Pressure grouting or jet grouting involves injecting a grout material into otherwise inaccessible but interconnected pore or void space of which neither the configuration or volume are known, and is often referred to simply as grouting. The grout may be a cementitious, resinous, or solution chemical mixture. The greatest use of pressure grouting is to improve geomaterials (soil and rock). The purpose of grouting can be either to strengthen a formation or to reduce water flow through it. It is also used to correct faults in concrete and masonry structures. Since first usage in the 19th century, grouting has been performed on the foundation of virtually every one of the world’s large dams, in order to reduce the amount of leakage through the rock, and sometimes to strengthen the foundation to support the weight of the overlying structure, be it of concrete, earth, or rock fill. Although pressure grouting has become an essential ground engineering construction procedure - practiced by specialist contractors and engineers around the world - it must be stressed that, from design to implementation, pressure grouting is an interactive and iterative process, requiring expertise and cooperation across a variety of disciplines. Both experience and expertise are therefore absolutely essential for successful project-realizations.
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