Voiceless uvular trill

Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0
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Features

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1] goed [ʀ̥ut] 'good' Possible word-initial allophone of /χ/. Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[2] Word-final allophone of /r/.
Dutch Belgian[3] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[4] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /ʁ/ after voiceless consonants;[4] can be [χ] instead.[5] See French phonology
German Standard[6] treten [ˈtʀ̥eːtn̩] 'to step' Possible allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that realize /r/ as a uvular trill [ʀ].[6] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[7] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q].[7] Doesn't occur in the coda.[7]
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[8] geer [ɣeːʀ̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [] instead.[9]
Spanish Ponce dialect[10] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[10] See Spanish phonology

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0_r

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[11] خضراء [x͡ʀ̥adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[11] Also reported to be simply a fricative (velar, post-velar, uvular, depending on the dialect).[12] See Arabic phonology
Dutch Standard Northern[13] acht [ɑʀ̝̊˖t] 'eight' Post-velar;[13] also described as a fricative, either post-velar [] or uvular [χ].[14] See Dutch phonology
Belgian[15][16] brood [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[17] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[18] clock [kl̥ɒʀ̝̊] 'clock' Possible word-final realization of /k/.[18]
Hebrew[19] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[19] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Some dialects[20][21][22] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Allophone of /r/ that has been variously described as occurring in the syllable coda[20][21] and word-final.[22] May be only partially devoiced.[20][21] The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Spanish Madrid[23] jazmín [x͡ʀ̥äðˈmĩn] 'jasmine' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[23] Corresponds to [x ~ χ] in standard European Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[24] Usually transcribed /x/ or /χ/.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  2. Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  3. 1 2 Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. 1 2 Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68 and 70-71.
  5. Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67, and 71.
  6. 1 2 Krech et al. (2009), p. 86.
  7. 1 2 3 Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  8. Peters (2006).
  9. While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  10. 1 2 "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis".
  11. 1 2 Thelwall & Sa'Addedin (1999), pp. 51 and 53.
  12. Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  13. 1 2 Collins & Mees (2003:191). The source says that it is a fricative with a "very energetic articulation with considerable scrapiness", i.e. a trill fricative.
  14. Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  15. Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  16. Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22 and 83)
  17. Tops (2009), p. 83.
  18. 1 2 Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
  19. 1 2 Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  20. 1 2 3 Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  21. 1 2 3 Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  22. 1 2 Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  23. 1 2 "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler".
  24. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

References

  • Cobbinah, Alexander Yao (2013), Nominal classification and verbal nouns in Baïnounk Gubëeher (PDF), University of London 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Demolin, Didier (2001), "Some phonetic and phonological observations concerning /ʀ/ in Belgian French", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 61–73, ISSN 0777-3692 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1999), "Dutch", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 74–77, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Laufer, Asher (1999), "Hebrew", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 96–99, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428 
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Addedin, M. Akram (1999), "Arabic", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–54, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tops, Evie (2009), Variatie en verandering van de /r/ in Vlaanderen, Brussels: VUBPress, ISBN 9789054874713 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (1994), "Fonetische Eigenschappen van de Limburgse huig-r", Taal en Tongval, 46: 9–21 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 219–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100307002940 
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X 
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