Organelle

Organelle
Details
Pronunciation /ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/
Part of Cell
Identifiers
Latin organella
MeSH D015388
TH H1.00.01.0.00009
FMA 63832
Anatomical terms of microanatomy

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers.

The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body, hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive. Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. While prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles.[1]

History and terminology

Cell biology
The animal cell
Components of a typical animal cell:
  1. Nucleolus
  2. Nucleus
  3. Ribosome (little dots)
  4. Vesicle
  5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  6. Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi body")
  7. Cytoskeleton
  8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  9. Mitochondrion
  10. Vacuole
  11. Cytosol (fluid that contains organelles, comprising the cytoplasm)
  12. Lysosome
  13. Centrosome
  14. Cell membrane

In biology organs are defined as confined functional units within an organism.[2] The analogy of bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as from even early works, authors of respective textbooks rarely elaborate on the distinction between the two.

In the 1830s, Félix Dujardin refuted Ehrenberg theory which said that microorganisms have the same organs of multicellular animals, only minor.[3]

Credited as the first[4][5][6] to use a diminutive of organ (i.e., little organ) for cellular structures was German zoologist Karl August Möbius (1884), who used the term organula (plural of organulum, the diminutive of Latin organum).[7] In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms.

Types

While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis.[8][9][10]

Under this definition, there would only be two broad classes of organelles (i.e. those that contain their own DNA, and have originated from endosymbiotic bacteria):

  • mitochondria (in almost all eukaryotes)
  • plastids[11] (e.g. in plants, algae, and some protists).

Other organelles are also suggested to have endosymbiotic origins, but do not contain their own DNA (notably the flagellum – see evolution of flagella).

Under the more restricted definition of membrane-bound structures, some parts of the cell do not qualify as organelles. Nevertheless, the use of organelle to refer to non-membrane bound structures such as ribosomes is common.[12] This has led some texts to delineate between membrane-bound and non-membrane bound organelles.[13] The non-membrane bound organelles, also called large biomolecular complexes, are large assemblies of macromolecules that carry out particular and specialized functions, but they lack membrane boundaries. Such cell structures include:

  • large RNA and protein complexes: ribosome, spliceosome, vault
  • large protein complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, symmetric viral capsids, complex of GroEL and GroES; membrane protein complexes: photosystem I, ATP synthase
  • large DNA and protein complexes: nucleosome
  • centriole and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC)
  • cytoskeleton
  • flagellum
  • nucleolus
  • stress granule
  • germ cell granule
  • neuronal transport granule

Eukaryotic organelles

Eukaryotic cells are structurally complex, and by definition are organized, in part, by interior compartments that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane. The larger organelles, such as the nucleus and vacuoles, are easily visible with the light microscope. They were among the first biological discoveries made after the invention of the microscope.

Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some organelles that might otherwise be considered universal to eukaryotes (such as mitochondria).[14] There are also occasional exceptions to the number of membranes surrounding organelles, listed in the tables below (e.g., some that are listed as double-membrane are sometimes found with single or triple membranes). In addition, the number of individual organelles of each type found in a given cell varies depending upon the function of that cell.

Major eukaryotic organelles
Organelle Main function Structure Organisms Notes
chloroplast (plastid)photosynthesis, traps energy from sunlightdouble-membrane compartmentplants, protists, rare kleptoplastic organismshas own DNA; theorized to be engulfed by the ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
endoplasmic reticulumtranslation and folding of new proteins (rough endoplasmic reticulum), expression of lipids (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)single-membrane compartmentall eukaryotesrough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes, has folds that are flat sacs; smooth endoplasmic reticulum has folds that are tubular
flagellumlocomotion, sensorysome eukaryotes
Golgi apparatussorting, packaging, processing and modification of proteinssingle-membrane compartmentall eukaryotescis-face (convex) nearest to rough endoplasmic reticulum; trans-face (concave) farthest from rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrionenergy production from the oxidation of glucose substances and the release of adenosine triphosphatedouble-membrane compartmentmost eukaryotesconstituting element of the chondriome; has own DNA; theorized to be engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)[15]
nucleusDNA maintenance, controls all activities of the cell, RNA transcriptiondouble-membrane compartmentall eukaryotescontains bulk of genome
vacuolestorage, transportation, helps maintain homeostasissingle-membrane compartmenteukaryotes

Mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, have double membranes and their own DNA. According to the endosymbiotic theory, they are believed to have originated from incompletely consumed or invading prokaryotic organisms.

Minor eukaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
acrosomehelps spermatozoa fuse with ovumsingle-membrane compartmentmany animals
autophagosomevesicle that sequesters cytoplasmic material and organelles for degradationdouble-membrane compartmentall eukaryotes
centrioleanchor for cytoskeleton, organizes cell division by forming spindle fibersMicrotubule proteinanimals
ciliummovement in or of external medium; "critical developmental signaling pathway".[16]Microtubule proteinanimals, protists, few plants
cnidocyststingingcoiled hollow tubulecnidarians
eyespot apparatusdetects light, allowing phototaxis to take placegreen algae and other unicellular photosynthetic organisms such as euglenids
glycosomecarries out glycolysissingle-membrane compartmentSome protozoa, such as Trypanosomes.
glyoxysomeconversion of fat into sugarssingle-membrane compartmentplants
hydrogenosomeenergy & hydrogen productiondouble-membrane compartmenta few unicellular eukaryotes
lysosomebreakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins + polysaccharides)single-membrane compartmentanimals
melanosomepigment storagesingle-membrane compartmentanimals
mitosomeprobably plays a role in Iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) assemblydouble-membrane compartmenta few unicellular eukaryotes that lack mitochondria
myofibrilmyocyte contractionbundled filamentsanimals
nucleoluspre-ribosome productionprotein-DNA-RNAmost eukaryotes
ocelloiddetects light and possibly shapes, allowing phototaxis to take placedouble-membrane compartmentmembers of the family Warnowiaceae
parenthesomenot characterizednot characterizedfungi
peroxisomebreakdown of metabolic hydrogen peroxidesingle-membrane compartmentall eukaryotes
proteasomedegradation of unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysisvery large protein complexAll eukaryotes, all archaea, some bacteria
ribosome (80S)translation of RNA into proteinsRNA-proteinall eukaryotes
stress granule mRNA storage[17] membraneless

(mRNP complexes)

Most eukaryotes
vesiclematerial transportsingle-membrane compartmentall eukaryotes

Other related structures:

  • cytosol
  • endomembrane system
  • nucleosome
  • microtubule
  • cell membrane
(A) Electron micrograph of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus cells, arrows highlight carboxysomes. (B) Image of intact carboxysomes isolated from H. neapolitanus. Scale bars are 100 nm.[18]

Prokaryotic organelles

Prokaryotes are not as structurally complex as eukaryotes, and were once thought not to have any internal structures enclosed by lipid membranes. In the past, they were often viewed as having little internal organization, but slowly, details are emerging about prokaryotic internal structures. An early false turn was the idea developed in the 1970s that bacteria might contain membrane folds termed mesosomes, but these were later shown to be artifacts produced by the chemicals used to prepare the cells for electron microscopy.[19]

However, more recent research has revealed that at least some prokaryotes have microcompartments such as carboxysomes. These subcellular compartments are 100–200 nm in diameter and are enclosed by a shell of proteins.[1] Even more striking is the description of membrane-bound magnetosomes in bacteria, reported in 2006,[20][21] as well as the nucleus-like structures of the Planctomycetes that are surrounded by lipid membranes, reported in 2005.[22]

Prokaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
anammoxosomeanaerobic ammonium oxidationladderane membranePlanctomycetes
carboxysomecarbon fixationprotein-shell compartmentsome bacteria
chlorosomephotosynthesislight harvesting complexgreen sulfur bacteria
flagellummovement in external mediumprotein filamentsome prokaryotes and eukaryotes
magnetosomemagnetic orientationinorganic crystal, lipid membranemagnetotactic bacteria
mesosomesfunctions of Golgi bodies, centrioles, etc.small irregular shaped organelle containing ribosomespresent in most prokaryotic cells
nucleoidDNA maintenance, transcription to RNADNA-proteinprokaryotes
pilusAdhesion to other cells for conjugation or to a solid substrate to create motile forces.a hair-like appendage sticking out (though partially embedded into) the plasma membraneprokaryotic cells
plasmidDNA exchangecircular DNAsome bacteria
ribosome (70S)translation of RNA into proteinsRNA-proteinbacteria and archaea
thylakoidphotosynthesisphotosystem proteins and pigmentsmostly cyanobacteria

See also

  • CoRR hypothesis
  • Ejectosome
  • Endosymbiotic theory
  • Organelle biogenesis
  • Membrane vesicle trafficking
  • Host-pathogen interface

References

  1. 1 2 Kerfeld, C. A.; Sawaya, M. R; Tanaka, S; Nguyen, C. V.; Phillips, M; Beeby, M; Yeates, T. O. (August 5, 2005). "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles" (PDF). Science. 309 (5736): 936–8. Bibcode:2005Sci...309..936K. doi:10.1126/science.1113397. PMID 16081736.
  2. Lynsey Peterson (April 17, 2010). "Mastering the Parts of a Cell". Lesson Planet. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  3. Di Gregorio, M. A. (2005). From Here to Eternity: Ernst Haeckel and Scientific Faith. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 218.
  4. Bütschli, O. (1888). Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band. Protozoa. Dritte Abtheilung: Infusoria und System der Radiolaria. p. 1412. Die Vacuolen sind demnach in strengem Sinne keine beständigen Organe oder O r g a n u l a (wie Möbius die Organe der Einzelligen im Gegensatz zu denen der Vielzelligen zu nennen vorschlug).
  5. Amer. Naturalist. 23, 1889, p. 183: "It may possibly be of advantage to use the word organula here instead of organ, following a suggestion by Möbius. Functionally differentiated multicellular aggregates in multicellular forms or metazoa are in this sense organs, while, for functionally differentiated portions of unicellular organisms or for such differentiated portions of the unicellular germ-elements of metazoa, the diminutive organula is appropriate." Cited after: Oxford English Dictionary online, entry for "organelle".
  6. Robin, Ch. (1891). Journal de l'anatomie et de la physiologie normales et pathologiques de l'homme et des animaux. F. Alcan.
  7. Möbius, K. (September 1884). "Das Sterben der einzelligen und der vielzelligen Tiere. Vergleichend betrachtet". Biologisches Centralblatt. 4 (13, 14): 389–392, 448. Während die Fortpflanzungszellen der vielzelligen Tiere unthätig fortleben bis sie sich loslösen, wandern und entwickeln, treten die einzelligen Tiere auch durch die an der Fortpflanzung beteiligten Leibesmasse in Verkehr mit der Außenwelt und viele bilden sich dafür auch besondere Organula". Footnote on p. 448: "Die Organe der Heteroplastiden bestehen aus vereinigten Zellen. Da die Organe der Monoplastiden nur verschieden ausgebildete Teile e i n e r Zelle sind schlage ich vor, sie „Organula“ zu nennen
  8. Keeling, P.J.; Archibald, J.M. (April 22, 2008). "Organelle evolution: what's in a name?". Current Biology. 18 (8): R345–7. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.065. PMID 18430636.
  9. Imanian B, Carpenter KJ, Keeling PJ (March–April 2007). "Mitochondrial genome of a tertiary endosymbiont retains genes for electron transport proteins". The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology. 54 (2): 146–53. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00245.x. PMID 17403155.
  10. Mullins, Christopher (2004). "Theory of Organelle Biogenesis: A Historical Perspective". The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles. Springer Science+Business Media, National Institutes of Health. ISBN 0-306-47990-7.
  11. Hogan, C. Michael (2010). Deoxyribonucleic acid. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. S. Draggan and C. Cleveland (eds.). Washington DC
  12. Campbell and Reece, Biology 6th edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2002
  13. Cormack, David H. (1984) Introduction to Histology, Lippincott, ISBN 0397521146
  14. Fahey RC, Newton GL, Arrack B, Overdank-Bogart T, Baley S (April 6, 1984). "Entamoeba histolytica: a eukaryote without glutathione metabolism". Science. 224 (4644): 70–72. Bibcode:1984Sci...224...70F. doi:10.1126/science.6322306. PMID 6322306.
  15. Albert, Johnson, Lewis, Morgan, Raff, Robert,Walter, Bruce, Alexander D., Julian David, Martin, Keith, Peter. Molecular biology of the cell (Sixthition ed.). Garland Science. p. 679. ISBN 0815345240. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  16. Badano, Jose L.; Norimasa Mitsuma; Phil L. Beales; Nicholas Katsanis (September 2006). "The Ciliopathies: An Emerging Class of Human Genetic Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 7: 125–148. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.7.080505.115610. PMID 16722803.
  17. Anderson, Paul; Kedersha, Nancy (March 1, 2008). "Stress granules: the Tao of RNA triage". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 33 (3): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2007.12.003. PMID 18291657.
  18. Tsai Y, Sawaya MR, Cannon GC, Cai F, Williams EB, Heinhorst S, Kerfeld CA, Yeates TO (2007). "Structural Analysis of CsoS1A and the Protein Shell of the Halothiobacillus neapolitanus Carboxysome". PLoS Biology. 5 (6): e144. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050144. PMC 1872035. PMID 17518518.
  19. Ryter A (January–February 1988). "Contribution of new cryomethods to a better knowledge of bacterial anatomy". Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 139 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1016/0769-2609(88)90095-6. PMID 3289587.
  20. Komeili A, Li Z, Newman DK, Jensen GJ (January 13, 2006). "Magnetosomes are cell membrane invaginations organized by the actin-like protein MamK". Science. 311 (5758): 242–5. Bibcode:2006Sci...311..242K. doi:10.1126/science.1123231. PMID 16373532.
  21. Scheffel A, Gruska M, Faivre D, Linaroudis A, Plitzko JM, Schüler D (March 2, 2006). "An acidic protein aligns magnetosomes along a filamentous structure in magnetotactic bacteria". Nature. 440 (7080): 110–4. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..110S. doi:10.1038/nature04382. PMID 16299495.
  22. Fuerst, J.A. (October 13, 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 299–328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804.121258. PMID 15910279.
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