Voiceless velar stop

Voiceless velar stop
k
IPA number 109
Encoding
Entity (decimal) k
Unicode (hex) U+006B
X-SAMPA k
Kirshenbaum k
Braille
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The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.

The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop - see that article for more information.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar stop:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Varieties

IPADescription
kplain k
aspirated k
palatalized k
labialized k
k with no audible release
voiced k
tense k
ejective k

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazақалақь[ˈakalakʲ]'the city'See Abkhaz phonology
AdygheShapsugкьэт [kʲat] 'chicken'Dialectal; corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in other dialects.
Temirgoyпскэн[pskan]'to cough'
Ahtnagistaann[kɪstʰɐːn]'six'
Aleut[3]kiikax̂[kiːkaχ]'cranberry bush'
ArabicModern Standard[4]كتب[ˈkatabɐ]'he wrote'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[5]քաղաք[kʰɑˈʁɑkʰ]'town'Contrasts with unaspirated form.
Assamese[kɔm]'less'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaickuleh[kulɛː]'all'Used in most varieties, with the exception of the Urmia and Nochiya dialects
where it corresponds to [t͡ʃ].
Basquekatu[kat̪u]'cat'
Bengali[kɔm]'less'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianкак[kak]'how'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6]quinze[ˈkinzə]'fifteen'See Catalan phonology
ChineseCantonese/gā [kaː˥]'home'Contrasts with aspirated and or labialized forms. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin/gāo [kɑʊ˥]'high'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czechkost[kost]'bone'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[7]gås[ˈkɔ̽ːs]'goose'Usually transcribed in IPA with ɡ̊ or ɡ. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with or k. See Danish phonology
Dutch[8]koning[ˈkoːnɪŋ]'king'See Dutch phonology
Englishkiss [kʰɪs]'kiss'See English phonology
Esperantorakonto[raˈkonto]'tale'See Esperanto phonology
Estoniankõik[kɤik]'all'See Estonian phonology
Esperantokato[kato]'cat'
Filipinokuto[kuˈto]'lice'
Finnishkakku[kɑkːu]'cake'See Finnish phonology
French[9]cabinet[kabinɛ]'office'See French phonology
Georgian[10]ვა[kʰva]'stone'
GermanKäfig[ˈkʰɛːfɪç]'cage'See Standard German phonology
Greekκαλόγερος/kalógeros[kaˈlo̞ʝe̞ro̞s̠]'monk'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiકાંદો[kɑːnd̪oː]'onion'See Gujarati phonology
Hebrewכסף/kesef[ˈkesef]'money'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniकाम / کام[kɑːm]'work'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarianakkor[ɒkkor]'then'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[11]casa[ˈkaza]'house'See Italian phonology
Japanese[12]/kaban[kabaɴ]'handbag'See Japanese phonology
Kagayanen[13]kalag[kað̞aɡ]'spirit'
Korean감자/kamja[kamdʐa]'potato'See Korean phonology
Lakotakimímela[kɪˈmɪmela]'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[14]geess[ˈkeːs]'goat'Less often voiced [ɡ]. It is usually transcribed in IPA as ɡ, and it contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed k.[14] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonianкој[kɔj]'who'See Macedonian phonology
Marathiवच[kəʋət͡s]'armour'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Malaykaki[käki]'leg'
Norwegiankake[kɑːkɛ]'cake'See Norwegian phonology
Pashtoكال[kɑl]'year'
Persian کیمچی [kimt͡ʃi] 'kimchi'
Polish[15]buk [ˈbuk] 'beech tree'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16]corpo[ˈkoɾpu]'body'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਕਰ[kəɾ]'do'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Romanian[17]când[ˈkɨnd]'when'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]короткий [kɐˈrotkʲɪj] 'short'See Russian phonology
Slovakkosť[kɔ̝sc̟]'bone'See Slovak phonology
Spanish[19]casa[ˈkäsä]'house'See Spanish phonology
Swedishko[ˈkʰuː]'cow'See Swedish phonology
Sylhetiꠇꠤꠔꠣ[kɪt̪à]'what'
Teluguకాకి[kāki]'crow'
Turkishkulak[kʰuɫäk]'ear'See Turkish phonology
Ubykh[kawar]'slat'Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[20]колесо[ˈkɔɫɛsɔ]'wheel'See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[21]cam[kam]'orange'See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiankeal[kɪəl]'calf'See West Frisian phonology
Yi/ge[kɤ˧]'foolish'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
ZapotecTilquiapan[22]canza[kanza]'walking'

See also

Notes

  1. Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  4. Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  5. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  7. Basbøll (2005:61)
  8. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  9. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  12. Okada (1991), p. 94.
  13. Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  14. 1 2 Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  15. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. DEX Online :
  18. Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  20. Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  21. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  22. Merrill (2008), p. 108.

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
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