Voiceless postalveolar affricate

Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t̠ʃ
IPA number 103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t͡ʃ
Unicode (hex) U+0074U+0361U+0283
X-SAMPA tS or t_rS
Kirshenbaum tS
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The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ʃ, t͜ʃ or (formerly the ligature ʧ). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English church; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, etc.).

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheчэмы [t͡ʃamə] 'cow'Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albaniançelur[t͡ʃɛluɾ]'open'
AleutAtkan dialectchamĝul[t͡ʃɑmʁul]'to wash'
Amharicአንቺ[ant͡ʃi]'you'
Arabic[1]Central Palestinianمكتبة (Normally unwritten)[ˈmat͡ʃt̪abe]'library'Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqiچتاب [t͡ʃɪˈt̪ɑːb]'book'
Jordanianكتاب (Normally unwritten) [t͡ʃɪˈt̪aːb]
ArmenianEastern[2]ճնճղուկ [t͡ʃənt͡ʃʁuk] 'sparrow'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicchmah[t͡ʃmaː]'how many?'Used in the Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [k] in other varieties.
AzeriƏkinçi[ækint͡ʃi]'the ploughman'
Bengaliশমা[t͡ʃɔʃma]'spectacles'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basquetxalupa[t͡ʃalupa]'boat'
Bulgarianчучулига[t͡ʃut͡ʃuˈliɡɐ]'lark'See Bulgarian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'iknacaq[ˈnat͡ʃaq]'parka hood'
Choctawhakchioma[hakt͡ʃioma]'tobacco'
CopticBohairic dialectϭⲟϩ[t͡ʃoh]'touch'
Czechmorče[ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ]'guinea pig'See Czech phonology
Englishleach[ˈliːt͡ʃ]'leach'See English phonology
Esperantoĉar[t͡ʃar]'because'See Esperanto phonology
Faroesegera[t͡ʃeːɹa]'to do'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Faroese phonology
FrenchStandardcaoutchouc[kaut͡ʃu]'rubber'Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Acadiantiens[t͡ʃɛ̃]'(I/you) keep'Allophone of /k/ and /tj/ before a front vowel.
Galiciancheo[ˈt͡ʃeo]'full'Galician-Portuguese /t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in most Portuguese dialects. See Galician phonology
Georgian[3]იხი[t͡ʃixi]'impasse'
GermanStandard[4]Tschinelle[t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə]'cymbal'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] See Standard German phonology
GreekCypriotτζ̌αι[t͡ʃe̞]'and'Contrasts with /t͡ʃʰː/ and prenasalised [d͡ʒ].
Hebrewתשובה[t͡ʃuˈva]'answer'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniचा چاۓ[t͡ʃɑːj]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creolematch[mat͡ʃ]'sports match'
Hungariangyümölcs[ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː]'juice'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5]ciao[ˈt͡ʃaːo]'ciao'See Italian phonology
K'iche'K'iche'[kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ]'K'iche''Contrasts with ejective form
Kabardianчэнж [t͡ʃanʒ] 'shallow'
Kashubian[6]
Macedonianчека[t͡ʃɛka]'wait'See Macedonian phonology
Malaycuci[t͡ʃut͡ʃi]'wash'
Maltesebliċ[blit͡ʃ]'bleach'
Marathiहा[t͡ʃəhɑː]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nahuatlāyōtōchtli[aːjoːˈtoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi]'armadillo'
NorwegianSome dialectskjøkken[t͡ʃøkːen]'kitchen'See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7]jaro [t͡ʃaɾo]'needle'
Occitanchuc[ˈt͡ʃyk]'juice'See Occitan phonology
Persianچوب[t͡ʃʰuːb]'wood'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebnaciemny[ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ]'dark'/ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
PortugueseMost Brazilian dialects[9]presente[pɾe̞ˈzẽ̞t͡ʃi]'present'Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialectstchau[ˈt͡ʃaw]'bye'In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabiਚੌਲ[t͡ʃɔːl]'rice'
Romaniancer[t͡ʃe̞r]'sky'See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10]joni[ˈt͡ʃɔni]'to flee'
Sanskritन्द्र[t͡ʃən̪d̪rə]'moon'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Scottish Gaelicslàinte[ˈsl̪ˠaːnʲt͡ʃə]'health'Southern dialects only; standard pronunciation is [tʲ]. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersčokoláda чоколада[t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠]'chocolate'In varieties that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.
SilesianGmina Istebna[11]These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11]
Spanish[12]chocolate [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞] 'chocolate'See Spanish phonology
Swahilijicho[ʄit͡ʃo]'eye'
SwedishFinlandtjugo[t͡ʃʉːɡʉ]'twenty'See Swedish phonology
Some rural Swedish dialectskärlek[t͡ʃæːɭeːk]'love'
Tlingitjinkaat[ˈt͡ʃiŋkʰaːtʰ]'ten'
Turkishçok[t͡ʃok]'very'See Turkish phonology
UbykhÇəbƹəja[t͡ʃəbʒəja]'pepper'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[13]чотири[t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ]'four'See Ukrainian phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[14]chane[t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t̠ɹ̠̊˔
tɹ̝̊˗
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Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustralian[15]tree[t̠ɹ̠̊˔ʷɪi̯]'tree'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/.[15][16][17][18] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [tɹ̝̊].[16] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[16][17]
Received Pronunciation[16][17]
Port Talbot[18][t̠ɹ̠̊˔iː]

Notes

References

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Blevins, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics, 33 (2): 491–516, doi:10.2307/3623138, JSTOR 3623138 
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 
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