Abundances of the elements (data page)

Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust

  • C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook
  • C2 — Crust: Kaye and Laby
  • C3 — Crust: Greenwood
  • C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
  • C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
  • U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)
Mass fraction, in kg/kg
C1C2C3C4C5C6U1U2
01 H hydrogen 0.00141.40×10−3 0.001521.520×10−3
02 He helium 0.000000008008×10−9
03 Li lithium 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00001371.37×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5
04 Be beryllium 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.00000202.0×10−6 0.00000202×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6 0.00000303.000×10−6
05 B boron 0.0000101.0×10−5 0.00000707.0×10−6 0.00000909×10−6 0.0000101.0000×10−5 0.00001501.5000×10−5
06 C carbon 0.000202.00×10−4 0.0001801.80×10−4 0.0037603.76×10−3
07 N nitrogen 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.4614.61×10−1 0.3703.7×10−1 0.4554.55000×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.0005855.85×10−4 0.000464.6×10−4 0.0005445.44×10−4 0.0005255.25×10−4
10 Ne neon 0.00000000505×10−9
11 Na sodium 0.02362.36×10−2 0.0232.3×10−2 0.0272.2700×10−2 0.0232.3000×10−2 0.02442.4400×10−2 0.0313.1000×10−2 0.02892.89×10−2 0.02572.57×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.02332.33×10−2 0.0282.8×10−2 0.027642.7640×10−2 0.0323.20×10−2 0.02372.37×10−2 0.01691.69×10−2 0.01331.33×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2
13 Al aluminium 0.08238.23×10−2 0.088.0×10−2 0.0838.3000×10−2 0.08418.4100×10−2 0.083058.3050×10−2 0.08528.5200×10−2 0.08048.0400×10−2 0.07747.7400×10−2
14 Si silicon 0.2822.82×10−1 0.272.7×10−1 0.2722.72000×10−1 0.26772.677×10−1 0.2812.81×10−1 0.2952.95×10−1 0.3083.08×10−1 0.3043.04×10−1
15 P phosphorus 0.001051.05×10−3 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001121.120×10−3 0.0007637.63×10−4 0.000838.30×10−4
16 S sulfur 0.000353.50×10−4 0.00033.0×10−4 0.000343.40×10−4 0.0008818.81×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.0001451.45×10−4 0.000191.9×10−4 0.0001261.26×10−4 0.00191.900×10−3
18 Ar argon 0.00000353.5×10−6
19 K potassium 0.02092.09×10−2 0.0171.7×10−2 0.01841.8400×10−2 0.00919.100×10−3 0.01761.7600×10−2 0.0171.7000×10−2 0.0282.8000×10−2 0.02572.5700×10−2
20 Ca calcium 0.04154.15×10−2 0.0515.1×10−2 0.04664.6600×10−2 0.05295.2900×10−2 0.04924.9200×10−2 0.0343.4000×10−2 0.033.0000×10−2 0.02952.9500×10−2
21 Sc scandium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.00003003.0×10−5 0.00002142.14×10−5 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077×10−6
22 Ti titanium 0.005655.65×10−3 0.00868.6×10−3 0.006326.320×10−3 0.00545.400×10−3 0.005255.250×10−3 0.00363.600×10−3 0.0033.000×10−3 0.003123.120×10−3
23 V vanadium 0.000121.20×10−4 0.000171.7×10−4 0.0001361.36×10−4 0.000232.30×10−4 0.0001341.34×10−4 0.00006006.0×10−5 0.0000535.3×10−5
24 Cr chromium 0.0001021.02×10−4 0.0000969.6×10−5 0.0001221.22×10−4 0.0001851.85×10−4 0.0001461.46×10−4 0.0000565.6×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5
25 Mn manganese 0.000959.50×10−4 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001061.060×10−3 0.001041.400×10−3 0.0008478.47×10−4 0.0011.000×10−3 0.00066.00×10−4 0.0005275.27×10−4
26 Fe iron 0.05635.63×10−2 0.0585.8×10−2 0.0626.2000×10−2 0.07077.07×10−2 0.04924.92×10−2 0.0383.8×10−2 0.0353.50×10−2 0.03093.09×10−2
27 Co cobalt 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.00002542.54×10−5 0.00001001.0×10−5 0.0000121.2×10−5
28 Ni nickel 0.0000848.4×10−5 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.0000999.9×10−5 0.0001051.05×10−4 0.00006956.95×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000202×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
29 Cu copper 0.000066.0×10−5 0.0000585.8×10−5 0.0000686.8×10−5 0.0000757.5×10−5 0.0000474.7×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
30 Zn zinc 0.000077.0×10−5 0.0000828.2×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.000088.0×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.0000717.1×10−5 0.0000525.2×10−5
31 Ga gallium 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.00001861.86×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
32 Ge germanium 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001321.32×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6
33 As arsenic 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.000002032.03×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6
34 Se selenium 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.0000001531.53×10−7 0.000000055×10−8
35 Br bromine 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.0000044.0×10−6 0.00000252.5×10−6 0.000006956.95×10−6
36 Kr krypton 0.00000000011×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000909.0×10−5 0.0000707.0×10−5 0.0000787.8×10−5 0.0000323.2×10−5 0.0000797.90×10−5 0.0000616.1×10−5 0.000121.12×10−4 0.000111.10×10−4
38 Sr strontium 0.000373.70×10−4 0.000454.5×10−4 0.0003843.84×10−4 0.000262.60×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 0.0005035.03×10−4 0.000353.50×10−4 0.0003163.16×10−4
39 Y yttrium 0.0000333.3×10−5 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.0000313.1×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5
40 Zr zirconium 0.0001651.65×10−4 0.000141.4×10−4 0.0001621.62×10−4 0.0001001.00×10−4 0.000212.10×10−4 0.000191.90×10−4 0.000242.40×10−4
41 Nb niobium 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000111.1000×10−5 0.0000131.3000×10−5 0.0000252.5000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
45 Rh rhodium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
46 Pd palladium 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000033×10−9 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000011.0×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
47 Ag silver 0.0000000757.5×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000161.6×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8 0.00000011.00×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8
49 In indium 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
50 Sn tin 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6 0.00000555.500×10−6
51 Sb antimony 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7 0.0000002032.03×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7
52 Te tellurium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9 0.000000002032.03×10−9
53 I iodine 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000464.6×10−7 0.000001541.540×10−6
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000033×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.000003003×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000001001.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6
56 Ba barium 0.0004254.25×10−4 0.000383.8×10−4 0.000393.90×10−4 0.000252.50000×10−4 0.0005425.42000×10−4 0.0007077.07000×10−4 0.000555.50000×10−4 0.001071.070000×10−3
57 La lanthanum 0.0000393.9×10−5 0.000055.0×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.0000292.9000×10−5 0.0000282.8000×10−5 0.000033.0000×10−5 0.00000323.200×10−6
58 Ce cerium 0.00006656.65×10−5 0.0000838.3×10−5 0.0000666.6×10−5 0.0000333.3000×10−5 0.00005425.4200×10−5 0.0000575.7000×10−5 0.0000646.4000×10−5 0.0000656.5000×10−5
59 Pr praseodymium 0.00000929.2×10−6 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00000919.1×10−6 0.00000393.900×10−6 0.00000717.100×10−6
60 Nd neodymium 0.00004154.15×10−5 0.0000444.4×10−5 0.000044.0×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.00002542.5400×10−5 0.0000232.3000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 0.000007057.05×10−6 0.00000777.7×10−6 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.000005595.590×10−6 0.00000414.100×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6
63 Eu europium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000111.100×10−6 0.0000014071.407×10−6 0.000001091.090×10−6 0.000000888.80×10−7 0.000000949.40×10−7
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000626.2×10−6 0.00000636.3×10−6 0.00000616.1×10−6 0.00000333.300×10−6 0.000008148.140×10−6 0.00000383.800×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6
65 Tb terbium 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000066.00×10−7 0.000001021.020×10−6 0.000000535.30×10−7 0.000000646.40×10−7 0.000000484.80×10−7
66 Dy dysprosium 0.00000525.2×10−6 0.00000858.5×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6 0.0000061026.102×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6
67 Ho holmium 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.000000787.80×10−7 0.000001861.860×10−6 0.00000088.00×10−7 0.000000626.20×10−7
68 Er erbium 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000363.6×10−6 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.00000232.300×10−6
69 Tm thulium 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000242.40×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7
70 Yb ytterbium 0.00000323.2×10−6 0.00000343.4×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.000001531.530×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000303.00×10−7 0.0000005765.76×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7
72 Hf hafnium 0.000003003.0×10−6 0.000004004×10−6 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.000003003.000×10−6 0.000003463.460×10−6 0.00000474.700×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.00000171.7×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.0000022032.203×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6
74 W tungsten 0.000001251.25×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.0000022.000×10−6
75 Re rhenium 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000044×10−10 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000055×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
76 Os osmium 0.00000000151.5×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000001021.02×10−9
77 Ir iridium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.000000000022×10−11
78 Pt platinum 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000011×10−8
79 Au gold 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000033.0×10−9 0.000000004074.07×10−9 0.00000000181.8×10−9
80 Hg mercury 0.0000000858.5×10−8 0.000000022×10−8 0.000000088×10−8
81 Tl thallium 0.000000858.5×10−7 0.000000474.7×10−7 0.00000077×10−7 0.000000363.60×10−7 0.000000757.50×10−7 0.000000525.20×10−7
82 Pb lead 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.000011.0×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.0000088.000×10−6 0.0000151.5000×10−5 0.000022.0000×10−5 0.0000171.7000×10−5
83 Bi bismuth 0.00000000858.5×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000088×10−9 0.000000066.0×10−8 0.0000001271.27×10−7
84 Po polonium 0.00000000000000022×10−16
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000044×10−19
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 0.00000000000099×10−13
89 Ac actinium 0.000000000000000555.5×10−16
90 Th thorium 0.00000969.6×10−6 0.00000585.8×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.00000575.700×10−6 0.00001071.0700×10−5 0.000011.0000×10−5
91 Pa protactinium 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
92 U uranium 0.00000272.7×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.000000919.10×10−7 0.00000121.200×10−6 0.00000131.300×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6
93 Np neptunium
94 Pu plutonium

Urban soils

The established abundances of chemical elements in urban soils can be considered a geochemical (ecological and geochemical) characteristic, the accumulated impact of technogenic and natural processes at the beginning of the 21st century. The figures estimate average concentrations of chemical elements in the soils of more than 300 cities and settlements in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and America.[1] Regardless of significant differences between abundances of several elements in urban soils and those values calculated for the Earth's crust, the element abundances in urban soils generally reflect those in the Earth's crust. With the development of technology the abundances may be refined.

Mass fraction, in mg/kg (ppm).

ElementAtomic numberAbundance in urban soils
Ag470.37
Al1338200
As3315.9
B545
Ba56853.12
Be43.3
Bi831.12
C645100
Ca2053800
Cd480.9
Cl17285
Co2714.1
Cr2480
Cs555.0
Cu2939
Fe2622300
Ga3116.2
Ge321.8
H115000
Hg800.88
K1913400
La5734
Li349.5
Mg127900
Mn25729
Mo422.4
N710000
Na115800
Nb4115.7
Ni2833
O8490000
P151200
Pb8254.5
Rb3758
S161200
Sb511.0
Sc219.4
Si14289000
Sn506.8
Sr38458
Ta731.5
Ti224758
Tl811.1
V23104.9
W742.9
Y3923.4
Yb702.4
Zn30158
Zr40255.6

Sea water

  • W1 — CRC Handbook
  • W2 — Kaye & Laby

Mass per volume fraction, in kg/L. (The average density of sea water in the surface is 1.025 kg/L)

W1W2
01 H hydrogen 0.1081.08×10−1 0.1101.1×10−1
02 He helium 0.00000000000707×10−12 0.00000000000727.2×10−12
03 Li lithium 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7
04 Be beryllium 0.00000000000565.6×10−12 0.00000000000066×10−13
05 B boron 0.000004444.44×10−6 0.00000444.4×10−6
06 C carbon 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5
07 N nitrogen 0.00000055×10−7 0.0000161.6×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.8578.57×10−1 0.888.8×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6
10 Ne neon 0.000000000121.2×10−10 0.000000000121.2×10−10
11 Na sodium 0.01081.08×10−2 0.0111.1×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.001291.29×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3
13 Al aluminium 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
14 Si silicon 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000292.9×10−6
15 P phosphorus 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000888.8×10−8
16 S sulfur 0.0009059.05×10−4 0.00099.0×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.01941.94×10−2 0.0191.9×10−2
18 Ar argon 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.000000454.5×10−7
19 K potassium 0.0003993.99×10−4 0.000393.9×10−4
20 Ca calcium 0.0004124.12×10−4 0.000414.1×10−4
21 Sc scandium 0.00000000000066×10−13 0.000000000004< 4×10−12
22 Ti titanium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
23 V vanadium 0.00000000252.5×10−9 0.00000000191.9×10−9
24 Cr chromium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000022×10−10
25 Mn manganese 0.00000000022×10−10 0.00000000191.9×10−9
26 Fe iron 0.0000000022×10−9 0.00000000343.4×10−9
27 Co cobalt 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000393.9×10−10
28 Ni nickel 0.000000000565.6×10−10 0.00000000666.6×10−9
29 Cu copper 0.000000000252.5×10−10 0.0000000232.3×10−8
30 Zn zinc 0.00000000494.9×10−9 0.0000000111.1×10−8
31 Ga gallium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
32 Ge germanium 0.000000000055×10−11 0.000000000066×10−11
33 As arsenic 0.00000000373.7×10−9 0.00000000262.6×10−9
34 Se selenium 0.00000000022×10−10 0.000000000099.0×10−11
35 Br bromine 0.00006736.73×10−5 0.0000676.7×10−5
36 Kr krypton 0.000000000212.1×10−10 0.000000000212.1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.000000121.2×10−7 0.000000121.2×10−7
38 Sr strontium 0.00000797.9×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6
39 Y yttrium 0.0000000000131.3×10−11 0.00000000000131.3×10−12
40 Zr zirconium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.0000000000262.6×10−11
41 Nb niobium 0.000000000011×10−11 0.0000000000151.5×10−11
42 Mo molybdenum 0.000000011×10−8 0.000000011.0×10−8
43 Tc technetium 0.0 0.0
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.0
45 Rh rhodium 0.0 0.0
46 Pd palladium 0.0 0.0
47 Ag silver 0.000000000044×10−11 0.000000000282.8×10−10
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000000111.1×10−10 0.000000000111.1×10−10
49 In indium 0.000000022×10−8 0.0
50 Sn tin 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.000000000818.1×10−10
51 Sb antimony 0.000000000242.4×10−10 0.000000000333.3×10−10
52 Te tellurium 0.0 0.0
53 I iodine 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000646.4×10−8
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000055×10−11 0.0000000000474.7×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000033.0×10−10
56 Ba barium 0.0000000131.3×10−8 0.0000000212.1×10−8
57 La lanthanum 0.00000000000343.4×10−12 0.00000000000343.4×10−12
58 Ce cerium 0.00000000000121.2×10−12 0.00000000000121.2×10−12
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000000000646.4×10−13 0.000000000000646.4×10−13
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000000000282.8×10−12 0.00000000000282.8×10−12
61 Pm promethium 0.0 0.0
62 Sm samarium 0.000000000000454.5×10−13 0.000000000000454.5×10−13
63 Eu europium 0.000000000000131.3×10−13 0.000000000000131.3×10−13
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.00000000000077.0×10−13
65 Tb terbium 0.000000000000141.4×10−13 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000000000919.1×10−13 0.000000000000919.1×10−13
67 Ho holmium 0.000000000000222.2×10−13 0.000000000000222.2×10−13
68 Er erbium 0.000000000000878.7×10−13 0.00000000000878.7×10−12
69 Tm thulium 0.000000000000171.7×10−13 0.000000000000171.7×10−13
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000000000828.2×10−13 0.000000000000828.2×10−13
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000000000151.5×10−13 0.000000000000151.5×10−13
72 Hf hafnium 0.0000000000077×10−12 0.000000000008< 8×10−12
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000000000022×10−12 0.0000000000025< 2.5×10−12
74 W tungsten 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000000001< 1×10−12
75 Re rhenium 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0
76 Os osmium 0.0 0.0
77 Ir iridium 0.0 0.0
78 Pt platinum 0.0 0.0
79 Au gold 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0000000000111.1×10−11
80 Hg mercury 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000151.5×10−10
81 Tl thallium 0.0000000000191.9×10−11 0.0
82 Pb lead 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
83 Bi bismuth 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000022×10−11
84 Po polonium 0.0000000000000000000151.5×10−20 0.0
85 At astatine 0.0 0.0
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000000066×10−22 0.0
87 Fr francium 0.0 0.0
88 Ra radium 0.0000000000000000898.9×10−17 0.0
89 Ac actinium 0.0 0.0
90 Th thorium 0.0000000000011×10−12 0.00000000000151.5×10−12
91 Pa protactinium 0.000000000000000055×10−17 0.0
92 U uranium 0.00000000323.2×10−9 0.00000000333.3×10−9
93 Np neptunium 0.0 0.0
94 Pu plutonium 0.0 0.0

Sun and solar system

  • S1 — Sun: Kaye & Laby
  • Y1 — Solar system: Kaye & Laby
  • Y2 — Solar system: Ahrens, with uncertainty s (%)

Atom mole fraction relative to silicon = 1.

S1Y1Y2
01 H hydrogen 28000.0002.8×104 28000.0002.8×104* 27900.0002.79×104
02 He helium 02700.0002.7×103 02700.0002.7×103* 02720.0002.72×103
03 Li lithium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.0000575.7×10−5 0.00005715.71×10−5 (9.2%)
04 Be beryllium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.000000737.30×10−7 (9.5%)
05 B boron 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.00002122.12×10−5 (10%)
06 C carbon 00010.0001.0×101 00010.0001.0×101* 00010.1001.01×101
07 N nitrogen 00003.10003.1×100 00003.10003.1×100* 00003.13003.13×100
08 O oxygen 00024.0002.4×101 00024.0002.4×101* 00023.8002.38×101 (10%)
09 F fluorine 0.001about 1.0×10−3 0.000858.5×10−4 0.0008438.43×10−4 (15%)
10 Ne neon 00003.0003.0×100 00003.0003.0×100* 00003.4403.44×100 (14%)
11 Na sodium 0.0606.0×10−2 0.0575.7×10−2 0.05745.74×10−2 (7.1%)
12 Mg magnesium 00001.0001.0×100 00001.1001.1×100 00001.0741.074×100 (3.8%)
13 Al aluminium 0.0838.3×10−2 0.0858.5×10−2 0.08498.49×10−2 (3.6%)
14 Si silicon 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 (4.4%)
15 P phosphorus 0.0088.0×10−3 0.0101.0×10−2 0.01041.04×10−2 (10%)
16 S sulfur 0.454.5×10−1 0.525.2×10−1 0.5155.15×10−1 (13%)
17 Cl chlorine 0.009about 9.0×10−3 0.00525.2×10−3 0.005245.24×10−3 (15%)
18 Ar argon 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1011.01×10−1 (6%)
19 K potassium 0.00373.7×10−3 0.00383.8×10−3 0.003773.77×10−3 (7.7%)
20 Ca calcium 0.0646.4×10−2 0.0616.1×10−2 0.06116.11×10−2 (7.1%)
21 Sc scandium 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000343.4×10−5 0.00003423.42×10−5 (8.6%)
22 Ti titanium 0.00272.7×10−3 0.00242.4×10−3 0.00242.40×10−3 (5.0%)
23 V vanadium 0.000282.8×10−4 0.000292.9×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 (5.1%)
24 Cr chromium 0.0131.3×10−2 0.0131.3×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2 (7.6%)
25 Mn manganese 0.00696.9×10−3 0.00959.5×10−3 0.009559.55×10−3 (9.6%)
26 Fe iron 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.00×10−1 (2.7%)
27 Co cobalt 0.00232.3×10−3 0.00232.3×10−3 0.002252.25×10−3 (6.6%)
28 Ni nickel 0.055.0×10−2 0.055.0×10−2 0.04934.93×10−2 (5.1%)
29 Cu copper 0.000454.5×10−4 0.000525.2×10−4 0.0005225.22×10−4 (11%)
30 Zn zinc 0.00111.1×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3 0.001261.26×10−3 (4.4%)
31 Ga gallium 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.0000383.8×10−5 0.00003783.78×10−5 (6.9%)
32 Ge germanium 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.000121.2×10−4 0.0001191.19×10−4 (9.6%)
33 As arsenic 0.000 0.00000666.6×10−6 0.000006566.56×10−6 (12%)
34 Se selenium 0.000 0.0000636.3×10−5 0.00006216.21×10−5 (6.4%)
35 Br bromine 0.000 0.0000121.2×10−5 0.00001181.18×10−5 (19%)
36 Kr krypton 0.000 0.0000484.8×10−5 0.0000454.50×10−5 (18%)
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.000007097.09×10−6 (6.6%)
38 Sr strontium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000242.4×10−5 0.00002352.35×10−5 (8.1%)
39 Y yttrium 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.00000464.6×10−6 0.000004644.64×10−6 (6.0%)
40 Zr zirconium 0.00001121.12×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 (6.4%)
41 Nb niobium 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.0000006986.98×10−7 (1.4%)
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000002552.55×10−6 (5.5%)
43 Tc technetium 0.000 0.000 0.000
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.000001861.86×10−6 (5.4%)
45 Rh rhodium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.0000003443.44×10−7 (8%)
46 Pd palladium 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.000001391.39×10−6 (6.6%)
47 Ag silver 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000494.9×10−7 0.0000004864.86×10−7 (2.9%)
48 Cd cadmium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001611.61×10−6 (6.5%)
49 In indium 0.0000013about 1.3×10−6 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (6.4%)
50 Sn tin 0.000003about 3.0×10−6 0.00000393.9×10−6 0.000003823.82×10−6 (9.4%)
51 Sb antimony 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000313.1×10−7 0.0000003093.09×10−7 (18%)
52 Te tellurium 0.000 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.000004814.81×10−6 (10%)
53 I iodine 0.000 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.00000099.00×10−7 (21%)
54 Xe xenon 0.000 0.00000484.8×10−6 0.00000474.70×10−6 (20%)
55 Cs caesium 0.000 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.0000003723.72×10−7 (5.6%)
56 Ba barium 0.00000383.8×10−6 0.00000454.5×10−6 0.000004494.49×10−6 (6.3%)
57 La lanthanum 0.00000055.0×10−7 0.000000444.4×10−7 0.0000004464.46×10−7 (2.0%)
58 Ce cerium 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000111.1×10−6 0.0000011361.136×10−6 (1.7%)
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7 0.00000016691.669×10−7 (2.4%)
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.000000838.3×10−7 0.00000082798.279×10−7 (1.3%)
61 Pm promethium 0.000 0.000 0.000
62 Sm samarium 0.00000033.0×10−7 0.000000262.6×10−7 0.00000025822.582×10−7 (1.3%)
63 Eu europium 0.000000099.0×10−8 0.0000000979.7×10−8 0.00000009739.73×10−8 (1.6%)
64 Gd gadolinium 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.000000333.3×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7 (1.4%)
65 Tb terbium 0.000000002about 2.0×10−8 0.0000000606.0×10−8 0.00000006036.03×10−8 (2.2%)
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000039423.942×10−7 (1.4%)
67 Ho holmium 0.00000005about 5.0×10−8 0.0000000898.9×10−8 0.00000008898.89×10−8 (2.4%)
68 Er erbium 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000025082.508×10−7 (1.3%)
69 Tm thulium 0.00000003about 3.0×10−8 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000003783.78×10−8 (2.3%)
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000024792.479×10−7 (1.6%)
71 Lu lutetium 0.00000015about 1.5×10−7 0.0000000373.7×10−8 0.00000003673.67×10−8 (1.3%)
72 Hf hafnium 0.000000212.1×10−7 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.0000001541.54×10−7 (1.9%)
73 Ta tantalum 0.000 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000002072.07×10−8 (1.8%)
74 W tungsten 0.00000036about 3.6×10−7 0.000000131.3×10−7 0.0000001331.33×10−7 (5.1%)
75 Re rhenium 0.000 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000005175.17×10−8 (9.4%)
76 Os osmium 0.00000088.0×10−7 0.000000676.7×10−7 0.0000006756.75×10−7 (6.3%)
77 Ir iridium 0.00000066.0×10−7 0.000000666.6×10−7 0.0000006616.61×10−7 (6.1%)
78 Pt platinum 0.0000018about 1.8×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 (7.4%)
79 Au gold 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001871.87×10−7 (15%)
80 Hg mercury 0.000 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000343.40×10−7 (12%)
81 Tl thallium 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (9.4%)
82 Pb lead 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.000003153.15×10−6 (7.8%)
83 Bi bismuth 0.000 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.0000001441.44×10−7 (8.2%)
84 Po polonium 0.000 0.000 0.000
85 At astatine 0.000 0.000 0.000
86 Rn radon 0.000 0.000 0.000
87 Fr francium 0.000 0.000 0.000
88 Ra radium 0.000 0.000 0.000
89 Ac actinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
90 Th thorium 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.0000000454.5×10−8 0.00000003353.35×10−8 (5.7%)
91 Pa protactinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
92 U uranium 0.000 0.0000000181.8×10−8 0.0000000099.00×10−9 (8.4%)
93 Np neptunium 0.000 0.000 0.000
94 Pu plutonium 0.000 0.000 0.000

See also

Notes

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

References

  1. Vladimir Alekseenko; Alexey Alekseenko (2014). "The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils". Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 147: 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003. ISSN 0375-6742.

CRC Handbook

From these sources in an online version of David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea:

  • R.S. Carmichael (ed.), CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1989).
  • I. Bodek et al., Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, New York, (1988).
  • A.B. Ronov, A.A. Yaroshevsky, Earth's Crust Geochemistry, in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences, R.W. Fairbridge (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, (1969).
Estimated abundance of the elements in the continental crust (C1) and in seawater near the surface (W1). The median values of reported measurements are given. Concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.

Kaye & Laby

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements, B.E.J. Pagel

Abundances in sea water (W2) and in crustal rocks (C2) from:
  • K.K. Turekian (1970) in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 4, 627.
For the sun (S1) and the solar system (Y1) from:
  • N. Grevesse, E. Anders, J. Waddington (ed.) in Cosmic Abundances of Matter, Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 1. (1988).
Except solar iron abundance from:
  • H. Holweger, A. Bard, A. Kock, M. Kock, Astron. Astrophys., 249, 545. (1991).
Accuracy of the solar abundances varies between ± 10% and a factor of two, values more uncertain than that are marked with "about". The solar system abundances are mainly derived from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and are assumed generally accurate to ±10% or better. Solar system abundances based on other sources are marked with asterisks (*).

Greenwood

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997). ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Appendix 4, Abundance of Elements in Crustal Rocks.

From this source with some modifications and additions of later data:
  • W.S. Fyfe, Geochemistry, Oxford University Press, (1974).
Further referring to:
  • C.K. Jorgensen, Comments Astrophys. 17, 49–101 (1993).
Values are subject to various geological assumptions but assumed acceptable as an indication of elemental abundance in crustal rocks (C3).

Ahrens

Newsom, Horton E. (1995), "Composition of the Solar System, Planets, Meteorites, and Major Terrestrial Reservoirs", in Ahrens, Thomas J., Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union, Tables 1, 14, 15., ISBN 0-87590-851-9

Bulk continental crust (C4) and upper continental crust (U1) from:
  • S.R. Taylor, S.M. McLennan, The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985).
Upper continental crust (U2) from:
  • D.M. Shaw, J. Dostal, R.R. Keays, Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 40, 73–83, (1976).
Bulk continental crust (C5) from:
  • H. Wänke, G. Dreibus, E. Jagoutz, Mantle chemistry and accretion history of the Earth, in Archean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G.N. Hanson, A.M. Goodwin (eds.), pp. l-24, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1984).
Bulk continental crust (C6) from:
  • B.L. Weaver, J. Tamey, Major and trace element composition of the continental lithosphere, in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 15, H.N. Pollack, V.R. Murthy (eds.) pp. 39–68, Pergamon, Oxford, (1984).
Solar system (Y2) from:
  • Anders, E; Grevesse, N (January 1989), "Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar", Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53 (1): 197–214, Bibcode:1989GeCoA..53..197A, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90286-X

Urban soils

  • Alekseenko V.A., Alekseenko A.V. (2013) Chemical elements in geochemical systems. The abundances in urban soils. Publishing House of Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (388 pp., in Russian with English Abstract). ISBN 978-5-9275-1095-5
  • Vladimir Alekseenko, Alexey Alekseenko (2014) The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. № 147 (B). pp. 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003
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