlin (9 July 2015). "Tim Hunt sexism dispute: UCL ruling council backs decision to let him go". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- Robin McKie (19 December 2015). "Tim Hunt and Mary Collins: 'We're not being chased out of the country. Our new life's an adventure'". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2015.