Introduction to Algorithms
Cover of the third edition  
Author 
Thomas H. Cormen Charles E. Leiserson Ronald L. Rivest Clifford Stein 

Country 

Language  English 
Subject  Computer algorithms 
Publisher  MIT Press 
Publication date  1990 (first edition) 
Pages  1312 
ISBN  9780262033848 
Introduction to Algorithms is a book by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. The book has been widely used as the textbook for algorithms courses at many universities^{[1]} and is commonly cited as a reference for algorithms in published papers, with over 10,000 citations documented on CiteSeerX.^{[2]} The book sold half a million copies during its first 20 years.^{[3]} Its fame has led to the common use of the abbreviation "CLRS" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein), or, in the first edition, "CLR" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest).^{[4]}
In the preface, the authors write about how the book was written to be comprehensive and useful in both teaching and professional environments. Each chapter focuses on an algorithm, and discusses its design techniques and areas of application. Instead of using a specific programming language, the algorithms are written in Pseudocode. The descriptions focus on the aspects of the algorithm itself, its mathematical properties, and emphasize efficiency.^{[5]}
Editions
The first edition of the textbook did not include Stein as an author, and thus the book became known by the initialism CLR. It included two chapters ("Arithmetic Circuits" & "Algorithms for Parallel Computers") that were dropped in the second edition. After the addition of the fourth author in the second edition, many began to refer to the book as "CLRS". This first edition of the book was also known as "The Big White Book (of Algorithms)." With the second edition, the predominant color of the cover changed to green, causing the nickname to be shortened to just "The Big Book (of Algorithms)."^{[6]} A third edition was published in August 2009. Plans for the next edition started in 2014, but the fourth edition will be published in 2019 the earliest, and likely later than that.^{[7]}
Cover design
The mobile depicted on the cover, Big Red (1959) by Alexander Calder, can be found at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City.^{[8]}
Table of contents
 I Foundations
 1 The Role of Algorithms in Computing
 2 Getting Started
 3 Growth of Function
 4 DivideandConquer
 5 Probabilistic Analysis and Randomized Algorithms
 II Sorting and Order Statistics
 6 Heapsort
 7 Quicksort
 8 Sorting in Linear Time
 9 Medians and Order Statistics
 III Data Structures
 10 Elementary Data Structures
 11 Hash Tables
 12 Binary Search Trees
 13 RedBlack Trees
 14 Augmenting Data Structures
 IV Advanced Design and Analysis Techniques
 15 Dynamic Programming
 16 Greedy Algorithms
 17 Amortized Analysis
 V Advanced Data Structures
 18 BTrees
 19 Fibonacci Heap
 20 Van Emde Boas Trees
 21 Data Structures for Disjoint Sets
 VI Graph Algorithms
 22 Elementary Graph Algorithms
 23 Minimum Spanning Trees
 24 SingleSource Shortest Paths
 25 AllPairs Shortest Paths
 26 Maximum Flow
 VII Selected Topics
 27 Multithreaded Algorithms
 28 Matrix Operations
 29 Linear Programming
 30 Polynomials and the FFT
 31 NumberTheoretic Algorithms
 32 String Matching
 33 Computational Geometry
 34 NPCompleteness
 35 Approximation Algorithms
 VIII Appendix: Mathematical Background
 A Summations
 B Sets, Etc.
 C Counting and Probability
 D Matrices
Publication history
 Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L. (1990). Introduction to Algorithms (1st ed.). MIT Press and McGrawHill. ISBN 0262031418.
 Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2001) [1990]. Introduction to Algorithms (2nd ed.). MIT Press and McGrawHill. ISBN 0262032937. 12 printings up to 2009, errata:^{[9]}
 Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2009) [1990]. Introduction to Algorithms (3rd ed.). MIT Press and McGrawHill. ISBN 0262033844. 5 printings up to 2016), errata:^{[10]}
See also
References
 ↑ "Introduction to Algorithms". MIT Press. Retrieved 20170702.
 ↑ "Introduction to Algorithms—CiteSeerX citation query". CiteSeerX. The College of Information Sciences and Technology at Penn State. Retrieved 20120515.
 ↑ Larry Hardesty (August 10, 2011). "Milestone for MIT Press's bestseller". MIT News Office. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
 ↑ "Eternally Confuzzled  Red/Black Trees".
 ↑ Cormen; Leiserson; Riverst; Stein (2009). "Preface". Introduction to Algorithms (3 ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 9780262033848.
 ↑ "VBusiness Card". www.csd.uwo.ca.
 ↑ "When will the 4th edition of "Introduction to Algorithms" (CLRS) be published? Is it going to be available in 2018?  Quora". www.quora.com.
 ↑ Cormen et al, back cover. See, also, Big Red at the Whitney Museum of American Art web site.
 ↑ "Introduction to Algorithms, Second Edition". www.cs.dartmouth.edu.
 ↑ "Introduction to Algorithms, Third Edition". www.cs.dartmouth.edu.
External links
 Official websites
 by MIT Press
 MIT lecture "MIT 6.046J / 18.410J Introduction to Algorithms  Fall 2005". Held in part by coauthor Charles Leiserson. Released as part of MIT OpenCourseWare.
 At OCW.MIT.Edu. Video recordings and transcripts of the lectures.
 At VideoLectures.Net. Video recordings of the lectures. Includes slides automatically synchronized to video content.
 Exercise Solutions
 While there are no official solutions, the following may be helpful:
 Chapters 1  11
 Chapters 13  26
 GitHub