Voiced retroflex fricative

Voiced retroflex fricative
ʐ
IPA number 137
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʐ
Unicode (hex) U+0290
X-SAMPA z`
Kirshenbaum z.
Braille
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The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʐ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a z (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant).

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex sibilant:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, diacritics may be used to distinguish between apical [ʐ̺] and laminal [ʐ̻].

The commonality of [ʐ] cross-linguistically is 2% in a phonological analysis of 2155 languages[1]

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazабжа[ˈabʐa]'half'See Abkhaz phonology
Adygheжъы [ʐ̻ə] 'old'Laminal.
ChineseMandarin/ròu [ʐoʊ̯˥˩] 'meat'May also be a retroflex approximant [ɻ]. See Mandarin phonology
Faroeserenn [ʐɛn]'run'
ItalianMarked accents of Emilia-Romagna[2]caso[ˈkäːʐo]'case'Apical;[2] may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʒ] instead.[2] It corresponds to [z] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Lower Sorbian[3][4]Łužyca[ˈwuʐɨt͡sa]'Lusatia'
Mapudungun[5]rayen[ʐɜˈjën]'flower'May be [ɻ] or [ɭ] instead.[5]
MarrithiyelMarri Tjevin dialect[wiˈɲaʐu]'they are laughing'Voicing is non-contrastive.
PashtoSouthern dialectتږى[ˈtəʐai]'thirsty'See Pashto phonology
PolishStandard[6]żona [ˈʐ̻ɔn̪ä] 'wife'Also represented by rz and when written so, it can be instead pronounced as the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill by few speakers.[7] It is transcribed as /ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[8]zapłacił[ʐäˈpwät͡ɕiw]'he paid'Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʐ/ and /z/ into [z].
Suwałki dialect[9]
Russian[6]жена [ʐɨ̞ˈna] 'wife'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatianжут / žut[ʐûːt̪]'yellow'Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[10]žaba[ˈʐäbä]'frog'
Tilquiapan Zapotec[11]?[ʐan]'bottom'
Torwali[12]ݜوڙ[ʂuʐ]'straight'
Ubykh[ʐa]'firewood'See Ubykh phonology
Upper SorbianSome dialects[13][14]Used in dialects spoken in villages north of Hoyerswerda; corresponds to [ʒ] in standard language.[3] See Upper Sorbian phonology
VietnameseSouthern dialectsrô[ʐow]'diamond'See Vietnamese phonology
SwedishCentral dialectsfri[fʐi]'free'Allophone of /ɹ/. Also may be pronounced as /r/ or /ɾ/. See Swedish phonology
Yi ry[ʐʐ̩˧]'grass'

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative
ɻ̝
ɻ˔
IPA number 152 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA r\`_r

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex non-sibilant fricative:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishEastern Cape[15]red[ɻ˔ed]'red'Apical; typical realization of /r/ in that region.[15] See South African English phonology

See also

Notes

  1. Phoible.org. (2018). PHOIBLE Online - Segments. [online] Available at: http://phoible.org/parameters.
  2. 1 2 3 Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  3. 1 2 Šewc-Schuster (1984:40–41)
  4. Zygis (2003:180–181, 190–191)
  5. 1 2 Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
  6. 1 2 Hamann (2004:65)
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  8. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  9. Merrill (2008:109)
  10. Lunsford (2001:16–20)
  11. Šewc-Schuster (1984:41)
  12. Zygis (2003:180)
  13. 1 2 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:165)

References

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