Voiceless retroflex stop

Voiceless retroflex stop
ʈ
IPA number 105
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʈ
Unicode (hex) U+0288
X-SAMPA t`
Kirshenbaum t.
Braille
Listen
source · help

The voiceless retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʈ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of tee (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase tee already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ʈ is distinguished from t by extending the hook below the baseline.

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPATranslationNotes
Bengali[1]টাকা[ʈaka]'taka'Apical postalveolar;[1] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Brahuiسىٹ[asiʈ]'one'
EnglishIndian dialectstime[ʈaɪm]'time'Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2][ʈə](name of a letter)Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4]टोपी/ٹوپی[ʈoːpiː]'hat'Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Hmongraus[ʈàu]'immerse in liquid'Contrasts with aspirated form (written rh).
Iwaidjayirrwartbart[jiɺwɑʈbɑʈ]'taipan'
Javanesebathang[baʈaŋ]'cadaver'
Kannadaತಟ್ಟು[tʌʈʈu]'to tap'Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Lo-TogaLo dialect[5]dege[ʈəɣə]'we (incl.)'Laminal retroflex.
Marathi[2]बटाटा[bəʈaːʈaː]'potato'Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Mutsunikušte[ʈiʈkuʃtɛ]'torn'
Norwegiankort[kɔʈː]'card'See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[6]rdagowa[ʈakowa]'prawn'
Pashtoټول[ʈol]'all'
Punjabiਟੋਪੀ[ʈoːpi]'hat'
Sicilianlatru[ˈlaʈɽu]'thief'
Scottish GaelicSome Hebridean dialects[7]árd[aːʈ]'high'Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Swedish[8]karta[ˈkʰɑːʈa]'map'See Swedish phonology
Sylhetiꠐꠦꠇꠣ[ʈexa]'Taka'
Tamil[2][9]எட்டு[eʈʈɯ]'eight'Subapical.[2] See Tamil phonology
Teluguకొట్టు[koʈʈu]'beat'Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Torwali[10]ٹىىےل[ʈijɛl̥]'words'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
VietnameseSouthern dialects[11]bạn tr[ɓaɳ˧ˀ˨ʔ ʈa˧˩˧]'you pay'May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology
Welayta[ʈaza]'dew'

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Khatiwada (2009:374)
  3. Ladefoged (2005:141)
  4. 1 2 Tiwari (2004:?)
  5. François, Alexandre (2009), "Verbal aspect and personal pronouns: The history of aorist markers in north Vanuatu", in Pawley, Andrew; Adelaar, Alexander, Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: A festschrift for Bob Blust, 601, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp. 179–195
  6. Ladefoged (2005:158)
  7. Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
  8. Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  9. Keane (2004:111)
  10. Lunsford (2001:11–16)
  11. Thompson (1959:458–461)

References

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.