Voiceless palatal stop

Voiceless palatal stop
c
IPA number 107
Encoding
Entity (decimal) c
Unicode (hex) U+0063
X-SAMPA c
Kirshenbaum c
Braille
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The voiceless palatal stop or voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is c, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is c.

If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed as (advanced c) or t̠ʲ (retracted and palatalized t), but these are essentially equivalent, because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are c_+ and t_-' or t_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ȶ ("t", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ɕ, ʑ), used especially in sinological circles.

It is common for the phonetic symbol c to be used to represent voiceless postalveolar affricate [t͡ʃ] or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive.

There is also the voiceless post-palatal stop[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless palatal stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as (retracted c) or (advanced k). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are c_- and k_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal stop may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar stop ( in the IPA, k' or k_j in X-SAMPA).

Features

Features of the voiceless palatal stop:

  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar [k].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Palatal or alveolo-palatal

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanian[2]shqip[ʃcip]'Albanian'Merged with [t͡ʃ] in Gheg Albanian and some speakers of Tosk Albanian.[3]
Basquettantta[cäɲcä]'droplet'
Blackfootᖳᖽᖳᐡ / akikoan[aˈkicoan]'girl'Allophone of /k/ after front vowels.
BulgarianBanat dialectkaćétu (каќету or какьету)[kacetu]'as'See Bulgarian phonology
CatalanMajorcan[4]qui[ˈci̞]'who'Simultaneous dento-alveolo-palatal and palatal.[5] Corresponds to /k/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
ChineseTaiwanese Hokkien機車 / ki-tshia[ciː˧˧ t͡ɕʰia˥˥]'motorcycle'
Corsicanchjodu[ˈcoːdu]'nail'Also present in the Gallurese dialect
Czechčeština[ˈt͡ʃɛʃc̟ɪna]'Czech'Alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[5] See Czech phonology
Dawsahak[cɛːˈnɐ]'small'
Dinkacar[car]'black'
Ega[6][cá]'understand'
French[5]qui[ci]'who' (int.)Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology
Friuliancjase[case]'house'
Gandacaayi[caːji]'tea'
Gweno[ca]'to come'
Hungarian[7]tyúk[c̟uːk]'hen'Alveolo-palatal.[5] See Hungarian phonology
Icelandicgjóla[ˈc̟ouːlä]'light wind'Alveolo-palatal.[5] See Icelandic phonology
Irishceist[cɛʃtʲ]'question'Simultaneous alveolo-palatal and palatal.[5] See Irish phonology
Khasiboit[bɔc]'dwarf'
Khmerចាប[caap]'bird'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Kinyarwandaikintu[iciːntu]'question'
Latvianķirbis[ˈcirbis]'pumpkin'See Latvian phonology
Low GermanPlautdietschkjoakj[coac]'church'Corresponds to [kʲ] in all other dialects.
Macedonianвреќа[ˈvrɛca]'sack'See Macedonian phonology
Nez Perceʔaw̓líwaaʔinpqawtaca'I go to scoop him up in the fire'
NorwegianCentral dialects[8]fett[fɛcː]'fat'See Norwegian phonology
Northern dialects[8]
OccitanLimousintireta[ciˈʀetɒ]'drawer'
Auvergnattirador[ciʀaˈdu]'drawer'
Romanian[9]chin[cin]'torture'Allophone of /k/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology
RomanshSursilvan[10]notg[nɔc]'night'
Sutsilvan[11]tgàn[caŋ]'dog'
Surmiran[12]vatgas[ˈvɑcɐs]'cows'
Puter[13]cher[ˈtsycər]'sugar'
Vallader[14]müs-chel[ˈmyʃcəl]'moss'
Slovak[5]deväť[ˈɟ̟ɛ̝ʋæc̟]'nine'Alveolar.[5] See Slovak phonology
Turkishköy[cʰœj]'village'See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese[15]ch[ci˧ˀ˨ʔ]'elder sister'May be slightly affricated [tɕ]. See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiantjems[cɛms]'strainer'See West Frisian phonology
Western Desertkutju[kucu]'one'

Post-palatal

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Belarusianкіслы[ˈk̟is̪ɫ̪ɨ]'acidic'Typically transcribed in IPA with . See Belarusian phonology
Catalan[16]qui[k̟i]'who'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels.[16] See Catalan phonology
DanishStandard[17]gidsel[ˈk̟isəl]'hostage'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[17] See Danish phonology
GermanStandard[18][19]Kind[k̟ʰɪnt]'child'Allophone of /k/ before and after front vowels.[18][19] See Standard German phonology
Greek[20]Μακεδνός [mɐc̠e̞ˈðno̞s̠] 'Makedon'See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianStandard[21]chi [k̟i] 'who'Allophone of /k/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/.[21] See Italian phonology
Portuguesequi[k̟i]'Chi'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[22]ochi[o̞k̟]'eye'Typically transcribed in IPA with . See Romanian phonology
RussianStandard[23]кит / kit[k̟it̪]'whale'Typically transcribed in IPA with . See Russian phonology
Spanish[24]kilo[ˈk̟ilo̞]'kilo(gram)'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels.[24] See Spanish phonology
Tidore yaci [jaci] 'to rip'
Ukrainianкінчик [ˈk̟int͡ʃek] 'tip'Typically transcribed in IPA with . See Ukrainian phonology
VietnameseFinal allophone of /c/. See Vietnamese phonology

Variable

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
English[25][26]keen  [cʰiːn]'keen'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels and /j/. Varies between post-palatal and palatal.[25][26] See English phonology

See also

Notes

  1. Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  2. Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  3. Kolgjini (2004).
  4. Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
  6. Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  7. Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  8. 1 2 Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  9. DEX Online:
  10. Menzli (1993), p. 92.
  11. Liver (1999), pp. 53–54.
  12. Liver (1999), pp. 56–57.
  13. Liver (1999), pp. 59–60.
  14. Liver (1999), pp. 63–64.
  15. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  16. 1 2 Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  17. 1 2 Grønnum (2005), p. 124.
  18. 1 2 Wiese (1996), p. 271.
  19. 1 2 Krech et al. (2009), pp. 49, 92.
  20. Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  21. 1 2 Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  22. Sarlin (2014), p. 17.
  23. Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  24. 1 2 Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 20.
  25. 1 2 Gimson (2014), p. 181.
  26. 1 2 Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11, retrieved 2013-12-11 
  • Canellada, María Josefa; Madsen, John Kuhlmann (1987), Pronunciación del español: lengua hablada y literaria, Madrid: Castalia, ISBN 978-8470394836 
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6 
  • Kolgjini, Julie M. (2004), Palatalization in Albanian: An acoustic investigation of stops and affricates (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Arlington 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Liver, Ricarda (1999), Rätoromanisch: Eine Einführung in das Bünderromanische, Gunter Narr Verlag, ISBN 3-8233-4973-2 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Menzli, Gierdi (1993), Cuors da romontsch sursilvan: Lecziuns 1–18, Ligia romontscha 
  • Newmark, Leonard; Hubbard, Philip; Prifti, Peter R. (1982), Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1129-6 
  • Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 84-7283-446-8 
  • Recasens, Daniel (2013), "On the articulatory classification of (alveolo)palatal consonants" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 1–22, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000199 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878 
  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla, Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press) 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  • Wiese, Richard (1996), The Phonology of German, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-824040-6 
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395 
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