Yami language

Yami
ciciring no Tao
Native to Taiwan
Ethnicity Yami
Native speakers
3,800 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tao
Glottolog yami1254[2]
Linguasphere 31-CAA-a

Yami (Chinese: 雅美), also known as Tao (Chinese: ), is a Malayo-Polynesian language. It is a member of the Ivatan dialect continuum spoken by the Yami people of Taiwan. It is spoken on Orchid Island, 46 kilometers southeast of the main island of Taiwan. Yami is known as ciriciring no Tao, or "human speech," by its native speakers.[1]

Yami is the only native language of Taiwanese aborigines that is not a member of the Formosan grouping of Austronesian; it is one of the Batanic languages found in the northern Philippines.

Phonology

Yami has 20 consonants and 4 vowels:[3]

Vowels

/a, ə, i, o/

Iraralay Yami, spoken on the north coast, distinguishes between geminative consonants (e.g., opa 'thigh' vs. oppa 'hen' form one such minimal pair).[4]

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d g
Fricative v ʂ h
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Approximant l ɻ j w
Trill r

Verbs

The following list of Yami verbal inflections is from Rau (2006: 135).

Dynamic intransitive
  • -om-/om- (subjunctive: N-)
  • mi-
  • ma-
  • maN-
  • maka-
  • maci-/masi-/macika-/macipa-
Stative
  • ma- (subjunctive: a-)
  • ka- ... -an (subjunctive: ka- ... -i)
Dynamic
  • pi-
  • pa-
  • paN- (subjunctive: maN-)
  • paka- (subjunctive: maka-)
  • paci- (subjunctive: maci-)
Transitive
  • -en (subjunctive: -a)
  • -an (subjunctive: -i)
  • i- (subjunctive: -an)
Stative functioning as transitive
  • ma- (subjunctive: a- ... -a)
  • ka- ... -an (subjunctive: a- ... -a)

Affixes

The following list of Yami affixes is from Rau (2006: 135-136).

  • icia- 'fellows such and such who share the same features or fate'
  • ikeyka- 'even more so'
  • ika- 'feel such and such because...'
  • ika- 'ordinal number'
  • ipi- 'multiple number'
  • ji a- 'negation or emphatic'
  • ka- 'company, as ... as, abstract noun'
  • ka- 'and then, just now, only'
  • ka- 'stative verb prefix reappearing in forming transitive verbs'
  • ka- (reduplicated root) 'very'
  • ka- (reduplicated root) 'animals named after certain features'
  • ka- ... -an 'common noun'
  • ma- ... -en 'love to do such and such'
  • mapaka- 'pretend to be such and such'
  • mapi- 'do such and such as an occupation'
  • mi-/mala- 'kinship relationships in a group of two or three'
  • mika-/mapika-/ipika- 'all, gradually, one by one'
  • mala- 'taste or look like...'
  • mipa- 'getting more and more...'
  • mipipa- 'even more...'
  • mapi-/mapa-/pa- ... -en/ipa- 'causative verb affixes'
  • ni- 'perfective'
  • ni- ... na 'superlative'
  • noka- 'past'
  • noma- 'future (remote)'
  • sicia- 'present'
  • sima- 'future (proximal)'
  • tey- 'direction'
  • tey- 'very, too'
  • tey- (reduplicated root) 'amount allocated to each unit

Vocabulary

Cognates with Philippine languages

English Yami Filipino/Ilokano/Tagalog, etc.
Persontaotao
Motherinaina
Fatheramaama
Headooulo
Yesnohonoho (opo)
Friendkagagankaibigan
whosinosino
theysirasila
theirniranila
offspringanakanak
I (pronoun)koko, -ko (Ilokano)
youkaka, -ka (Ilokano)
dayarawaraw, aldaw (Ilokano)
eatkanenkain, kanen (Ilokano)
drinkinomeninumin, inomen (Ilokano)
speechciriciringchirichirin (Ivatan, itbayaten), siling (Hiligaynon, say), siring (Waray-waray, say)
andakasaka
ouchAnanayAray, Araray (Cebuano), Annay (Ilokano)
homevahaybahay, balay (Ilokano, Cebuano)
pigviikbiik (piglet)
goatkadlingkambing, kanding (Cebuano), kalding (Ilokano)
stonevatobato
oneásaisa, maysa (Ilokano)
twodóa (raroa)dalawa, duha (Cebuano), dua (Ilokano)
threetílotatlo, tulo (Cebuano), tallo (Ilokano)
fourápatapat, upat (Cebuano), uppat (Ilokano)
fivelímalima
sixánemanim, innem (Ilokano), unom (Cebuano)
sevenpítopito
eightwáowalo
ninesíamsiyam, siam (Ilokano)
tenpóosampu, sangapulo (Ilokano)

Japanese loanwords

English Yami Japanese
Airplanesikokihikouki (飛行機)
Alcoholsakisake ()
Battleshipgengkanggunkan (軍艦)
Bibleseysioseisho (聖書)
ChristKizistokirisuto (キリスト)
Doctorkoysango-isha-san? (お医者さん)
Flashlightdingkidenki (電気)
Holy Spiritseyziseirei (聖霊)
Keykagikagi ()
Medicinekosozikusuri ()
Motorcycleotobayootobai (オートバイ; auto bike)
Policekisatkeisatsu (警察)
Schoolgakogakkō (学校)
School bagkabangkaban ()
Teachersinsisensei (先生)
Ticketkipokippu (切符)
Trucktozakotorakku (トラック; truck)

Chinese loanwords

English Yami Mandarin Chinese
Winepotaw ciopútáojǐu (葡萄酒)

See also

References

  1. 1 2 Rau 2006: 79
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Rau 2006: 79-80
  4. Rau 2006: 81
  • Rau, D. Victoria, and Maa-Neu Dong. 2006. Yami texts with reference grammar and dictionary. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • Rau, D. Victoria, Maa-Neu Dong and Ann Hui-Huan Chang with Daniel E. Rau and Gerald A. Rau, Yami (Tao) Dictionary (達悟語詞典) , National Taiwan University Press , 25 June 2012 (in Chinese) (in English) ISBN 978-986-03-2519-5
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