Yery

Cyrillic letter Yery
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍІЇЙ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУЎФХЦЧ
ЏШЩЪЫЬЭ
ЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄В̌ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚӔ
ҒГ̧Г̑Г̄Г̣Г̌Ҕ
ӺҒ̌ӶԀԂ
Д̆Д̣ԪԬД̆Ӗ
Е̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈ӁҖ
ӜԄҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣
ԐԐ̈ӠԆӢИ̃Ҋ
ӤИ́ҚӃҠҞҜ
ԞК̣ԚӅԮԒԠ
ԈԔӍӉҢԨӇ
ҤԢԊО́О̀О̆О̂
О̃О̄ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́
Ө̆ӪҨԤҦР̌Ҏ
ԖҪС̣С̱ԌТ̌Т̣
ҬԎУ̃Ӯ
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴ
ӋҸҼҾ
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄
Я̆Я̄Я̈ԘԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ѸѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶ

Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" [ɨ] in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the phoneme /i/ (more rear or upper than i) after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets.

Because of phonological processes, the actual realisation of /i/ after alveolar consonants (д, з, л, н, р, с, т, or ц) is retracted to a close central unrounded vowel [ɯ] or [ʷɨ], after labials: б, в, м, п.

In Rusyn, it denotes a sound a bit harder than [ɨ] and close to the Romanian sound î, also written â. In some situations, it may occur after palatalised consonants (синьый "blue", which never happens in Russian), and it often follows к, г, ґ and х.

While vowel letters in the Cyrillic alphabet may be divided into iotated and non-iotated pairs (for example, а and я both represent /a/, the latter denoting a preceding palatalised consonant), ы is more complicated. It appears only after hard consonants, its phonetic value differs from и, and there is some scholarly disagreement as to whether or not ы and и denote different phonemes.

Like many other Cyrillic letters, it was originally from a ligature: , formed from Yer ъ and і (formerly written either dotless or with two dots) or Izhe (и which formerly resembled н). In mediaeval manuscripts, it is almost always found as ъі or ъи. Once the letters ъ and ь later lost their values as vowels in the Slavic languages, the current simplified form ы evolved.

The letter is usually romanised into English and most other West European languages as y: Krylov (family name, Крылов). However, y may be used for other purposes as well (such as for й, or as part of digraphs for e.g. я). That spelling matches Polish, which uses y to represent a very similar sound. Russian ы is used to transliterate Polish y into Cyrillic: Maryla (Марыля).

Native Russian words do not begin with ы (except for the specific verb ыкать: "to say the ы-sound"), but there are many proper and common nouns of non-Russian origin (including some geographical names in Russia) beginning with it: Ytyk-Kyuyol (Ытык-Кюёль), Ygyatta (Ыгыатта), a village and a river in Sakha (Yakutia) Republic respectively and Eulji Mundeok (Ыльчи Мундок), a Korean military leader.

In the Ukrainian alphabet, the sound [ɨ] is denoted by и, and the letter ы is not used in Ukrainian. Ukrainian и usually is transcribed in Russian as ы.

The letter ы is also used in Cyrillic-based alphabets of several Turkic and Mongolic languages (see the list) for a darker vowel [ɯ]. The corresponding letter in Latin-based scripts is ı (dotless I).

In Tuvan, the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.[1][2]

Computing codes

CharacterЫы
Unicode nameCYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERUCYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERUCYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode1067U+042B1099U+044B42576U+A65042577U+A651
UTF-8208 171D0 AB209 139D1 8B234 153 144EA 99 90234 153 145EA 99 91
Numeric character referenceЫЫыыꙐꙐꙑꙑ
KOI8-R and KOI8-U249F9217D9
Code page 855242F2241F1
Code page 8661559B235EB
Windows-1251219DB251FB
ISO-8859-5203CB235EB
Macintosh Cyrillic1559B251FB

References

  1. "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  2. Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). "Compendium of the World's Languages". Routledge. Retrieved 14 June 2016 via Google Books.
  • The dictionary definition of Ы at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ы at Wiktionary
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