Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate

Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
IPA number 103 (148)
Entity (decimal) t͡ɬ
Unicode (hex) U+0074U+0361U+026C
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The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is t͡ɬ (often simplified to ), and in Americanist phonetic notation it is ƛ (lambda bar).


Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cherokee [ə̃t͡ɬa˦] 'no'
Haida tla'únhl [t͡ɬʌʊ́nɬ] 'six'
Icelandic bolli [ˈpɔt͡ɬɪ] 'cup' See Icelandic phonology.
Ladin tlo [t͡ɬo] 'here' Gherdëina variant
Nahuatl āxōlōtl [aːʃoːloːt͡ɬ] 'axolotl'
Sahaptin [t͡ɬupt] 'jumping'
Spanish Mexican[1] Xóchitl [ˈso̞t͡ʃit͡ɬ] 'Xóchitl' See Spanish phonology.
Tlingit[2] tleilóo  [t͡ɬeɬúː]  'butterfly'
Tsez элIни [ˈʔɛ̝t͡ɬni] 'winter'
Tswana tlala [t͡ɬala] 'hunger'



  • Lope Blanch, Juan M. (2004), Cuestiones de filología mexicana, Mexico: editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, ISBN 978-970-32-0976-7 
  • Maddieson, Ian; Smith, Caroline; Bessell, Nicola (2001), "Aspects of the phonetics of Tlingit", Anthropological Linguistics, 43 (2): 135–176 
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