Voiced retroflex stop

Voiced retroflex stop
ɖ
IPA number 106
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɖ
Unicode (hex) U+0256
X-SAMPA d`
Kirshenbaum d.
Braille
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The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex stop:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AsturianAstierna dialectḷḷingüa[ɖiŋɡwä]'tongue'Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1]ডাকাত[ɖäkät̪]'robber'Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
EnglishIndian dialectsdine[ɖaɪn]'to eat'Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2][ɖə](name of a letter)Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4]डालना/ڈالنا[ɖäːlnäː]'to put'Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javaneseꦣꦲꦂ/dhahar[ɖahaɽ]'to eat'
Kannadaಸು[ʌɖʌsu]'to join'
Malayalamപാണ്ഡവര്[ˈpäːɳɖäʋər]'Pandavas'
Marathi[2]हा[häːɖ]'bone'Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nihali[biɖum]'one'
Norwegianvarde[ˈʋɑɖːə]'beacon'See Norwegian phonology
Pashtoډﻙ[ɖak]'full'
Punjabiਡੱਡੂ[ɖəɖːu]'frog'
Sardiniancherveddu [keɾˈveɖːu] 'brain'
Siciliancoddu[kɔɖːu]'neck'
Somalidhul[ɖul]'earth, land, ground'See Somali phonology
Swedishnord[nuːɖ]'north'See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5]ண்டி[ʋəɳɖi]'cart'Subapical;[2] allophone of /ʈ/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Teluguరు[ʌɖʌru]'to arise'
Torwali[6]ڈىغو[ɖiɣu]'late afternoon'Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.

See also

Notes

References

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