Hardnesses of the elements (data page)

numbersymbolnameMohs hardness[1]Vickers hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[note 1][2]
3Lilithium 0.65
4Beberyllium 5.51670590–1320
5Bboron 9.34900
6Ccarbon (graphite) 0.5
6Ccarbon (diamond) 10.0
11Nasodium 0.50.69
12Mgmagnesium 2.526044 (cast)
13Alaluminium 2.75160–350160–550184 (annealed)
14Sisilicon 6.5
16Ssulfur 2.0
19Kpotassium 0.40.363
20Cacalcium 1.75170416
21Scscandium 736–1200
22Tititanium 6.0830–3420716–27701028 (annealed)
23Vvanadium 7.0628–640600–628742 (annealed)
24Crchromium 8.51060687-6500688 (annealed)
25Mnmanganese 6.0196
26Feiron 4.0608200-1180
27Cocobalt 5.01043470–30001291 (annealed)
28Ninickel 4.0638667–1600900–1200 (annealed)
29Cucopper 3.0343–369235–878520 (rolled)
30Znzinc 2.5327–412480–520 (cast)
31Gagallium 1.556.8–68.7
32Gegermanium 6.0
33Asarsenic 3.51440
34Seselenium 2.0736
37Rbrubidium 0.30.216
38Srstrontium 1.5
39Yyttrium 200–589
40Zrzirconium 5.0820–1800638–1880333
41Nbniobium 6.0870–1320735–2450735 (annealed)
42Momolybdenum 5.51400–27401370–25001340 (cast)
44Ruruthenium 6.521601795 (annealed)
45Rhrhodium 6.01100–8000980–1350540 (annealed)
46Pdpalladium 4.75400–600320–610310 (cast)
47Agsilver 2.5250245–250206 (annealed)
48Cdcadmium 2.0203–220196
49Inindium 1.28.83-109.8
50Sntin 1.551–75292–441 (cast)
51Sbantimony 3.0294–384
52Tetellurium 2.25180–270
55Cscaesium 0.20.147
56Babarium 1.25
57Lalanthanum 2.5360–1750350–400
58Cecerium 2.5210–470186–412
59Prpraseodymium 250–746250–638
60Ndneodymium 343–746265–700
61Pmpromethium 617.8
62Smsamarium 412–441441–600
63Eueuropium 167–200
64Gdgadolinium 510–950
65Tbterbium 450–863677–1200
66Dydysprosium 412–550500–1050
67Hoholmium 412–600500–1250
68Ererbium 432–700600–1070
69Tmthulium 470–650471–900
70Ybytterbium 206–250343–441
71Lulutetium 755–1160893–1300
72Hfhafnium 5.51520–20601450–2100
73Tatantalum 6.5873–1200441-3430441–1224 (annealed)
74Wtungsten 7.53430–46002000–40001960–2450 (annealed)
75Rerhenium 7.01350-78501320–2500
76Ososmium 7.03920–40003487
77Iriridium 6.51760–220016702120
78Ptplatinum 3.5400–549310–500299 (annealed)
79Augold 2.5188–216188–245189 (cast)
80Hgmercury 1.5
81Tlthallium 1.226.5–44.7
82Pblead 1.538–5037.5–41.8 (cast)
83Bibismuth 2.2570–94.270
90Ththorium 3.0294–687390–1500
92Uuranium 6.01960–25002350–3850

Notes

  1. Hardness can vary by several hundred percent depending on the pretreatment, see e.g. Iron#Mechanical properties and Angelo Basile; Fausto Gallucci (2011). Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-470-74652-3.

References

  1. G.V. Samsonov, ed. (1968). "Mechanical Properties of the Elements". Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements. New York, USA: IFI-Plenum. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-6066-7_7. ISBN 978-1-4684-6066-7. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  2. John Harris; Walter Benenson; Horst Stöcker (2002). Handbook of physics. Springer. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-387-95269-7.

See also

  • Mohs scale of mineral hardness
  • Vickers hardness test
  • Brinell scale
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