# Portal:Geometry

An illustration of Desargues' theorem, an important result in Euclidean and projective geometry

Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. Islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.

 All of the trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O.

The trigonometric functions are functions of an angle; they are most important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among many other applications. They are commonly defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle, and can equivalently be defined as the lengths of various line segments from a unit circle. More modern definitions express them as infinite series or as solutions of certain differential equations, allowing their extension to positive and negative values and even to complex numbers.

The study of trigonometric functions dates back to Babylonian times, and a considerable amount of fundamental work was done by ancient Greek, Indian and Arab mathematicians.

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Euclid of Alexandria

Euclid (also referred to as Euclid of Alexandria) (Greek: Εὐκλείδης) (c. 325–c. 265 BC), a Greek mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Hellenistic Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC283 BC), is often considered to be the "father of geometry". His most popular work, Elements, is thought to be one of the most successful textbooks in the history of mathematics. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects are deduced from a small set of axioms, thereby founding the axiomatic method of mathematics.

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The above shows an example of doubly ruled surface – the hyperboloid of one sheet. Although the wires are straight lines, they are lying within the surface. Through any point on this surface pass two straight lines, so it is doubly ruled.

Algebraic geometry • Classical geometry
Conformal geometry • Convex geometry
Coordinate systemsDifferential geometry
Digital geometry • Dimension • Discrete geometry
Duality theories • Figurate numbers
Frames of reference • Geometers
Geometric algorithms • Geometric graph theory
Geometric group theoryGeometric shapes
Homogeneous spaces • Incidence geometry
Integral geometry • Metric geometry
Symmetry • Trigonometry

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Basic topics Trigonometry Euclidean geometry Other geometries
Differential geometry Riemannian geometry Algebraic geometry Other