Voiceless alveolar trill

Voiceless alveolar trill
IPA number 122 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA r_0
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A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.

Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled , with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.

  • PIE *srew- > Ancient Greek ῥέω "flow", possibly [r̥é.oː]

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Estonian[2] Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/.[2] See Estonian phonology
Icelandic hrafn [ˈr̥apn̥] 'raven' Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n̥]. See Icelandic phonology
Lezgian[3] крчар/krčar [ˈkʰr̥t͡ʃar] 'horns' Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[4] geer [ɣeːr̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular [ʀ̥] instead.[5]
Moksha нархне [ˈnar̥nʲæ] 'these grasses' Contrasts with /r/: нарня [ˈnarnʲæ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r̥ʲ/: марьхне [ˈmar̥ʲnʲæ] "these apples", but марьня [ˈmarʲnʲæ] "little apple"
Nivkh р̌ы [r̥ɨ] 'door' Contrasts with /r/
Northern Qiang Contrasts with /r/
Polish krtań [ˈkr̥täɲ̟] 'larynx' Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology
Ukrainian[6] центр [t̪͡s̪ɛn̪t̪r̥] 'centre' Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t/.[6] See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Quiegolani[7] rsil [r̥sil] 'early' Allophone of /r/.[7]

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill
r̝̊
IPA number 122 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA r_0_r
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The voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language. However, it occurs allophonically in Czech.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[8][9] třista [ˈt̪r̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants;[10][9] may be a flap fricative instead.[9] See Czech phonology
Norwegian Areas around Narvik[11] norsk [nɔr̝̊k] 'Norwegian' Allophone of the sequence /ɾs/ before voiceless consonants.[11]
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[11]
Polish Some dialects przyjść [ˈpr̝̊ɘjɕt͡ɕ] 'to come' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that don't merge it with /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo, south and east from Wieleń, around Wołomin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, as well as standard Polish pronounce it the same as /ʂ/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.
Silesian Gmina Istebna Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /ʂ/ in most Polish dialects
Jablunkov

See also

Notes

References

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