Voiceless retroflex stop
|Voiceless retroflex stop|
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The voiceless retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʈ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
t`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of tee (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase tee already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ⟨ʈ⟩ is distinguished from ⟨t⟩ by extending the hook below the baseline.
Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
|Bengali||টাকা||[ʈaka]||'taka'||Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology|
|English||Indian dialects||time||[ʈaɪm]||'time'||Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology|
|Gujarati||ટ||[ʈə]||(name of a letter)||Subapical; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology|
|Hindustani||टोपी/ٹوپی||[ʈoːpiː]||'hat'||Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Hindustani phonology|
|Hmong||raus||[ʈàu]||'immerse in liquid'||Contrasts with aspirated form (written ⟨rh⟩).|
|Kannada||ತಟ್ಟು||[tʌʈʈu]||'to tap'||Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms|
|Lo-Toga||Lo dialect||dege||[ʈəɣə]||'we (incl.)'||Laminal retroflex.|
|Marathi||बटाटा||[bəʈaːʈaː]||'potato'||Subapical; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology|
|Norwegian||kort||[kɔʈː]||'card'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||Some Hebridean dialects||árd||[aːʈ]||'high'||Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Swedish||karta||[ˈkʰɑːʈa]||'map'||See Swedish phonology|
|Tamil||எட்டு||[eʈʈɯ]||'eight'||Subapical. See Tamil phonology|
|Telugu||కొట్టు||[koʈʈu]||'beat'||Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms|
|Torwali||ٹىىےل||[ʈijɛl̥]||'words'||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.|
|Vietnamese||Southern dialects||bạn trả||[ɓaɳ˧ˀ˨ʔ ʈa˧˩˧]||'you pay'||May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology|
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