Voiceless bilabial fricative

Voiceless bilabial fricative
ɸ
IPA number 126
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɸ
Unicode (hex) U+0278
X-SAMPA p\
Kirshenbaum P
Braille
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The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɸ. For English-speakers, it is easiest to think of the sound as an f-sound made only with the lips, instead of the upper teeth and lower lip, or a blowing sound.

Features

Features of the voiceless bilabial fricative:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Ainuフチ[ɸu̜tʃi]'grandmother'
Angorfi[ɸi]'body'
BengaliEastern dialects[ɸɔl]'fruit'Allophone of /f/ in Bangladesh and Tripura, /pʰ/ used in Western dialects.
Ewe[1]éƒá[éɸá]'he polished'Contrasts with /f/
ItalianTuscan[2]i capitani[iˌhäɸiˈθäːni]'the captains'Intervocalic allophone of /p/.[2] See Italian phonology and Tuscan gorgia.
Itelmenчуфчуф[tʃuɸtʃuɸ]'rain'
Japanese[3]腐敗 / fuhai[ɸɯhai]'decay'Allophone of /h/ before /ɯ/. See Japanese phonology
Kaingangfy[ɸɨ]'seed'
Korean후추 / huchu[ɸut͡ɕʰu]'pepper'
Kwama[kòːɸɛ́]'basket'
Mao[ʔɑ̄ˈɸɑ́ŋ]'empty'
Māoriwhakapapa[ɸakapapa]'genealogy'
Odoodeepagai[ɸɑɡɑi]'coconut'
SpanishSome dialects [4][5]fuera[ˈɸwe̞ɾa̠]'outside'Non-standard variant of /f/. See Spanish phonology
Standard European[6]pub[ˈpa̠ɸ̞]'pub'An approximant; allophone of /b/ before a pause.[6]
North-Central Peninsular[7]abdicar[a̠ɸðiˈka̠ɾ]'abdicate'Allophone of /b/ in the coda. In this dialect, the unvoiced coda obstruents - /p, t, k/ - are realized as fricatives only if they precede a voiced consonant; otherwise, they emerge as stops.
Southern Peninsular[8]los vuestros[lɔʰ ˈɸːwɛʰtːɾɔʰ]'yours'It varies with [βː] in some accents. Allophone of /b/ after /s/.
Shompen[9] [koɸeoi] 'bench'
Sylhetiꠙꠥ[ɸua]'boy'
Tahitianʻōfī[ʔoːɸiː]'snake'Allophone of /f/
TurkishSome speakers[10]ufuk[uˈɸuk]'horizon'Allophone of /f/ before rounded vowels and, to a lesser extent, word-finally after rounded vowels.[10] See Turkish phonology
Turkmenfabrik[ɸabrik]'factory'

See also

Notes

References

  • Boyd-Bowman, Peter (1953), "Sobre la pronunciación del español en el Ecuador", Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, 7: 221–233 
  • Cotton, Eleanor Greet; Sharp, John (1988), Spanish in the Americas, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-0-87840-094-2 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014 
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Pérez, Ramón Morillo-Velarde; Aguilar, Rafael Cano; Jiménez, Antonio Narbona (1998), El Español hablado en Andalucía, ISBN 84-344-8225-8 
  • Wetzels, W. Leo; Mascaró, Joan (2001), "The Typology of Voicing and Devoicing" (PDF), Language, 77 (2): 207–244, doi:10.1353/lan.2001.0123 
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