List of chemical elements

As of September 2018, 118 chemical elements are identified. A chemical element or element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, or Z).[1] Therefore, the elements can be listed by the number of protons in the atom of each element as listed below.

List

List of chemical elements
Z[upper-roman 1] Symbol Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Atomic weight[4][5] (u (±)) Density (g/cm3) Melt (K) [6] Boil (K) C[upper-roman 1] (J/g · K) χ[upper-roman 1] Abundance in Earth's crust[upper-roman 2] (mg/kg)
1HHydrogencomposed of the Greek elements hydro- and -gen meaning 'water-forming'111.008[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.0000898814.0120.2814.3042.201400
2HeHeliumthe Greek helios, 'sun'1814.002602(2)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]0.0001785[upper-roman 7]4.225.1930.008
3LiLithiumthe Greek lithos, 'stone'126.94[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 8][upper-roman 6]0.534453.6915603.5820.9820
4BeBerylliumberyl, a mineral229.0121831(5)1.85156027421.8251.572.8
5BBoronborax, a mineral13210.81[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.34234942001.0262.0410
6CCarbonthe Latin carbo, 'coal'14212.011[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.267380043000.7092.55200
7NNitrogenthe Greek nitron and '-gen' meaning 'niter-forming'15214.007[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.001250663.1577.361.043.0419
8OOxygenfrom the Greek oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'16215.999[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.00142954.3690.200.9183.44461000
9FFluorinethe Latin fluere, 'to flow'17218.998403163(6)0.00169653.5385.030.8243.98585
10NeNeonthe Greek neos, meaning 'new'18220.1797(6)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.000899924.5627.071.030.005
11NaSodiumthe English word soda (natrium in Latin)1322.98976928(2)0.971370.8711561.2280.9323600
12MgMagnesiumMagnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece2324.305[upper-roman 6]1.73892313631.0231.3123300
13AlAluminiumfrom alumina, a compound (originally alumium)13326.9815385(7)2.698933.4727920.8971.6182300
14SiSiliconfrom the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium)14328.085[upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.3296168735380.7051.9282000
15PPhosphorusthe Greek phoosphoros, 'carrying light'15330.973761998(5)1.82317.305500.7692.191050
16SSulfurthe Latin sulphur, 'fire and brimstone'16332.06[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.067388.36717.870.712.58350
17ClChlorinethe Greek chloros, 'greenish yellow'17335.45[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.003214171.6239.110.4793.16145
18ArArgonthe Greek argos, 'idle'18339.948(1)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]0.001783783.8087.300.523.5
19KPotassiumNew Latin potassa, 'potash' (kalium in Latin)1439.0983(1)0.862336.5310320.7570.8220900
20CaCalciumthe Latin calx, 'lime'2440.078(4)[upper-roman 3]1.54111517570.647141500
21ScScandiumScandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia3444.955908(5)2.989181431090.5681.3622
22TiTitaniumTitans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology4447.867(1)4.54194135600.5231.545650
23VVanadiumVanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja5450.9415(1)6.11218336800.4891.63120
24CrChromiumthe Greek chroma, 'colour'6451.9961(6)7.15218029440.4491.66102
25MnManganesecorrupted from magnesia negra, see Magnesium7454.938044(3)7.44151923340.4791.55950
26FeIronEnglish word (ferrum in Latin)8455.845(2)7.874181131340.4491.8356300
27CoCobaltthe German word Kobold, 'goblin'9458.933194(4)8.86176832000.4211.8825
28NiNickelfrom a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel10458.6934(4)8.912172831860.4441.9184
29CuCopperEnglish word (Latin cuprum)11463.546(3)[upper-roman 5]8.961357.7728350.3851.960
30ZnZincGerman word Zinke (prong, tooth)12465.38(2)7.134692.8811800.3881.6570
31GaGalliumGallia, the Latin name for France13469.723(1)5.907302.914626730.3711.8119
32GeGermaniumGermania, the Latin name for Germany14472.630(8)5.3231211.4031060.322.011.5
33AsArsenicEnglish word (Latin arsenicum)15474.921595(6)5.7761090 [upper-roman 9]8870.3292.181.8
34SeSeleniumthe Greek selene, 'moon'16478.971(8)[upper-roman 5]4.8094539580.3212.550.05
35BrBrominethe Greek bromos, 'stench'17479.904[upper-roman 6]3.122265.8332.00.4742.962.4
36KrKryptonthe Greek kryptos, 'hidden'18483.798(2)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.003733115.79119.930.24831×10−4
37RbRubidiumthe Latin rubidus, 'deep red'1585.4678(3)[upper-roman 3]1.532312.469610.3630.8290
38SrStrontiumStrontian, a small town in Scotland2587.62(1)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]2.64105016550.3010.95370
39YYttriumYtterby, Sweden3588.90584(2)4.469179936090.2981.2233
40ZrZirconiumPersian Zargun, 'gold-colored'; German Zirkoon, 'jargoon'4591.224(2)[upper-roman 3]6.506212846820.2781.33165
41NbNiobiumNiobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology5592.90637(2)8.57275050170.2651.620
42MoMolybdenumthe Greek molybdos meaning 'lead'6595.95(1)[upper-roman 3]10.22289649120.2512.161.2
43TcTechnetiumthe Greek tekhnètos meaning 'artificial'75[98][upper-roman 10]11.5243045381.9~ 3×10−9[upper-roman 11]
44RuRutheniumRuthenia, the New Latin name for Russia85101.07(2)[upper-roman 3]12.37260744230.2382.20.001
45RhRhodiumthe Greek rhodos, meaning 'rose coloured'95102.90550(2)12.41223739680.2432.280.001
46PdPalladiumthe then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time105106.42(1)[upper-roman 3]12.021828.0532360.2442.20.015
47AgSilverEnglish word (argentum in Latin)115107.8682(2)[upper-roman 3]10.5011234.9324350.2351.930.075
48CdCadmiumthe New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos125112.414(4)[upper-roman 3]8.69594.2210400.2321.690.159
49InIndiumindigo135114.818(1)7.31429.7523450.2331.780.25
50SnTinEnglish word (stannum in Latin)145118.710(7)[upper-roman 3]7.287505.0828750.2281.962.3
51SbAntimonyuncertain: perhaps from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone', or the Old French antimoine, 'Monk's bane' (stibium in Latin)155121.760(1)[upper-roman 3]6.685903.7818600.2072.050.2
52TeTelluriumLatin tellus, 'earth'165127.60(3)[upper-roman 3]6.232722.6612610.2022.10.001
53IIodineFrench iode (after the Greek ioeides, 'violet')175126.90447(3)4.93386.85457.40.2142.660.45
54XeXenonthe Greek xenos, 'strange'185131.293(6)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.005887161.4165.030.1582.63×10−5
55CsCaesiumthe Latin caesius, 'sky blue'16132.90545196(6)1.873301.599440.2420.793
56BaBariumthe Greek barys, 'heavy'26137.327(7)3.594100021700.2040.89425
57LaLanthanumthe Greek lanthanein, 'to lie hidden'36138.90547(7)[upper-roman 3]6.145119337370.1951.139
58CeCeriumthe then recently discovered asteroid Ceres, considered a planet at the time6140.116(1)[upper-roman 3]6.77106837160.1921.1266.5
59PrPraseodymiumthe Greek praseios didymos meaning 'green twin'6140.90766(2)6.773120837930.1931.139.2
60NdNeodymiumthe Greek neos didymos meaning 'new twin'6144.242(3)[upper-roman 3]7.007129733470.191.1441.5
61PmPromethiumPrometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans6[145][upper-roman 10]7.26131532731.132×10−19[upper-roman 11]
62SmSamariumSamarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated6150.36(2)[upper-roman 3]7.52134520670.1971.177.05
63EuEuropiumEurope6151.964(1)[upper-roman 3]5.243109918020.1821.22
64GdGadoliniumJohan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist6157.25(3)[upper-roman 3]7.895158535460.2361.26.2
65TbTerbiumYtterby, Sweden6158.92535(2)8.229162935030.1821.21.2
66DyDysprosiumthe Greek dysprositos, 'hard to get'6162.500(1)[upper-roman 3]8.55168028400.171.225.2
67HoHolmiumHolmia, the New Latin name for Stockholm6164.93033(2)8.795173429930.1651.231.3
68ErErbiumYtterby, Sweden6167.259(3)[upper-roman 3]9.066180231410.1681.243.5
69TmThuliumThule, the ancient name for Scandinavia6168.93422(2)9.321181822230.161.250.52
70YbYtterbiumYtterby, Sweden6173.045(10)[upper-roman 3]6.965109714690.1551.13.2
71LuLutetiumLutetia, the Latin name for Paris6174.9668(1)[upper-roman 3]9.84192536750.1541.270.8
72HfHafniumHafnia, the New Latin name for Copenhagen46178.49(2)13.31250648760.1441.33
73TaTantalumKing Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology56180.94788(2)16.654329057310.141.52
74WTungstenthe Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)66183.84(1)19.25369558280.1322.361.3
75ReRheniumRhenus, the Latin name for the river Rhine76186.207(1)21.02345958690.1371.97×10−4
76OsOsmiumthe Greek osmè, meaning 'smell'86190.23(3)[upper-roman 3]22.61330652850.132.20.002
77IrIridiumIris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow96192.217(3)22.56271947010.1312.20.001
78PtPlatinumthe Spanish platina, meaning 'little silver'106195.084(9)21.462041.440980.1332.280.005
79AuGoldEnglish word (aurum in Latin)116196.966569(5)19.2821337.3331290.1292.540.004
80HgMercurythe New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver')126200.592(3)13.5336234.43629.880.1420.085
81TlThalliumthe Greek thallos, 'green twig'136204.38[upper-roman 6]11.8557717460.1291.620.85
82PbLeadEnglish word (plumbum in Latin)146207.2(1)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]11.342600.6120220.1291.8714
83BiBismuthUncertain, possibly Arabic or German156208.98040(1)[upper-roman 10]9.807544.718370.1222.020.009
84PoPoloniumNamed after the home country of Marie Curie (Polonia, Latin for Poland), who is also the discoverer of Radium166[209][upper-roman 10]9.3252712352.02×10−10[upper-roman 11]
85AtAstatinethe Greek astatos, 'unstable'176[210][upper-roman 10]75756102.23×10−20[upper-roman 11]
86RnRadonFrom radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay186[222][upper-roman 10]0.00973202211.30.0942.24×10−13[upper-roman 11]
87FrFranciumFrancia, the New Latin name for France17[223][upper-roman 10]1.873009500.7~ 1×10−18[upper-roman 11]
88RaRadiumthe Latin radius, 'ray'27[226][upper-roman 10]5.597320100.0940.99×10−7[upper-roman 11]
89AcActiniumthe Greek aktis, 'ray'37[227][upper-roman 10]10.07132334710.121.15.5×10−10[upper-roman 11]
90ThThoriumThor, the Scandinavian god of thunder7232.0377(4)[upper-roman 10][upper-roman 3]11.72211550610.1131.39.6
91PaProtactiniumthe Greek protos, 'first', and actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium7231.03588(2)[upper-roman 10]15.37184143001.51.4×10−6[upper-roman 11]
92UUraniumUranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System7238.02891(3)[upper-roman 10]18.951405.344040.1161.382.7
93NpNeptuniumNeptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System7[237][upper-roman 10]20.4591742731.36 3×10−12[upper-roman 11]
94PuPlutoniumPluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System (then considered the ninth planet)7[244][upper-roman 10]19.84912.535011.28 3×10−11[upper-roman 11]
95AmAmericiumThe Americas, as the element was first synthesised on the continent, by analogy with europium7[243][upper-roman 10]13.69144928801.130[upper-roman 12]
96CmCuriumPierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist, named after great scientists by analogy with gadolinium7[247][upper-roman 10]13.51161333831.280[upper-roman 12]
97BkBerkeliumBerkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with terbium7[247][upper-roman 10]14.79125929001.30[upper-roman 12]
98CfCaliforniumCalifornia, where the element was first synthesised7[251][upper-roman 10]15.11173(1743)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
99EsEinsteiniumAlbert Einstein, physicist7[252][upper-roman 10]8.841133(1269)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
100FmFermiumEnrico Fermi, physicist7[257][upper-roman 10](9.7)[upper-roman 13](1125)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
101MdMendeleviumDmitri Mendeleev, chemist and inventor7[258][upper-roman 10](10.3)[upper-roman 13](1100)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
102NoNobeliumAlfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, inventor of dynamite7[259][upper-roman 10](9.9)[upper-roman 13](1100)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
103LrLawrenciumErnest O. Lawrence, physicist7[266][upper-roman 10](15.6)[upper-roman 13](1900)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
104RfRutherfordiumErnest Rutherford, chemist and physicist47[267][upper-roman 10](23.2)[upper-roman 13](2400)[upper-roman 13](5800)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
105DbDubniumDubna, Russia57[268][upper-roman 10](29.3)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
106SgSeaborgiumGlenn T. Seaborg, scientist67[269][upper-roman 10](35.0)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
107BhBohriumNiels Bohr, physicist77[270][upper-roman 10](37.1)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
108HsHassiumHesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesised87[277][upper-roman 10](40.7)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
109MtMeitneriumLise Meitner, physicist97[278][upper-roman 10](37.4)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
110DsDarmstadtiumDarmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised107[281][upper-roman 10](34.8)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
111RgRoentgeniumWilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist117[282][upper-roman 10](28.7)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
112CnCoperniciumNicolaus Copernicus, astronomer127[285][upper-roman 10](23.7)[upper-roman 13]~357[upper-roman 14]0[upper-roman 12]
113NhNihoniumthe Japanese name for Japan, Nihon, where the element was first synthesised137[286][upper-roman 10](16)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](1400)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
114FlFleroviumFlerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR where the element was synthesised; itself named for Georgy Flyorov, physicist147[289][upper-roman 10](14)[upper-roman 13]~2100[upper-roman 12]
115McMoscoviumMoscow Oblast, Russia, where the element was first synthesised157[290][upper-roman 10](13.5)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](1400)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
116LvLivermoriumLawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California) which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis167[293][upper-roman 10](12.9)[upper-roman 13](709)[upper-roman 13](1085)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
117TsTennessineTennessee, United States177[294][upper-roman 10](7.2)[upper-roman 13](723)[upper-roman 13](883)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
118OgOganessonYuri Oganessian, physicist187[294][upper-roman 10](5.0)[upper-roman 13][upper-roman 15](350)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]

Notes

  1. Z is the standard symbol for atomic number; C is the standard symbol for heat capacity; and χ is the standard symbol for electronegativity on the Pauling scale.
  2. Unless otherwise indicated, elements are primordial – they occur naturally, and not through decay.
  3. The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  4. The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  6. The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  7. Helium does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmospheres, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero.
  8. The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  9. This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.
  10. The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  11. This element is transient – it occurs only through decay.
  12. This element is synthetic – the transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but they can all be produced artificially.
  13. The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  14. With error bars: 357+112
    −108
     K.
  15. This predicted value is for liquid oganesson, not gaseous oganesson.

See also

References

  1. IUPAC (ed.). "chemical element". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022.
  2. "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. Wieser, Michael E.; et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. IUPAC. 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02. (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  5. Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)
  6. Holman, S. W.; Lawrence, R. R.; Barr, L. (1 January 1895). "Melting Points of Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Copper, and Platinum". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 31: 218–233. doi:10.2307/20020628. JSTOR 20020628.

External links

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared
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