Zafar Ali Khan
|Zafar Ali Khan|
Tomb of Zafar Ali Khan
Kot Mehrath, Wazirabad Punjab
27 November 1956|
Zafar Ali Khan (1873– 27 November 1956) (Punjabi: ظفرؔ علی خان – Ẓafar ʿAlī Xān), also known as Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, was a writer, poet, translator and a journalist who played an important role in the Pakistan Movement against the British Raj. Apart from Islamic religious sciences, he was well-versed in the latest theories of economics, sociology and politics, and for his erudition as well as methods, is generally considered to be "the father of Urdu journalism."
Zafar was born into a Punjabi Janjua family at Kot Marth, a small village named 'karmabad' near Wazirabad, which at the time was part of British India. He received his early education at Mission High School, Wazirabad, Gujranwala District., matriculated (10th grade) from Patiala, and passed his intermediate (12th grade) from the Aligarh College. Next, he worked in the postal department of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the same place where his father worked, but resigned over a row with his seniors. He rejoined Aligarh College and gained his BA degree from there.
After graduation, Khan was appointed secretary to a Muslim political leader [Mohsin-ul-Mulk], then in [Bombay]. Then he worked for some time as a translator in Hyderabad, Deccan, rising to the post of Secretary, Home Department. He returned from Hyderabad and launched his daily [Zamindar (newspaper)|Zamindar] newspaper from Lahore which was founded by his father Maulvi Sirajuddin Ahmad.
He chose to write in Urdu, instead of his mother toungue Punjabi. Khan's interest in poetry began in his childhood. His poems have religious and political sentiment. He was specially versed in impromptu compositions. His poetical output includes Baharistan, Nigaristan, and Chamanistan. His other works are Marka-e-Mazhab-o-Science, Ghalba-e-Rum, Sayr-e-Zulmet and an opera Jang-e-Roos-o-Japan.
Most popular Naats
He died on 27 November 1956, in his hometown Karamabad, near Wazirabad, Punjab. His funeral prayer was led by his companion Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi.
Memorials and legacy
He served the Pakistan Movement and is acknowledged as the father of Urdu language journalism. It has been said of him: "he was the father of Urdu journalism, … the Zamindar newspaper, when Zafar Ali Khan was the proprietor and editor, was the Urdu newspaper for the Muslims." Recognising Zafar Ali Khan's contributions to the Pakistan Movement, the Punjab government in Pakistan established a 'Maulana Zafar Ali Khan Trust' that initiated the 'Zafar Ali Khan Award' for outstanding journalists to be awarded every year. A public degree college in Wazirabad is named after him as Government Molana Zafar Ali Khan Degree College.
Pakistan Post issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor in its 'Pioneers of Freedom' series.
Some of his notable publications include:
- G̲h̲albah-yi Rūm : ek tārīk̲h̲ī tafsīr, historical commentary of Sūrat ar-Rūm on the victory of Romans over the Persians and the Muslims over the Meccan polytheists as predicted by Koran in AD 615
- Taqārīr-i Maulānā Ẓafar ʻAlī K̲h̲ān̲, speeches of the author, especially in regard with the Khilafat movement
- Lat̤āʼifuladab, on the relation between literature and Islam
- Mʻaās̲h̲irat, on the social sciences
- Jamāluddīn Afg̲h̲ānī : yaʻnī itiḥād-i Islāmī ke muharrik-i aʻzīm, Misr, Ṭarkī, Īrān aur Hindūstān ke z̲arīʻah ʻalim-i Islām man̲, biography of the Muslim reformer and independence fighter Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
- Jang-i Rus va Japān : yaʻnī ek tārīk̲h̲ī ḍrāmā, a play on the Russian Japanese War, 1904-1905
Maulana would never miss a chance to snub the British government and the Heavens had provided him ample opportunities to carry out his sacred mission. Shaheed Ghazi Ilam Din had killed a blasphemous person and was sent to gallows in the Mianwali jail. The government buried him in Mianwali which infuriated the Muslims in Punjab. They protested and made a unanimous demand to bring Shaeed’s body to Lahore but no one was prepared to give coverage to their voice as Hindus dominated most of the newspapers in the old Punjab before 1947. A large procession led by Lal Din Qaiser reached the office of Zamindar newspaper which was the only hope for the Muslims at that time and succeeded in getting newspaper coverage for their event.
- Profile and commemorative postage stamp image of Zafar Ali Khan on findpk.com website Retrieved 4 July 2018
- Rauf Parekh (19 November 2012). "Pakistani writers show renewed interest in Zafar Ali Khan's works". Dawn (newspaper). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Raja Asad Ali Khan (27 November 2012). "Profile of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan – the history maker". The Nation (newspaper). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Markus Daechsel (1 June 2002). Politics of Self-Expression. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-134-38371-9. Retrieved 4 July 2018 – via Google Books.
- Profile of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan The Nation (newspaper), Published 27 November 2014, Retrieved 4 July 2018
- Maulana Zafar Ali Khan [1873–1956], Profile of Zafar Ali Khan on storyofpakistan.com website, Published 1 Jan 2007, Retrieved 4 July 2018
- "Profile of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (1873–1956)". Journalismpakistan.com website. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Ayesha Jalal (2000). Self and sovereignty: individual and community in South Asian Islam since 1850. Routledge, Google Books. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-0-415-22077-4. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- "Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and British rule over Muslims of India". Ahmadiyya.org. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- K. C. Kanda (1 January 2005). Masterpieces of patriotic Urdu poetry: text, translation, and transliteration. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Google Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-81-207-2893-6. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- A popular Naat written by Zafar Ali Khan on YouTube Retrieved 4 July 2018
- Zafar Ali Khan's Naat sung by Muneeba Sheikh, Retrieved 4 July 2018
- 'Zafar Ali Khan Award' for outstanding journalists initiated, The Nation (newspaper), published 18 Jan 2012, Retrieved 4 July 2018