Congener (chemistry)

In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".[1]

Common origin and structure

Any significant quantity of a polyhalogenated compound is by default a blend of multiple molecule types because each molecule forms independently, and chlorine and bromine do not strongly select which site(s) they bond to.

Common origin

  • Congener (alcohol), substances other than alcohol (desirable or undesirable) also produced during fermentation.
  • Congeners of oleic acids can modify cell membrane behavior, protecting against tumors or having effects on blood pressure.[2]

Common structure


  • Congeners refer to the various oxidation states of a given element in a compound. For example, titanium(II) chloride (titanium dichloride), titanium(III) chloride (titanium trichloride), and titanium(IV) chloride (titanium tetrachloride) may be considered congeners.
  • Congeners can refer to other elements in the same group in the periodic table. For example, congeners of the Group 11 element copper are silver and gold, sometimes found together in the same ores (porphyry copper deposit) due to their chemical similarity.


  1. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006) "congener".
  2. Effects of oleic acid and its congeners, elaidic and stearic acids, on the structural properties of phosphatidylethanolamine membranes
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