Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
|Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|
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The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t͡ɕ⟩, ⟨t͜ɕ⟩, ⟨c͡ɕ⟩ and ⟨c͜ɕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (
c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨tɕ⟩ or ⟨cɕ⟩ in the IPA and
cs\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /ʈ͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /ʈʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.
Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
c_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨ȶ⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [t̠ʲɕ], [c̟ɕ] and [ȶɕ].
This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʨ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
|Catalan||All dialects||fletxa||[ˈfɫet͡ɕə]||'arrow'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Cantonese||豬/jyū||'pig'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology|
|Mandarin||北京 / Běijīng||'Beijing'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Danish||tjener||[ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ]||'servant'||Normal realization of the sequence /tj/. See Danish phonology|
|Irish||Some dialects||Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /tʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady. See Irish phonology|
|Japanese||知人 / chijin||[t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ]||'acquaintance'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||제비 / jebi||[t͡ɕebi]||'swallow'||See Korean phonology|
|Polish||ćma||'moth'||See Polish phonology|
|Romanian||Banat dialect||frate||[frat͡ɕe]||'brother'||One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||чуть||[t͡ɕʉtʲ]||'barely'||See Russian phonology|
|Sema||akichi||[à̠kìt͡ɕì]||'mouth'||Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.|
|Serbo-Croatian||Ловћен / Lovćen||[ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n]||'Lovćen'||Merges into /t͡ʃ/ in dialects that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.|
|Swedish||Finland||kjol||[t͡ɕuːl]||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Thai||จาน||[t͡ɕaːn]||'dish'||Contrasts with aspirated form.|
|Vietnamese||cha||[t͡ɕa]||'father'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yi||ꏢ/ji||[t͡ɕi˧]||'sour'||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms|
- Wheeler (2005:12)
- Grønnum (2005:148)
- Mhac an Fhailigh (1968:36–37)
- Wagner (1959:9–10)
- de Búrca (1958:24–25)
- Jassem (2003:105)
- Pop (1938), p. 29.
- Teo (2014:24)
- Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
- Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993:24)
- Sjoberg (1963:12)
- Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
- Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 382.
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- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
- de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
- Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
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