Voiced velar affricate

Voiced velar affricate
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The voiced velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in very few spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ɡ͡ɣ and ɡ͜ɣ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g_G. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ɡɣ in the IPA and gG in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

The voiced velar affricate has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiced velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


EnglishBroad Cockney[1]good[ˈɡ͡ɣʊˑd̥]'good'Occasional allophone of /ɡ/.[2][3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3]
Scouse[4]Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /ɡ/.[4] See English phonology


  1. Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  2. Wells (1982), p. 323.
  3. 1 2 Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  4. 1 2 Wells (1982), p. 372.


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